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Alkhurma virus

Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever (AHF)
Other namesAlkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV)[1]
SpecialtyInfectious disease (medical specialty)
SymptomsMild symptoms: Fever, chills, headache, vomiting
Severe symptoms: Epistasis, purpura, leukopenia
ComplicationsThrombocytopenia, meningoencephalitis[2]
CausesAlkhurma virus
Diagnostic methodMolecular detection of PCR, virus isolation, serologic testing
PreventionTick repellents, limit contact with animals
TreatmentSupportive therapy, monitoring of blood pressure and oxygen status

Alkhurma virus (ALKV) (Arabic: فيروس الخرمة‎) is a zoonotic virus of the Flaviviridae virus family (class IV). ALKV causes Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever (or alternatively termed as Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus) and is mainly based in Saudi Arabia.[3][4]

Signs and symptoms

After an incubation period lasting as short as 2–4 days or as long as 8 days, people with AHF develop symptoms including fever, headache, joint pain, muscle pain, vomiting, a loss of appetite, feeling of great discomfort, and chills. Less than 10% of people develop severe neurologic, central nervous system, and hemorrhagic symptoms, such as purpura, epitasis, hallucinations, disorientation, convulsions, and life-threatening epistaxis.[1][5] Elevated liver enzymes, leukopenia, proteinuria and thrombocytopenia, which leads to hemorrhagic fever and encephalitis (which can result in death), have been found in hospitalized patients.[6][7][5]

Taxonomy

Alkhurma virus
Virus classification
Group:
Group IV ((+)ssRNA)
Family:
Genus:
Flavivirus
Species

Alkhurma virus

The ALKV prototype strain 1776 was retrieved from a person in Saudi Arabia during the 1990s. It was found to contain over 10,000 nucleotides, with a single ORF encoding over 3,000 amino acid polyproteins. The AnhC, PrM, M, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, 2K, NS4B and NS5 proteins are all of the same length. ALKV owns the largest polyprotein of all TB-flaviviruses calculated as of yet.[8] ALKV has been found to be closely related to the Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD), with which it shares 89% nucleotide sequence homology.[9] Close similarities indicate that these viruses diverged 700 years ago.[10] Related viruses include Omsk hemorrhagic fever and Royal Farm virus.

Diagnosis

Laboratory diagnosis of ALKV can be performed in the early stages of the illness by molecular detection of PCR or virus isolation from the blood. Serologic testing using enzyme-linked immunosorbent serologic assay (ELISA) can be made afterward.[11] Treatment consists of supportive therapy which balances the person's fluids and electrolytes, oxygen status and blood pressure monitored and maintained, and additional treatment for any further complications. The mortality rate of hospitalized patients ranges from 1 to 20%.[12]

Treatment

Due to limited information pertaining to ALKV, no specific treatment, such as a vaccine, have been created or made readily available. The best measures of combating ALKV are basic tick bite preventions, such as the use of tick repellents and avoiding regions where ticks are found in abundance, and raising awareness. Limiting non-casual contact with livestock and domestic animals is also another way of prevention. Individuals should appropriately check for attached ticks and remove them as soon as possible if found. Tick collars for domestic animals and the use of acaricides are efficient in killing ticks on livestock. People working with animals or animal products in farms or slaughterhouses should refrain themselves from making unprotected contact with the blood, tissues, or fluids (such as consuming unpasteurized milk) of any potentially infected animal.[13]

Epidemiology

The route of transmission for ALKV is not fully understood and is filled with huge knowledge gaps, though camels and sheep have been linked to be the natural hosts of this virus. There appears to be more than one possible route of transmission seen in people who have become infected with this virus. These are one or more bites by an infected tick or crushing an infected tick with unprotected fingers, ingestion of unpasteurised camel milk or entry via a skin wound.[14] There is evidence pointing to the sand tampan, Ornithodoros savignyi, as the vector.[15] No cases of human-human transmission of AHF have ever been recorded.[16]

The geographic distribution of the virus has extended beyond Saudi Arabia; reports of ALKV have been documented in countries where there is no endemic of the disease, such as Egypt, Djibouti, and India.[17][1] In a 2014 case study, researchers found that most cases of the virus have been reported from the Najran Region, where agriculture is heavily emphasised.

As a response to the troubling illness, the KSA (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) is treating ALKV as one of the nationally notifiable diseases in the country. An effective surveillance system was established by the Ministry of Health, where any suspected case of ALKV must be reported immediately. Three forms must be filled out to properly ensure the virus is being sufficiently monitored: A suspect case form, an epidemiological investigation form, and a laboratory requisition form. The hospitals and health centers, either governmental or private, report the potential ALKV case to the desk officers in charge of viral hemorrhagic fevers at the Directorate of Health Affairs in their respective region. Afterward, the desk officer forwards the report to the Directorate of Infectious Diseases at the Preventive Medicine Department at the Ministry of Health. Before entering the case into the database system, the desk officer in charge of AHFV reviews the case reports for accuracy and completion. Subsequently, the desk officer at the Ministry of Health formulates daily reports for the higher directors at the Ministry of Health and forwards them as feedback to the regions and their respective health units.[18]

In 2018, the tick species, H. rufipes, have been found to be infecting migratory birds in Europe.[19][20]

History

This virus[21] was first isolated from the blood of a 32 year old male butcher at Dr. Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Saudi Arabia during the 1990s, who became sick with an acute, fatal hemorrhagic fever after slaughtering a sheep imported from the small city of Alkhurma, Mecca province.[22][23] Since then, over 40 cases of ALKV, with case fatality rates less than 1%, have been reported. ALKV is classified as a BSL-3 or BSL-4 agent, depending on the country's regulations.[24][25][18]

References

  1. ^ a b c Tambo, Ernest; El-Dessouky, Ashraf (27 September 2018). "Defeating re-emerging Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus outbreak in Saudi Arabia and worldwide". PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 12 (9): e0006707. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006707. PMC 6159858. PMID 30260960.
  2. ^ "Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Complex Fact Sheet" (PDF). aaBB. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  3. ^ "Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever (AHF)" (PDF). CDC. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  4. ^ "Tick-borne Encephalitis (TBE)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. US Government. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  5. ^ a b "Alkhurma Virus (AHFV)". Gesundes Reisen (German). MD Medicus Reise- und Tropenmedizin GmbH. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
  6. ^ Zaki AM (1997). "Isolation of a flavivirus related to the tick-borne encephalitis complex from human cases in Saudi Arabia". Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 91 (2): 179–81. doi:10.1016/S0035-9203(97)90215-7. PMID 9196762.
  7. ^ "Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever (AHF)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  8. ^ Charrel, Rémi; Zaki, Ali; Attoui, Houssam; Fakeeh, Mazen; Billoir, Frédérique; Yousef, Amany; Chesse, Reine; Micco, Philippe; Gould, Ernest; Lamballerie, Xavier (17 August 2001). "Complete Coding Sequence of the Alkhurma Virus, a Tick-Borne Flavivirus Causing Severe Hemorrhagic Fever in Humans in Saudi Arabia" (PDF). Saudi Arabia HealthAwareness Studies. 287 (2): 455–461. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.5610. PMID 11554750. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
  9. ^ "In the Literature". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 51 (4): iii–iv. 2010. doi:10.1086/656326.
  10. ^ Dodd, KA; Bird, BH; Khristova, ML; Albariño, CG; Carroll, SA; Comer, JA; Erickson, BR; Rollin, PE; Nichol, ST (2011). "Ancient ancestry of KFDV and AHFV revealed by complete genome analyses of viruses isolated from ticks and mammalian hosts". PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 5 (10): e1352. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001352. PMC 3186760. PMID 21991403.
  11. ^ "Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever (AHF) - Diagnosis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Government. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  12. ^ "Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever (AHF) - Treatment". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Government. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  13. ^ "Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever (AHF) - Prevention". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Government. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  14. ^ "Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever". MalaCards. Weizmann Institute of Science. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  15. ^ Charrel, RN; Fagbo, S; Moureau, G; Alqahtani, MH; Temmam, S; de Lamballerie, X (2007). "Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus in Ornithodoros savignyi ticks". Emerging Infect. Dis. 13 (1): 153–5. doi:10.3201/eid1301.061094. PMC 2725816. PMID 17370534.
  16. ^ "Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever (AHF) - Transmission". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Government. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  17. ^ Carletti, F; Castilletti, C; Di Caro, A; Capobianchi, MR; Nisii, C; Suter, F; et al. (2010). "Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever in travelers returning from Egypt, 2010". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 16 (12): 1979–1982. doi:10.3201/eid1612.101092. PMC 3294557. PMID 21122237.
  18. ^ a b Memish, Ziad; Fagbo, Shamsudeen; Ali, Ahmed; AlHakeem, Rafat; Elnagi, Fatherlrhman; Bamgboye, Elijah (6 February 2014). "Is the Epidemiology of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever Changing? : A Three-Year Overview in Saudi Arabia". PLOS ONE. 9 (2): e85564. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...985564M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085564. PMC 3916301. PMID 24516520.
  19. ^ Hoffman, Tove; Lindeborg, Mats; Barboutis, Christos; Erciyas-Yavuz, Kiraz; Evander, Magnus; Fransson, Thord; Figuerola, Jordi; Jaenson, Thomas G.T.; Kiat, Yosef; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Lundkvist, Åke; Mohamed, Nahla; Moutailler, Sara; Nyström, Fredrik; Olsen, Björn; Salaneck, Erik (2018). "Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever Virus RNA in Hyalomma rufipes Ticks Infesting Migratory Birds, Europe and Asia Minor". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 24 (5): 879–882. doi:10.3201/eid2405.171369. PMC 5938767. PMID 29664386.
  20. ^ "Ticks on migratory birds carriers of hemorrhagic fever virus". Uppsala University. Uppsala University. Uppsala University: News. 1 June 2018. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  21. ^ Sometimes misidentified as "Al-Khumra" virus—"It’s Al-Khurma, not Al-Khumra, says official", The Saudi Gazette, 13 Jan 2010, [www.saudigazette.com.sa] Archived 2014-01-19 at Archive.today.
  22. ^ "Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever (AHF)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  23. ^ Memish, Ziad; Fagbo, Shamsudeen; Assiri, Abdullah; Rollin, Pierre; Zaki, Ali; Charrel, Remi; Mores, Chris; MacNeil, Adam (31 July 2012). "Alkhurma Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Virus: Proposed Guidelines for Detection, Prevention, and Control in Saudi Arabia". PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 6 (7): e1604. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001604. PMC 3409106. PMID 22860139.
  24. ^ Alzahrani, Abdullah; Al Shaiban, Hassan; Al Mazroa, Mohammed; Al-Hayani, Osama; MacNeil, Adam; Rollin, Pierre; Memish, Ziad (December 2010). "Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Humans, Najran, Saudi Arabia". Emerg Infect Dis. 16 (12): 1882–1888. doi:10.3201/eid1612.100417. PMC 3294564. PMID 21122217.
  25. ^ "Facts about Alkhurma haemorrhagic fever". European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. European Union. Retrieved 16 January 2019.

Further reading

External links