|1st Chairman of the Council of State of the People's Republic of Poland|
20 November 1952 – 7 August 1964
|Prime Minister||Bolesław Bierut|
|First Secretary||Bolesław Bierut|
|Preceded by||Bolesław Bierut (As President of Poland)|
|Succeeded by||Edward Ochab|
|Deputy Prime Minister of the People's Republic of Poland|
28 April 1950 – 21 November 1952
|Prime Minister||Józef Cyrankiewicz|
|Preceded by||Hilary Chełchowski|
|Succeeded by||Władysław Dworakowski|
20 January 1949 – 10 June 1949
|Prime Minister||Józef Cyrankiewicz|
|Preceded by||Stanisław Mikołajczyk|
|Succeeded by||Hilary Minc|
|Born||16 December 1899|
Będzin, Kingdom of Prussia (now Poland)
|Died||7 August 1964 (aged 64)|
Warsaw, Polish People's Republic
Aleksander Zawadzki, alias Kazik, Wacek, Bronek, One (Polish pronunciation: [alɛˈksandɛr zaˈvat͡skʲi]; 16 December 1899 – 7 August 1964) was a divisional general of the Polish Army and President of Poland from 1952 to 1964.
Son of Wawrzyniec, a steelworker and Marianna née Chojkowska. He was born in the Ksawera working group between Będzin and Dąbrowa Górnicza. Thanks to the relatively good material position of the family, he studied at the local elementary school. As a result of an accident suffered by his father, in 1913 he was forced to stop his education and take up a job. After the outbreak of the First World War, he left for agricultural work in Thuringia. He worked there until 1917, when he was arrested for hitting his overseer and sent to the prisoners of war camp in Erfurt. After escaping from there, he found himself in Upper Silesia, where he worked in a coal mine in Bytom and in the steelworks in Siemianowice Śląskie. After the outbreak of the revolution in November 1918 in Germany, he crossed the German-Polish border and settled in Dąbrowa Górnicza, where in December 1918 he volunteered for the Polish Army. He took part in the battles in defense of Lviv, and then in war activities on the Lithuanian-Belarusian Front of the Polish-Bolshevik war. In 1921 he was demobilized as a non-commissioned officer of the Polish Army, after which he returned to Dąbrowa Górnicza. For participating in the fighting in 1920, he was awarded the Cross of Valor.
After returning from the war, he was initially unemployed, and then he worked at the coal mine "Paris" in Dąbrowa Górnicza. There he also encountered the communist movement and joined the Young Communist League of Poland. In 1923 he became a member of the Communist Party of Poland. During this period he was wanted by state police for communist activities. He operated in the Łódź District until 1924, after which he was sent to a party school in Moscow, where he stayed for several weeks. On July 9, 1925, he was arrested in Vilnius on charges of involvement in a murder of a supposed police informant. In December 1925, despite the lack of evidence for his involvement, he was sentenced to six years in prison. He served his sentence in Kielce, Łomża and Drohobych. He left prison on March 2, 1932, and because of illness, was sent to the USSR for treatment. There he healed and taught at the party school of the WKP (b) and the OGPU near Moscow.
He returned to Poland in 1934. On May 27, 1934, he was arrested in Warsaw. He was detained in custody until February 1935, when he was released on bail. On January 13, 1936, he was arrested again. He was then accused of acting to the detriment of the Republic of Poland. The trial took place on April 4-21, 1938. Along with Zawadzki, who was the main accused, 55 other people were tried. Zawadzki was sentenced to 15 years imprisonment. After upholding the judgment of November 23, 1938 by the Court of Appeals, he was imprisoned in Brest. He stayed there until September 1939, when after the aggression of the USSR to Poland, the city was occupied by the Red Army. He took up work in the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic in the Pinsk district office.