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Amal language

RegionSandaun Province and East Sepik Province
Native speakers
830 (2003)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3aad

Amal is a language spoken along the border of Sandaun Province and East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea, along the Wagana River near the confluence with Wanibe creek.[3] Foley (2018) classifies Amal as a primary branch of the Sepik languages, though it is quite close to Kalou.


Pronouns are:[4]

Amal pronouns
sg pl
1 ŋan nut
2 in kun
3 may ilum


Amal cognates with Sepik languages are:[4]

  • tal ‘woman’
  • yan ‘child’
  • lal ‘tongue’ < proto-Sepik *ta(w)r
  • mi ‘breast’ < proto-Sepik *muk
  • waplo ‘liver’
  • nip ‘blood’
  • yen ‘egg’
  • ak ‘house’

Foley (2018) notes that there appears to be somewhat more lexical similarities between Amal and the Tama languages, but does not consider them to form a group with each other.


  1. ^ Amal at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Amal". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Eberhard, David M.; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D., eds. (2019). "Papua New Guinea languages". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (22nd ed.). Dallas: SIL International.
  4. ^ a b Foley, William A. (2018). "The Languages of the Sepik-Ramu Basin and Environs". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 197–432. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
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