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Alverine

Alverine
Alverine.png
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.comInternational Drug Names
ATC code
Identifiers
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ECHA InfoCard100.005.240 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC20H27N
Molar mass281.44 g/mol g·mol−1
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Alverine is a drug used for functional gastrointestinal disorders. Alverine is a smooth muscle relaxant. Smooth muscle is a type of muscle that is not under voluntary control; it is the muscle present in places such as the gut and uterus.

Adverse effects

The side effects of alverine include:[1][2]

  • Difficulties in breathing or shortness of breath, wheezing, swelling of the face or other parts of the body (associated with serious allergic reaction
  • Yellowing of the whites of the eyes and the skin, due to liver inflammation
  • A feeling of nausea or dizziness
  • Headache
  • Minor allergic reaction (skin rash/itching)

It was reported that alverine may induce toxic hepatitis.[3][4]

Mechanism of action

Alverine acts directly on the muscle in the gut, causing it to relax. This prevents the muscle spasms which occur in the gut in conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and diverticular disease.[5] Diverticular disease is a condition in which small pouches form in the gut lining. These pouches can trap particles of food and become inflamed and painful. In irritable bowel syndrome, the normal activity of the gut muscle is lost. The muscle spasms result in symptoms such as abdominal pain and bloating, constipation or diarrhoea. By relaxing the gut muscle, alverine citrate relieves the symptoms of this condition. Alverine also relaxes the smooth muscle in the womb (uterus). It is therefore also used to treat painful menstruation, which is caused by muscle spasms in the uterus (dysmenorrhea).

Alverine capsules[6] are now available in the market. There are two strengths of capsule - 60 mg and 120 mg. The common dosage for adults and children over 12 years is 60–120 mg taken one, two or three a day, either before or after meals. Alverine is not suitable for those aged under 12 years. Women who are pregnant or breast-feeding should follow the instruction of doctors for the drug.

Development and marketing

A combination of alverine citrate and simeticone (ACS) has been combined for irritable bowel syndrome therapy, relating to safety and efficacy in the Clinical Trial Phase IV.[7] At week 4, alverine citrate and simeticone group had lower VAS scores of abdominal pain⁄discomfort (median: 40 mm vs. 50 mm, P = 0.047) and higher responder rate (46.8% vs. 34.3%, OR = 1.3; P = 0.01) as compared with the placebo group.[8]

The drug was firstly authorized for marketing on 03/06/2014. The marketing authorisation holder is Dr. Reddy's Laboratories (UK) Ltd.[9]

References

  1. ^ "Alverine capsules - Spasmonal, Audmonal. Side effects; dosage | Patient". Patient. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  2. ^ "Alverine Citrate Patient Information Leaflet" (PDF). Medicines.org.uk. 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-12-01.
  3. ^ "Alverine" (PDF).
  4. ^ Arhan, Mehmet; Köklü, Seyfettin; Köksal, Aydln S.; Yolcu, Ömer F.; Koruk, Senem; Koruk, Irfan; Kayacetin, Ertugrul (2004). "Alverine citrate". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 10 (15): 2303–4. doi:10.3748/wjg.v10.i15.2303. PMC 4724969. PMID 15259090.
  5. ^ "Detailed Info About Irritable bowel syndrome". Retrieved 2017-07-26.
  6. ^ "ALVERINE CITRATE 60 MG HARD CAPSULES | Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  7. ^ "Efficacy and Safety of Meteospasmyl® in Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov". www.clinicaltrials.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  8. ^ Wittmann, T.; Paradowski, L.; Ducrotté, P.; Bueno, L.; Andro Delestrain, M.-C. (2010). "Clinical Trial". Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 31 (6): 615–624. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2009.04216.x.
  9. ^ "Alverine citrate 60 mg hard capsules - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - (eMC)". www.medicines.org.uk. Retrieved 2015-12-06.