This page uses content from Wikipedia and is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Alavi Bohras

Alavi Bohras
Jamaat alaviyah.png
Alavi Bohras- Mukaasir Maulaa Jaame’ ul-Aqmar.jpg
Entrance of the Jaame' al-Aqmar, Mosque of 20th Fatimid Imam Mansoor al-Aamir, Cairo
Regions with significant populations
India 7,000
Other places 1,000[1]
Languages
Gujarati, Arabic (liturgical), English (Indian dialect), Urdu
Religion
Islam

The Alavi Bohras (Arabic: علوي بھرۃ‎) are a Taiyebi Musta'alavi Isma'ili Shi'i Muslim community from Gujarat, India.[2] In India, during the time of the 18th Fatimid Imam Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah around 1093 AD in Egypt, the designated learned people (wulaat) who were sent from Yemen by missionaries (du'aat) under the guidance of the Imam established a da'wah in Khambhat (Gujarat, India).

After the division of the Mustaalid community,[3] the Yemenite Da'wah followed their 21st Imam, the son of 20th Imam Aamir in the succession of Fatimid Imams of Egypt, at-Taiyeb Abul Qaasim[4] as their Imam of seclusion ستر, and the Bohras are the modern descendants of Taiyebi Da'wah established from Khambhat, Patan and Sidhpur in the 5th century Hijri and also the immigrants from Yemeni Taiyebi Da'wah.

Subsequently, splits occurred at various instances in the mainstream Bohra community regarding the spiritual appointment in the succession of the representative of the Imam us Satr or Da’i in Ahmedabad between 1422-1640 AD. Two major splits during this period resulted in the formation of three major groups of Bohras: Alavis,[5] Dawoodis and Sulaymanis.

History

After the death of the legatee of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, 'Ali in 40 AH, his son Hasan became the first Imam and this institution of Imamat i.e. succession of al-A'immat al-Faatemiyeen-الائمۃ الفاطمیین[6] continued from father to son till the 21st Imam. This 21st Fatimid Imam at-Tayyib Abi l-Qasim[7] went into seclusion from Egypt in 528 AH, in Yemen under the guidance of Hurrah Malekah Arwaa bint Ahmad[8] from 532 AH, one da'i succeeded another through the tradition of nass: the exclusive spiritual appointment, until the 23rd Da'i i.e. from 1st Da'i Zoeb bin Saiyedi Moosa till 23rd Da'i Mohammad Izzuddin. In Sindh and India too Wali-ul-Hind ولي الھند were appointed by these Du'aat دعاۃ one after another until Wali-ul-Hind Ja'far, Abd ul Wahab and Qaasim Khan bin Hasan (11th and last Wali-ul-Hind, d.950AH, Ahmedabad). The last three wali were of great help in the era of the 21st to 24th Da'i i.e. Husaamuddin (921-932 AH), Shamsuddin (933 AH), Izzuddin (933-946 AH) and Najmuddin (946-974 AH). It was during this time when the seat of Da'wat e Haadiyah was transferred to India from Yemen, that the 23rd Da'i ul-Mutlaq الداعي المطلق Mohammed Izzuddin performed Nass (transfer of authority) on Yusuf Najmuddin ibn Sulaiman in Sidhpur, Gujarat, India.

Due to constant harassment and persecution by the local Zaydi Shi'a ruler in Yemen, the 24th Da'i, Yusuf Najmuddin bin Sulayman (d.1567 AD), shifted the whole administration of the Da'wat Haadiyah (rightly guided mission) to India but continued to live in Yemen in the last years of his tenure and died there in Taibah. See Al-Mutahhar for further information. The 25th Da'i Jalal Shamshuddin (d.1567 AD) was first Da'i to die in India and he was torch-bearer in establishing the representation (نیابۃ) of the Imam of the Time (امام الزمان) from the progeny of Mohammad though he stayed for only 4 months on the Seat of Da'wat (عرش الدعوۃ); his mausoleum is in Ahmedabad, India. As mentioned his tenure as a Da'i ul-Mutlaq was very short but he played a pivotal role as one of the most trusted person from Hudood and as a Mazoon during the period of 23rd and 24th Da'i.

Following the death of the 26th Da'i Dawoodji Burhaanuddin bin Saiyedi Ajabshah in 997 AH/1591 AD in Ahmedabad, there was a dispute as to who was to succeed him. Sulayman bin Hasan, the grandson of 24th Da'i, was wali in Yemen and claimed the succession, supported by the other Yemeni Bohra. However, the Indian Bohra denied his claim of nass, declaring supporting documentation to be forged. The two factions separated, with the followers of Sulayman becoming the Sulaymanis, and the followers of 27th Da'i Dawoodji Burhaanuddin bin Qutubshah becoming the Dawoodi Bohra.

After the death of the 28th Da'i, Aadam Safiuddin, in 1030 AH/1621 AD, a small faction of Alavi Bohra in Ahmedabad recognized his grandson Ali bin Ibrahim[9] (1046 AH/ 1637 AD) who was Mazoon, Mansoos and treasurer of Kutub e Da'wat, as his successor and got separated in 1030 AH from the majority Dawoodi Bohra who believed in Abduttayyeb Zakiuddin, and Alavi Bohras[10] followed a separate line of Du'aat residing mainly in Vadodara (Gujarat, India) where they have their own locality.[11] Ali was supported by his uncle and secured very few followers.[12] Ali never carried his protest to the court of Mughal Emperor Jahangir to declare him as a legitimate Da'i. Unverified accounts of this episode could be found in many publications. But Ali ordered his associate Hasan Badruddin in 1031 AH/1622 AD to go to the Mughal court in Lahore to meet Jahangir to complain on his behalf about the atrocities meted upon Alavis in Ahmedabad by their opponents. The help came and the lives of Alavis became better than before.[13] This relief was short-lived and again the harassment sprung up more fiercely. Hasan Badruddin went again to Lahore for the same reason and then traveled to Kashmir to meet Emperor Shah Jahan in 1046 AH/1637 AD, the year of Ali's death. Hasan Badruddin was not present at the time of the burial of Ali.[14]

Ali, the 29th Alavi Da'i was born in the walled city of Vadodara in Fakhri Mohalla, when 27th Da'i Dawoodji bin Saiyedi Qutubshah was alive in Ahmedabad. His father Ibrahim died during his childhood. He was Haafiz ul-Qur'an in a tender age and when his grandfather 28th Da'i Aadam brought him to Ahmedabad for further studies in Uloom-e-Da'wat in the majlis of 27th Da'i, by seeing face of Ali, 27th Da'i gave glad-tidings بشارۃ to 28th Da'i that, "This son will become the Light of your Eyes, so educate him as he is going to become the man of great acclaim"

Meaning and origin of Bohras

In India, during the time of the 18th Fatimid Imam, Al-Mustansir Billah around 486 AH/1093 AD, the designated learned people (wulaat - ولاۃ) who were sent from Yemen by the celebrated missionaries (du’aat ul-balaagh[15] - دعاۃ البلاغ) under the guidance of the manifest Imam (as opposed to the imam of the time of seclusion) established the foundation of Isma’ili-Taiyebi Da’wat[16] in the region of Gujarat (Cambay or Khambhat). It was the result of their perseverance and efforts that people started believing and accepting the Isma’ili-Taiyebi principles and gradually the mission of Yemen gave birth to a new community in India – The Bohras. The succession of those designated learned people who worked as deputies of the missionaries of Yemen came to be known as Wulaat ul-Hind[17] in India. They were all in close contact with the spiritual authority of Yemen i.e. the Da’i al-Mutlaq after the seclusion of the 21st Imam, Abul Qaasim at-Taiyeb from Egypt.

In Ahmedabad between 825-1050 AH/1422-1640 AD the mainstream Bohra community got divided into 3 major groups. Among them, Alavi Bohras, who are mainly traders and merchants, are patriotic, peace-loving and harmonious people. The word ‘Bohra-بھرۃ or Vohra or Vohorwu or Vyavahar' itself indicates maintaining healthy relations and is derived from the Gujarati word ‘vohorvu’ or ‘vyavahar’, which means "to trade". Secondly its name reflects the characteristic of "al-Jamaa'at ul-Baaherah - الجماعۃ الباھرۃ" meaning the extraordinary brilliant community with full of life and love. Their cultural and social upbringing is such that the values of peace and prosperity are in their blood and they do not believe in social discord or religious conflicts. Some of the groups or clans of Sunnis in Gujarat who also are traders and do not belong to the mainstream Bohras[18] have adopted the name of Vohra or Vora, owing to the fame and respect of the "Bohra" name. But they do not follow the basic doctrines and customs of the Isma'ili-Taiyebi Bohras. The early Indian converts of the 11th century AD during the reign of 18th Fatimid Imam Mustansir consisted of a single group of Isma'ili Bohras owing allegiance to the missionaries (du'aat ul-balaagh[15]) who conveyed spiritual orders of manifest Imam (imaam-e-zaahir) to common believers in Yemen and India.

Present day

Abu Sa'eed il-Khayr Haatim Zakiyuddin[19] is the 45th Da'i e Mutlaq in the Line of Succession of Du'aat e Mutlaqeen[20] الدعاۃ المطلقین. He was born on 8th Rabi' ul-Awwal 1379 AH/10-9-1959 AD, Thursday in Vadodara.He is the actual Dai of Alavi Bohras. He ascended on the holy Throne of Da'wah Haadiyah عرش الدعوۃ الھادیۃ on 20th Sha'baan 1436 AH/7-6-2015 AD, Sunday in the presence of the whole community and took their oath of allegiance[21] میثاق or بیعت امام الزمان علیہ السلام in the name of the 21st Imam and his progeny.

  • Zakiyuddin's younger brothers,
  1. Mohammad Bhaisaheb Nuruddin is on the status of mukaasir[22] - مکاسر which is next to mazoon[23] - مآذون
  2. Hakeemuddin Bhaisaheb Zulqarnain is on the status of Ra's ul Hudood.[24] After this hierarchy comes the status of 24 hudood.
  • Vadodara City (Gujarat, India) is the headquarters of Alavi Bohras where Zakiyuddin stays along with the family members at Devdi Mubaarak.[25] It is the place where right from 32nd Da'i stayed and imparted knowledge to their subjects in their respective periods. It has now become the hub of Isma'ili-Taiyebi branch of Learning. As it houses the Islamic Personal Library of Rare Books and the Unique Personal Collection of MSS[26] pertaining to Isma'ili Taiyebi Literature. Under strict supervision and permission Saiyedna saheb himself manages the Library affairs.

Pledge

These words of honour and the articles of oath[27]-بیعۃ are the excerpts from the numerous lectures[28]-بیان of the da'i, delivered during the month of fasting, Ramadan, and the month of mourning, Muharram. Apart from these two months there are several socio-religious occasions in which these articles of pledge is voiced among the believers and they are regularly guided to follows it. The prime concern is the youth of the community who are educated, sensitized and encouraged about these minute things that will in turn leave great impact on the social harmony and mutual progress.

Alavi Bohras in the mosque in front of their da'i listening to the lecture involving the holy Pledge[29]

Haatim Zakiyuddin says that, "O my Spiritual Children! Every one of you should adhere to the oath given to his Lord. I am here as a witness[30]-شاھد to it. This pledge, I am repeating all the time so that it remains afresh in your minds. As the head could not alone survive without the body, so I am your head and you all form the community as its body. This pledge is the command and communication from the head to its body. To remain alive and attached to its head, the body has to follow its commands. What you are is based on the way you take the pledge."[31]

The Spiritual head (da'i) is esoterically considered as the right hand of Imam. The way kissing of Black Stone of Ka'bah is considered graceful, giving pledge to the da'i of Imam is similarly graceful. While kissing the Black Stone, a pilgrim prays "O God! I have duly returned to you the trust entrusted to me, and the covenant I has made to you has been fulfilled, so that this act of mine may bear testimony to its fulfillment."[32] This is only after giving pledge to da'i.[33]

  1. I will praise my Creator and Sustainer, Allah, for all the hidden or evident bounties that He has bestowed upon me.
  2. I will remain obedient throughout my life to my spiritual master-da’i and act according to his teachings and orders.
  3. I will respect my traditional attire and will make it the part of my identity, whenever or wherever I might be.
  4. I will marry an honest and noble lady of my community to keep shamelessness away, will do jihaad to protect myself from devilish acts and will perform pilgrimage to keep poverty away.
  5. I will respect others, all of them, irrespective of their beliefs, creed or culture. I will speak softly, truly and reverently and will never betray them.
  6. I will love my family, relatives, community and the nation. Being from society I will serve my society.
  7. I will abide by the lessons of my elders and well-wishers as they are ones who point to my mistakes and try to make me a better individual.
  8. I will acquire knowledge till my last breath from the people of wisdom and will make my living meaningful and peaceful
  9. I will persistently make efforts to educate my children and look after my family. I will fulfill their needs and help them cultivate good habits.
  10. I will earn money through lawful and just ways. I will never break trust of my employer or my employees and will assist them in the best possible ways.
  11. I will engage myself more in the religious obligations as it encompasses the worldly affairs. I will always try to make my permanent abode beautiful after my death.
  12. I will pray to keep pride away, will visit tombs of my spiritual masters to keep wickedness away and will fast to keep unwanted desires away.
  13. I will mourn on the martyrdom of Imam Husain and remember the calamities inflicted on his household and will prepare myself that my shortcomings are nothing as compared to the sufferings to my Imam.
  14. I will clean my teeth and hands after every meal to keep illness away, will take bath regularly to keep forgetfulness away and will maintain good friendship to keep fear away.

Certain Isma'ili Taiyebi terminology

Spiritual mission

  • دعوۃ - Da’wat[34] is a call, mission, invitation or summons related to divinity or spirituality towards the unity and oneness of Allah. The mission is of Truth and the truth could never be separated from the Almighty (al-Qur'an ch.13 v.14). It existed before this material world and will be there after its annihilation. It is the Mission of Truth, the Bridge towards Salvation, an Arc of Guidance, the Light showing the Point of Return, the Way to Heavens, the Proof of Imaamat-امامۃ and an institution to attain ranks as per the deeds. It also refers to the hierarchy of ranks (hudood[35]-حدود)[36] within the rightly guided religious organization called ad-Da’wat ul-Haadiyah-الدعوۃ الھادیۃ. The one who calls is called Da’i-داعي or Haadi-ھادي (missionary or guide) who is divinely appointed by his predecessor. Everyone who heads Da’wat right from the first prophet Aadam until Muhammad, his progeny and their deputies are called Da’i with the same aim, guidance and directives. Da’wat is for Unity and Peace. Outwardly it is in the form of Islam and inwardly it is Imaan-ایمان (faith). Today, 45th Da’i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna saheb is the deputy of the Da’wat of Imaam uz Zamaan-امام الزمان, the hidden imaam from the lineage of 21st Imaam Abul Qaasim at-Taiyeb.

The Da'wat[37] is organized hierarchically, in line with the particular importance accorded to hierarchism and step by step designation in Fatimid Isma'ili thought carried forward in its Taiyebi branch in Yemen and India. Indeed, there is a close analogy between the terrestrial hierarchy of the Fatimid Da'wat organization with its highest ranks of Naatiq (Nabi, prophet), Asaas (Wasi, vicegerent) and Imam, and the celestial or cosmological hierarchy developed during the period of the Fatimid Caliphate and strictly followed by the missionaries in India today.

Designating a person on a spiritual rank

  • نص - Nass: It is an explicit, clear and specific declaration and designation through Divine Indication and Spiritual Intervention-تأئید إلھي for the appointment of a successor-منصوص, be it an Imam or his deputy-داعي during Imam’s concealment by his predecessor-ناص amongst his subjects, publicly-نص جلي or privately نص خفي and at times supported by written documentary orders-سجل شریف. This tradition and practice-سنۃ اللہ is related to the Isma’ili Taiyebi succession to the seat of Imaamat, whereby each Imam under hidden heavenly commands designates his successor, when he witnesses the Light of Imaamat-نور الإمامۃ has got transferred to one of his sons whom he selects for Nass. During the seclusion of Imam, his deputy-Da’i performs this act of succession whom he finds eligible for the status of Da’i. He might not be from his sons, unlike the succession of Imam where an Imam always appoints his successor from one of his sons. The succession of Imaamat has begun from the Aadam Safiyullaah-آدم صفي اللہ and will continue till the last day when Qaa’im ul Qeyaamah-قائم القیامۃ will act as the final authority on the Day of Judgement.

Da'i al-Mutlaq

The 45th Da'i al-Mutlaq, Haatim Zakiyuddin
  • الداعي المطلق، داعي المطلق - ad-Da'i ul-Mutlaq or Da'i al-Mutlaq: It is the spiritual rank in Isma'ili Da'wah which became more explicit and operational after the seclusion of 21st Fatimid Imam of Cairo, Abul Qaasim at-Taiyeb in 528 AH/1134 AD. After Mohammad this rank is on the 6th position and after this comes Mazoon-مأذون and Mukaasir-مکاسر. Before the seclusion the Da’i or a missionary works under the direct orders of Imaam and his trusted associates in all the 12 islands-جزائر where faithful were present and living openly propounding their faith or secretly due to the fear of their lives. In Yemen, after the seclusion, Da’i was given Itlaaq-إطلاق or a free conduct and absolute religious and social authority but under the governing principles of Isma’ili Taiyebi Faith. His command is regarded as a final decree guided by the divine support of Imam and this is the reason he is called Da'i al-Mutlaq. Unlike the case of Imam, where he appoints his successor only from his sons through divinely guided practice called Nass-نص, the Da’i can appoint anyone in his place who is most trusted, pious and capable of carrying Da’wah affairs with wisdom and proficiency. Haatim Zakiyuddin is the 45th Da’i al-Mutlaq of Alavi Bohras in the line of succession of these Da’is in which 24 are in Yemen, 7 are in Ahmedabad, 1 is in Surat and 12 are in Vadodara.

Mazoon al-Mutlaq

  • المأذون المطلق - al-Mazoon al-Mutlaq, Mazoon e Mutlaq: The Licentiate, Authoritative Rank, the most trusted associate in Da’wah ranks who takes Bay’at-Pledge of Loyalty from his subjects by the orders of Da’i al-Mutlaq. He is on a Spiritual Rank in the Isma’ili Taiyebi Da’wah hierarchy immediately below the authority of Da’i who sits in his right side and who carries out the religious activities as per the regulations of Da’wah organization. At any cost he always assists and obeys his superior and his Master, the Da’i al-Mutlaq. His prime responsibility is to conduct teaching sessions and make them understand the basic things of Isma’ili Taiyebi faith. In the absence of Da’i he acts as his legatee. Da’i may appoint his Mazoon as his successor. And if not Da’i can appoint someone more learned and efficient for the post of Da’i after him and can never disqualifies Mazoon from his post. As the respectable post of Mazoon is necessary for the completeness of Spiritual Hierarchy. As far as Alavi Da'wah is concerned, from the time of 28th Da'i in Ahmedabad till 44th Da'i in Vadodara, every Mazoon has become Mansoos (successor) of a former Da'i. There exist not a single instance where Mazoon and Mansoos are separate entities. Da'i after examining minutely appoints his Mazoon only when he finds him eligible to be his successor. On the death of Mazoon, Da'i immediately appoints another trusted person on this rank.

Mukaasir al-Mutlaq

  • المکاسر المطلق - al-Mukaasir al-Mutlaq, Mukaasir e Mutlaq - The Eight and the last rank in the Spiritual Hierarchy of the Isma’ili Taiyebism.[38] He sits left to the Da’i al-Mutlaq during the religious gathering-Majlis. He is lower to the rank of Mazoon. He is well versed and well informed about the baseless beliefs of other sects for which he thinks as a threat to the faith of believers. His responsibility is to train the beginner - مستجیب مؤمن and win over the neophyte who is little aware of the overall understanding of Islamic Faith and by proper grooming he enters him into the fold of Isma’ilism by taking Oath of Fealty in the name of the present Da’i al-Mutlaq. He is quite expert in putting Rational and Logical arguments with necessary ideological and doctrinal proofs and healthy debates. On the death of Mukaasir, Da'i entrusts this rank to one of his close associates. In some cases, on the death of Mazoon, Da'i elevates Mukaasir to the rank of Mazoon.

A Beginner in Isma'ili Taiyebi Faith

  • مؤمن مستجیب - Mu'min Mustajeeb - A Believer or a Beginner in Isma'ili Taiyebi Faith who pure-heartedly, respectfully, devotionally and uncondionally accepts the guidance from Mukaasir e Mutlaq and gives Oath of Obedience to all the Eight Spiritual Ranks viz. from Mukaasir to Nabi (prophet). After giving oath he initiates his long journey of learning, piety and salvation. With every passing day he only learns and acquires the articles of faith which his Superiors think beneficial for him. As he is a beginner, as per Isma'ili Faith, he cannot doubt or question a little bit on any command of his Masters (صاحب مقام).

Salaam and Qadam-bosi

Respect of Saiyedna saheb
Paying respect by offering Salaam and performing Qadam-bosi to Saiyedna saheb
  • سلام - Salaam - Salutation, Safety, Greeting, Peace or Respect of a person with Spiritual status or a general believer of Da'wat ul-Haqq (mission of truth). It is one of the beautiful attributes of Allaah the Almighty. This term is used 19 times in the Qur'an and it is equal to the letters if "Bismillaah ir Rahman ir Raheem", the beginning of the Qur'an and the most recited verse in the Islamic World. The completion of any supplication (du'aa-دعاء) is endorsed with the Salaam (salawaat-صلوات) on the Prophets and their households. It also refers to the prescribed Islamic voluntary or compulsory monetary payments done by a believer throughout the year to the Da'i (missionary). It is the basic element of Islamic etiquette and ethics. It is regarded as good practice to start any talk with "as-salaamo 'alaykum"-السلام علیکم (peace be upon you). The greeting of the people of Paradise-اھل الجنۃ is Salaam. The faith of Islam is nothing but Salaam. The core of Islam is to remain in Peace and to make others feel Peace. A believer must do salaam & qadam-bosi-قدم بوسي (to kiss right knee of an Imam) after every prayer (namaaz). Salaam is that a believer bows down in front of an Imam then holds his right hand while keeping his right eye first then left eye then forehead and at the end kisses his hand. This he does 2 times. Then at the end kisses his right knee and does request for Du'aa and blessings. This refers to the Prophetic tradition that, "Paradise is underneath the Feet of Mothers," Mothers here means the Imam or his representative (da'i) from the progeny of Prophet Mohammad.

    The Heart of the Qur'an is its Chapter Yaa Seen (36). The heart of this chapter is its verse "Peace is the word from a Merciful Lord" (58). The heart of this verse is Salaam. So truly speaking the essence of Qur'an is Peace. The first sign of hypocrisy and enmity is to stop offering Salaam.

    Prophetic Traditions:[39][40] 1. Offering the peace-greeting and speaking with kindness will assuredly win God's mercy. 2. Call out the peace greeting and you will know peace. 3. Show concern for your relatives, even with a greeting. 4. The greeting of our people is "Peace", our subject's security. 5. Greet before conversing.

    41st Indian missionary Saiyedna Jivabhai Fakhruddin (d. 1347 AH/1929 AD) says in his poetic verses, "Khuda ne kaha jinko har dam Salaam, Kalaam unka hai goya Haqq ka Kalaam", God has offered Salaam to the ones whose dialogue and words are the words of Truth (God).

    Tree of Spiritual Hierarchy of Alavi Bohras
    7486 years of Spiritual Tree of Alavi Bohras[41]

Shajarah

  • شجرۃ - Shajarah - Tree. Tree means the spiritual hierarchy within the Taiyebi Da'wat. It starts from the first Prophet of Islam Maulaana Adam who conveyed the core message of the Oneness of Allah till the Last Prophet of Islam Mohammad al-Mustafaa who is the Seal of Prophethood. After him his progeny became the guardian of Islam and this will continue till the Last day of Judgement. This holy tree will never die and it will provide the cool shadow of peace and progress to the travellers in this world in the form Du'aat-missionaries.

In Qur'anic verses the Holy Tree-شجرۃ طیبۃ is referred to the Light of Allah which means keeping faith in Aal e Mohammad and their Da'i and this faith gives Noor to the heart of the faithful (ch. 24 v. 35). This Holy Tree is also related to the Good Utterance-کلمۃ طیبۃ i.e. the Imam from the Pure Progeny-ذریۃ طیبۃ of Prophet Mohammad who will remain all the time for the guidance of humanity. The roots of this holy tree is very strong and spread across the land and its branches have gone high in the heavens (ch. 14 v. 24).

Prophet Mohammad says in one of his Hadees: "I am in this world like a traveler who takes a nap in the shade of a tree on a hot day, then continues on his way."[39] Here, the shade of tree is Nubuwat (prophethood) and the hot day is the world of ignorance. After getting divine attachment one can proceed in his travel and hope for the better Hereafter-آخرۃ

Saiyedna Hasan bin Nooh Bharuchi in one of his works brings vivid description of this Holy Tree: "Mohammad al-Mustafaa is the base (root), 'Ali Ameer ul-Mumineen is its trunk, Faatimah az-Zahraa is its branches, Imam Hasanand Imam Husain are its fruits and flowers and Shi'a is its leaves. It has been grown in the Paradise, the like of which one can never find on this earth."[42]

List of missionaries

Yemen

During the time of 18th Fatimid Imam Maulaana Abu Tameem Mustansir Billaah and his son, 19th Fatimid Imam Maulaana Abu Qaasim Musta’ali, four important personalities strengthened the foundation of Fatimid Da’wat in Yemen. They were Saiyedna ‘Ali bin Mohammad as-Sulayhi, Saiyedna Ahmad al-Mukarram, Saiyedatona Hurrat ul-Malekah Arwaa binte Ahmad and Saiyedna Lamak bin Maalik. They injected new life in the Walaayat[27] of Imaam uz-Zamaan[43] and guided the faithful to the Path of Truth and Justice. Faithfuls were in peace and harmony under their leadership.

After the demise of Maulaana Imam Musta’ali, his son, 20th Fatimid Imam Maulaana Abu ‘Ali Aamir, ascended to the throne of Imamat on 17th Safar 495 AH/1101 AD. His period of Imamat is 31 yrs. He was martyred by his enemies in Cairo on the night of 4th Zul Qa’dah 526 AH/1132 AD and died on the same night. Maulaatona Hurrat ul-Malekah, who was in Yemen during all these hard times, was preparing to establish firmly the institution of Fatimid Taiyebi Da'wat in Yemen in the name of the 21st Fatimid Imam Abul Qaasim Taiyeb who was born to 20th Imam Aamir on 4 Rabi' al-Aakhar 524 AH/1130 AD in Cairo. She acted as Hujjat-proof of Imam during this period. She came to knew the fate of Fatimid Caliphate through the signs sent to her by 20th Imaam. Saiyedna Lamak bin Maalik and Saiyedna Yahyaa bin Lamak learned the knowledge of Da’wat from Maulaatona Hurrat ul-Malekah that helped her by all means in the administration of Da’wat. This was a crucial time when there was an imminent fall of Caliphate in Cairo and simultaneous reinforcement and establishment of Fatimid Da’wat in Yemen.

There were numerous Hudood[35] who were seeking the knowledge of Da’wat by the permission of Maulaatona Hurrat ul-Malekah from Saiyedna Lamak bin Maalik and Saiyedna Yahyaa bin Lamak. Out of all Hudood, Saiyedna Zo’eb bin Moosa and Saiyedna as-Sultan al-Khattaab were outstanding in grasping the teachings and intricacies of the Fatimid Da’wat. They both clearly stood out of the group in their smartness and intelligence. With the permission of Maulaatona Hurrat ul-Malekah, they were ascended to the higher ranks of the Hudood and were given privilege to acquire the complete knowledge of Da’wat. These two personalities, in future, were to become pivotal forces in the beginning of the succession of Du’aat ul-Akrameen-missionaries in Yemen. Maulaatona Hurrat ul-Malekah now had two more loyal Hudood to support her. No one knew, but this was Hikmat (wisdom) of Allaah that within a span of 10 years Saiyedna Lamak bin Maalik and Saiyedna Yahyaa bin Lamak died in Yemen, In their absence, Saiyedna Zo’eb bin Moosa and Saiyedna as-Sultaan al-Khattaab served Da’wat with full devotion in such a way that Maulaatona Hurrat ul-Malekah never felt void of anyone.[10]

Before her death on 22nd Sha'baan 532 AH/1138 AD, she appointed Saiyedna Zo'eb as the First Da'i al-Mutlaq داعي المطلق of three 3 jazaa'ir Hind, Sindh and Yemen. Thus one after the another this succession of Du'aat al-Mutlaqeen دعاۃ المطلقین continued in Yemen till the death of 24th Da'i Saiyedna Yusuf Najmuddin on 16th Zul Hijjah 974 AH/1567 AD.

No. Name of the Da'i (Saiyedna - سیدنا) Death - تأریخ الإنتقال Place of the Tomb - قبر مبارک Period of Da'wat - مدۃ الدعوۃ Licentiate - مأذون Associate - مکاسر Works - تألیفات
1 Zo'eb bin Moosa al-Waade’i 10 Moharram 546 AH – 28/4/1151 AD Haws Mubaarak 13 yrs 4 mts 18 days as-Sultaan al-Khattaab bin Hasan, Ibraahim bin Husain al-Haamedi 'Ali bin Husain Risaalat un-Nafs fi Ma'refat il-Jussah - رسالۃ النفس فی معرفۃ الجثۃ
2 Ibraahim bin Husain al-Haamedi 16 Sha’baan 557 AH – 30/7/1162 AD Ghail-e-Bani Haamid, Hamdaan 11 yrs 7 mts 6 days 'Ali bin Husain bin Ahmad bin al-Waleed, Haatim bin Ibraahim al-Haamedi Mohammad bin Taaher Kanz ul-Walad - کنز الولد
3 Haatim bin Ibraahim al-Haamedi 16 Moharram 596 AH – 6/11/1199 AD Hutayb Mubaarak 38 yrs 5 mts Mohammad bin Taaher al-Haaresi, 'Ali bin Mohammad al-Waleed Tanbeeh ul-Ghaafeleen - تنبیہ الغافلین
4 'Ali bin Haatim 25 Zul Qa’adah 605 AH – 30/5/1209 AD Sana’a 9 yrs 10 mts 10 days 'Ali bin Mohammad al-Waleed
5 ‘Ali bin Mohammad al-Waleed 27 Sha’baan 612 AH – 20/12/1215 AD Hiraaz 6 yrs 9 mts 3 days 'Ali bin Hanzalah Ahmad bin Mubaarak Taaj ul-Aqaa'id wa Ma'dan ul-Fawaa'id - تاج العقائد و معدن الفوائد
6 ‘Ali bin Hanzalah al-Waade’i 12 Rabi’ I 626 AH – 7/2/1229 AD Hamadaan 13 yrs 6 mts 15 days Ahmad bin Mubaarak Husain bin ‘Ali Simt ul-Haqaa'iq - سمط الحقائق
7 Ahmad bin Mubaarak 28 Jumaadi II 627 AH – 12/5/1230 AD Hamadaan 1 yr 3 mts 16 days Husain bin 'Ali al-Qaazi Ahmad bin 'Ali bin Hanzalah
8 Husain bin ‘Ali al-Waleed 22 Safar 667 AH – 30/10/1268 AD Hiql, Sana’a 39 yrs 7 mts 24 days al-Qaazi Ahmad bin 'Ali bin Hanzalah, 'Ali bin Husain Mohammad bin Asad Kitaab ul-Izaahe wal Bayaan fil Jawaab 'an Masaa'il il-Imtihaan - کتاب الإیضاح و البیان فی جواب عن مسائل الإمتحان
9 ‘Ali bin Husain al-Waleed 13 Zul Qa’adah 682 AH – 1/2/1284 AD Sana’a 15 yrs 8 mts 21 days Husain bin 'Ali, 'Ali bin Husain bin 'Ali bin Hanzalah As'ad bin Haatim ar-Risaalat ul-Kaamelah fi Salaas il-Layaali il-Faazalah - الرسالۃ الکاملۃ فی ثلاث اللیالي الفاضلۃ
10 'Ali bin Husain bin 'Ali bin Hanzalah al-Waade’i 1 Safar 686 AH – 17/3/1287 AD Sana’a 3 yrs 2 mts 17 days Ibraahim bin Husain
11. Ibraahim bin Husain 10 Shawwaal 728 AH - 16/8/1328 AD Hisn-e-Af'edah 42 yrs 8 mts 9 days Mohammad bin Haatim
12. Mohammad bin Haatim 1 Zul Hijjah 729 AH - 25/9/1329 AD Hisn-e-Af'edah 1 yr 1 mt 7 days 'Ali bin Ibraahim
13. 'Ali Shamsuddin bin Ibraahim 18 Rajab 746 AH - 13/11/1345 AD Hisn-e-Zimarmar 16 yrs 7 mts 18 days 'Abd ul-Muttalib bin Mohammad
14. 'Abd ul-Muttalib Najmuddin bin Mohammad 14 Rajab 755 AH - 3/8/1354 AD Hisn-e-Zimarmar 8 yrs 11 mts 25 days 'Abbaas bin Mohammad
15. 'Abbaas bin Mohammad 8 Shawwaal 779 AH - 6/2/1378 AD Hisn-e-Af'edah 24 yrs 2 mts 24 days 'Abdullaah bin 'Ali
16. ‘Abdullaah Fakhruddin bin ‘Ali 9 Ramazaan 809 AH - 16/2/1407 AD Hisn-e-Zimarmar 29 yrs 11 mts 1 day 'Ali bin 'Abdullaah ash-Shaybaani, Hasan bin 'Abdullaah 'Abd ul-Muttalib bin 'Abdullaah al-Muneerah fi Ma'refat il-Hudood il-Jazeerah - المنیرۃ فی معرفۃ حدود الجزیرۃ
17. Hasan Badruddin bin ‘Abdullaah 6 Shawwaal 821 AH - 5/11/1418 AD Hisn-e-Zimarmar 12 yrs 27 days 'Abd ul-Muttalib bin 'Abdullaah, Mohammad bin Idris Ahmad bin 'Abdullaah
18. ‘Ali Shamsuddin bin ‘Abdullaah 3 Safar 832 AH - 11/11/ 1428 AD Shaareqah 10 yrs 3 mts 27 days Idrees bin Hasan
19. Idrees ‘Imaaduddin bin Hasan 19 Zul Qa’adah 872 AH – 9/6/1468 AD Shibaam 40 yrs 9 mts 16 days Ma'ad bin 'Abdullaah 'Uyoon ul-Akhbaar wa Funoon ul-Aasaar - عیون الاخبار و فنون الآثار
20. Hasan Badruddin bin Idrees 15 Sha’baan 918 AH – 25/10/1512 AD Masaar 45 yrs 8 mts 26 days 'Abdullaah Fakhruddin bin 'Ali, Husain Husaamuddin bin Idrees 'Ali bin Husain
21. Husain Husaamuddin bin Idrees 10 Shawwaal 933 AH – 9/7/1527 AD Masaar 15 yrs 1 mt 25 days 'Ali Shamsuddin bin Husain Mohammad 'Izzuddin bin 'Ali
22. ‘Ali Shamsuddin bin Husain 21 Zul Qa’dah 933 AH – 18/8/ 1527 AD Masaar 1 mt 10 days Mohammad 'Izzuddin bin 'Ali
23. Mohammad ‘Izzuddin bin ‘Ali 27 Safar 946 AH – 13/7/1539 AD Zabeed 12 yrs 3 mts 6 days Yusuf Najmuddin
24. Yusuf Najmuddin bin Sulaimaan 16 Zul Hijjah 974 AH – 23/6/1567 AD Taibah 28 yrs 9 mts 23 days Jalaal Fakhruddin bin Hasan

Ahmedabad

tomb of syedna shaikh adam and sulaimani dome
Saraspur, Ahmedabad is the only place where mausoleums of the missionaries-du'aat of 3 Bohra communities are located. This place is the converging point for all.

During the 11th century AD, when 18th Fatimid Imam Ma’ad al-Mustansir was in power in Cairo, the region of Khambhat, Patan and Siddhpur saw extensive activities of Isma’ili Da’wat and then after the concealment of the 21st Fatimid Imam at-Taiyeb in 532 AH/1138 AD, the holy preachers and propagandists worked under the absolute guidance of their religious chief-da’i al-mutlaq who were serving as a representatives of their concealed Imam. These preachers served as the head of the Da'wat in Indian subcontinent, locally known as the wali or maulaai, were regularly selected by the da'i al-mutlaq residing in Yemen.[10] It was during the da’iship of 17th Da’i Hasan Badruddin (809–821 AH/ 1406–1418 AD), the city of Ahmedabad was founded and Ahmadshah invited Adam Shujaa’uddin bin Sulaimaan, Shaikha Mujaal and Khwaaja Kalaan to convince the Bohra traders and rich merchants to start their trade from Ahmedabad and make it their home-town.[44] Till the time of 19th Da'i Idrees Imaaduddin (832-872 AH/1428-1468 AD), due to the efforts of Adam Shujaa’uddin sizable Bohras migrated from Patan to Ahmedabad.[45]

So this was the period of the first Bohra settlement in Ahmedabad as it proved to be a safe haven for the peace-loving community scattered in the other towns surrounding Ahmedabad. At that time sizable Bohra population could be found at Patan, Khambhat, Siddhpur, Nadiad, Kapadwanj, Bharuch, Vadodara, Umreth, Mehsana, Dholka etc. Bohras prospered in Ahmedabad but it was overshadowed with some brutal and gruesome attacks now and then by the Muslim Sultanate. The Bohras of Gujarat and their da'is were not persecuted by the local Hindu rulers, who did not feel endangered by their activities. The community thus developed without any hindrance until the Muslim conquest of Gujarat in 697 AH/1298 AD, when the Da'wat's activities came under the scrutiny of the region's Muslim governors, who recognized the suzerainty of the Sultans of Delhi, who belonged to the Khalji and Tughluqid dynasties.[10] It was chiefly because of Ja’far Patani Naherwali and his people who left Isma’ili-Taiyebi faith and accepted Sunnism and they constantly instigated local Muslim rulers against the Bohras. During the time between 850-950 AH/1447-1544 AD many preachers-Maulaai[46] were martyred or jailed. Ahmedabad became to be called "Nani Karbalaa" (small karbalaa) because of the large number of martyrs buried there and also "Baagh-e-Aal-e-Mohammad" (paradise of Ahl e Bayt).[47] 28th da'i al-mutlaq Shaykh Adam Safiyuddin (d. 1030 AH/1621 AD) held the key leadership and played pivotal role in managing the internal community matters and external political affairs in Ahmedabad during the time of various da'is, he studied with 24th da'i in Yemen and was authorized to propagate the mission-da'wat in the Deccan.[41]

During the rule of Mughal Emperor Akbar & Jahangir, Bohra community witnessed 2 major splits in Ahmedabad. The Bohras got divided into three major groups viz. Alavis, Dawoodis and Sulaimanis in the span of nearly 40 years- 997-1030 AH/1589-1621 AD. This way Ahmedabad today enjoys the only converging place of all the three Bohra groups after the splits as their du’aat-missionaries are buried in the same graveyard located at Saraspur (Bibipur). Due to the constant persecution by the Muslim rulers, Bohras left Ahmedabad permanently and shifted their seat of Da’wat.[48] Alavi Bohras migrated to Vadodara in 1110 AH/1699 AD during the da'iship of 32nd da'i acting on the will of his predecessor and they were the last among Bohras to leave Ahmedabad. Dawoodi Bohras migrated to Jamnagar in 1065 AH/1657 AD and Sulaimani Bohras had their centre in Yemen after the split. Among Bohras in Ahmedabad, today Alavi Bohras remain as a minority with small number of families stay there.

No. Name of the Da'i (Saiyedna - سیدنا) Death - تأریخ الإنتقال Period of Da'wat - مدۃ الدعوۃ Licentiate - مأذون Associate - مکاسر Works - تألیفات
25. Jalaal Fakhruddin bin Hasan 16 Rabi' II 975 AH – 19/10/1567 AD 4 mts Dawoodji Burhaanuddin bin 'Ajabshah Dawoodji Burhaanuddin bin Qutubshah
26. Dawoodji Burhaanuddin bin 'Ajabshah 27 Rabi' II 999 AH – 21/2/1591 AD 24 yrs 11 days Dawoodji Burhaanuddin bin Qutubshah Shaikh AdamSafiyuddin bin Taiyebshah
27. Dawoodji Burhaanuddin bin Qutubshah 15 Jumaadi II 1021 AH – 12/8/1612 AD 22 yrs 1 mt 18 days al-Qaazi Ameenshah Shujaa'uddin, Shaikh Adam Safiyuddin bin Taiyebshah Ameenjibin Jalaal
28. Shaikh Adam Safiyuddin bin Taiyebshah 7 Rajab 1030 AH – 27/5/1621 AD 9 yrs 21days Ali Mohammad bin Firoz, 'Ali bin Ibraahim Ameenji bin Jalaal
29. 'Ali bin Ibraahim bin Shaikh Adam Safiyuddin, the martyr 23 Zul Qa’adah 1046 AH – 17/4/1637 AD 16 yrs 4 mts 16 days Taiyeb Zakiyuddin bin Shaikh Adam Safiyuddin Ameenji bin Jalaal, Hasan Badruddin bin Wali Kitaab un-Naseehah fi Anwaar ish-Shari'ah - کتاب النصیحۃ فی انوار الشریعۃ
30. Taiyeb Zakiyuddin bin Shaikh Adam Safiyuddin 13 Shawwaal 1047 AH – 26/2/1638 AD 10 mts 20 days Hasan Badruddin bin Wali Jivabhai Ziyauddin bin Nuhji
31 Hasan Badruddin bin Wali 19 Rabi' II 1090 AH – 29/5/1679 AD 42 yrs 6 mts 6 days Jivabhai Ziyauddin bin Nuhji Hebatullaah Mo'ayyaduddin bin Jivabhai Ziyauddin Diwaan-e-Hasan - دیوان حسن

Vadodara

majlis in musanji taaj saheb mosque
Aqaa Maulaa, the then Mazoon e Mutlaq visited Fakhri Masjid in Moharram 1436 AH/2014 AD on the death anniversary of Saiyedi Musanji bin Taaj saheb

The city of Vadodara deserves a special attention along with the Taiyebi missionary activities in Ahmedabad as many devoted personalities worked hard to retain the community faith when the turmoil of dissidents created by Ja’far Naherwali was at its peak. During the time of 21st Da’i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna saheb (tus) Hasan Badruddin bin Idrees (d. 933 AH/1537 AD) when Mahmood Shah II was the sultan of Gujarat, Mulla Isma’il of Vadodara migrated to Ahmedabad and he was martyred along with his accomplices on the banks of Sabarmati river.[47]

Vadodara is the birthplace of 28th, 29th and 30th Alavi Da'is who migrated and did Da’wat in Ahmedabad from 1021-1047 AH/1612-1638 AD. It was the place called Fakhri Mohalla near Gendi gate in the Walled city area where all 3 of them lived. Till date this mohalla is populated by Alavi Bohras. During the time of 26th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Dawoodji Burhanuddin bin ‘Ajabshah (d. 997 AH/1589 AD) when Muzaffar Shah III ruled Gujarat, Saiyedi Musanji bin Taaj saheb[49] (d. 986 AH/1578 AD) of Vadodara was martyred in the Mandvi gate when he invited Saiyedna saheb to inaugurate the mosque which he had built after returning from Hajj, avoiding Salaahuddin the then governor of Muzaffar Shah III. The mosque named Fakhri masjid is the oldest Bohra mosque in Vadodara where Alavi Bohras today offer daily prayers.[31]

After unbearable oppression meted upon Alavi Bohras during the time of 31st Da’i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Hasan Badruddin bin Wali in Ahmedabad, he ordered 32nd Da’i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Jivabhai Ziyauddin bin Noohji to migrate along with the community to Vadodara. He spearheaded the cause of migration and in 1110 AH/1699 AD he established a new locality for the community where he built Ziyaai Masjid[50] and Badri Mohalla. Badri Mohalla proved a cradle of progress and prosperity for the entire community. An Alavi Bohra who resides anywhere in the world and he visits Vadodara has to come to Badri Mohalla as the residence of Saiyedna saheb is located right in the middle of it.

Since 328 years (1110-1438 AD/1699-2017 AD), Vadodara has remained the centre and the seat of modern Alavi Bohras[51] (ad-Da’wat ul-Haadiyat ul-‘Alaviyah[48]) where 12 of its missionaries (du’aat) are buried here with a short interlude when 35th Da'i did Da’wat in Surat for 19 years between 1158-1178 AH/1745-1764 AD. Except 35th Da'i, all of them are from the progeny of Noohji bin Mohammadji, the father of 32nd Da'i. The present 45th Da'i Saiyedna Haatim Zakiyuddin saheb is the descendant from the same Aal-e-Noohji. Badri Mohalla, Fakhri Mohalla, Ajwa Road, Taiwada, Fatehgunj, Mughalwada, Pratapnagar, Panigate are the main areas of Vadodara where Alavi Bohras stay. They have 4 mosques and 3 community halls in Vadodara.

During the time of 41st Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Jivabhai Fakhruddin (d. 1347 AH/1929 AD), Gaekwadi ruler Maharaja Sayajirao III (d. 1358 AH/1939 AD) ruled Vadodara and he single-handedly spearheaded its progress and prosperity. Saiyedna maintained cordial and healthy relationship with the ruler as during the festivals Saiyedna often sent delegation in the Gaekwadi royal court to represent Alavi Bohras. This was because most of the shops of Alavi Bohras were located in the narrow streets surrounding the Mandvi area involved in the business of turban making. At that time Alavi Bohras had a monopoly of making red turban laced with golden string and Gaekwadi courtiers used to frequent these shops. Today, many Alavi Bohras are having their shops in this area inherited from their forefathers is the testimony of the social relations with Gaekwads.

Surat

qabr of syedna nuruddin saheb
Mausoleum of 35th Alavi Da'i Saiyedna Noorbhai Nuruddin saheb in Surat

When Saiyedna Jivabhai Ziyauddin saheb, the 32nd Da'i al-Mutlaq migrated from Ahmedabad to Vadodara in 1110 AH/1699 AD, Saiyedi Shaikhali from Surat along with his son Noorbhai visited Saiyedna saheb when he was busy constructing the mosque at the corner of Badri Mohalla named Masjid-e-Ziyaai. During that time Noorbhai was very young and with pure intellect he witnessed the spiritual supremacy of Saiyedna saheb. Saiyedna saheb ordered Saiyedi Shaikhali to leave Noorbhai in Vadodara for religious education and training and granted him all the permissions to carry out community responsibilities of Surat. Saiyedi Shaikhali was a successful merchant but at the same time an ardent follower of Saiyedna saheb. Along with many Alavi Bohra families, he stayed in Noorpura Mohalla near Jhapa bazaar. In the same area there was a mosque, graveyard and musaafir-khaana that were managed by Saiyedi Shaikhali. After his death, Alavi Bohras of Surat relied upon Noorbhai for all Da’wat[48] affairs as he was among the most trusted Hudood [35] of Saiyedna saheb, the 33rd Da'i Hebatullaah Mo'ayyaduddin.

Saiyedna Hebatullaah Mo'ayyaduddin, conferred him the status of Mukaasir[22] by bestowing him the epithet of "Nuruddin-نورالدین (the light of religion)". He often visited Vadodara along with the people of Surat and used to give oath of loyalty[21] to Saiyedna saheb. Surat city became the centre of Alavi Bohras, though for a short period of time i.e. 19 years[34] was only because of the pure heartedness and trustworthiness of Noorbhai Nuruddin, the 35th Da'i of Alavi Bohras. This was the time when Surat witnessed the transition period from Mughal rule to British dominion and the place where Saiyedna Noorbhai Nuruddin lived in the railway station area near Tapi river is considered the oldest area of the city and it is from here that the development of the city started in the early 20th century AD. After his death in 1178 AH/1764 AD, his son Shaikh Adam stayed in Surat and looked after the community like his father and grandfather. During this time there were around 50 Alavi Bohra families staying in Surat. The centre again got transferred to Vadodara and majority of Alavi Bohras migrated there along with their identity and surname as “Surtis”. Today the tomb of Saiyedna Noorbhai Nuruddin is the most revered place where mosque, community hall and musaafir-khaana are situated. For divine blessings every Alavi Bohra visit this place once in a year. Every year on the occasion of ‘Urs Mubaarak (death anniversary)[52] of Saiyedna Noorbhai Nuruddin in Moharram a grand function is held in Surat where Alavi Bohras participate with great fervor and faith.

No. Name of the Da'i (Saiyedna - سیدنا) Death - تأریخ الإنتقال Place of the Tomb - قبر مبارک Period of Da'wat - مدۃ الدعوۃ Licentiate - مأذون Associate - مکاسر Works - تألیفات
32. Jivabhai Ziyauddin bin Nuhji 10 Zul Qa’adah 1130 AH – 4/10/1718 AD Bustaan-e-Badri, Wadi 40 yrs 6 mts 20 days Hebatullaah Mo'ayyaduddin bin Jivabhai Ziyauddin Jalaal Shehaabuddin bin Nuhji
33. Hebatullaah Mo'ayyaduddin bin Jivabhai Ziyauddin 17 Rajab 1151 AH – 30/10/ 1738 AD Bustaan-e-Badri, Wadi 20 yrs 8 mts 7 days Jalaal Shehaabuddin bin Nuhji Noorbhai Nuruddin bin Shaikhali
34. Jalaal Shehaabuddin bin Nuhji 14 Safar 1158 AH - 17/3/1745 AD Jannat ul-Mumineen, Pratapnagar 6 yrs 6 mts 27 days Shamsuddin Hameeduddin bin Hebatullaah Mo'ayyaduddin Noorbhai Nuruddin bin Shaikhali
35. Noorbhai Nuruddin bin Shaikhali 9 Moharram 1178 AH – 7/7/ 1764 AD SURAT 19 yrs 10 mts 24 days Shamsuddin Hameeduddin bin Hebatullaah Mo'ayyaduddin Shaikh Adam bin Nuruddin as-Saheefat un-Nooraaniyah - الصحیفۃ النورانیۃ
36. Shamsuddin Hameeduddin bin Mo'ayyaduddin Hebatullaah 26 Sha'baan 1189 AH – 20/10/1775 AD Bustaan-e-Badri, Wadi 11 yrs 7 mts 17 days Shaikh Adam bin Nuruddin Shaikhali Shamsuddin bin Shamsuddin Hameeduddin
37. Shaikhali Shamsuddin bin Shamsuddin Hameeduddin 25 Rajab 1248 AH – 17/12/1832 AD Bustaan-e-Badri, Wadi 58 yrs 10 mts 28 days Shamsuddin Hameeduddin bin Shaikhali Shamsuddin Najmuddin Mufeeduddin bin Shaikhali Shamsuddin Kitaab ul-Miraas - کتاب المیراث
38. Shamsuddin Hameeduddin bin Shaikhali Shamsuddin 30 Ramazaan 1252 AH – 7/1/1837 AD Bustaan-e-Badri, Wadi 4 yrs 2 mts 5 days Najmuddin Mufeeduddin bin Shaikhali Shamsuddin 'Abd ur-Raheem bin Shaikhali Shamsuddin
39. Najmuddin Mufeeduddin bin Shaikhali Shamsuddin 6 Rajab 1282 AH – 24/11/1865 AD Jannat ul-Mumineen, Pratapnagar 29 yrs 9 mts 6 days Ameeruddin Ameenuddin bin Najmuddin Mufeeduddin Sharafuddin bin Najmuddin Mufeeduddin as-Saheefat un-Najmiyah - الصحیفۃ النجمیۃ
40. Ameeruddin Ameenuddin bin Najmuddin Mufeeduddin 18 Zul Hijjah 1296 AH - 2/12/1879 AD Jannat ul-Mumineen, Pratapnagar 14 yrs 5 mts 12 days Sharafuddin bin Najmuddin Mufeeduddin Jivabhai Fakhruddin bin Ameeruddin Ameenuddin
41. Jivabhai Fakhruddin bin Ameeruddin Ameenuddin 20 Shawwaal 1347 AH – 30/3/1929 AD Bustaan-e-Badri, Wadi 50 yrs 10 mts 2 days Sharafuddin bin Najmuddin Mufeeduddin Fidaali Badruddin bin Jivabhai Fakhruddin Ta'weel-o-Salaat-e-Laylat il-Qadr - تأویل صلوۃ لیلۃ القدر
42. Fidaali Badruddin bin Jivabhai Fakhruddin 8 Sha'baan 1377 AH – 26/2/1958 AD Bustaan-e-Badri, Wadi 29 yrs 9 mts 18 days Yusuf Nuruddin bin Fidaali Badruddin Nazarali bin Fidaali Badruddin
43. Yusuf Nuruddin bin Fidaali Badruddin 17 Rajab 1394 AH - 5/8/1974 AD Mazaar-e-Yusufi, Behind Nooraani Masjid, Wadi 16 yrs 11 mts 9 days Taiyeb Ziyauddin bin Yusuf Nuruddin Nazarali bin Fidaali Badruddin
44. Taiyeb Ziyauddin bin Yusuf Nuruddin 5 Sha'baan 1436 AH - 23/5/2015 AD Mazaar-e-Yusufi, Behind Nooraani Masjid, Wadi 42 yrs 18 days Haatim Zakiyuddin bin Taiyeb Ziyauddin Nazarali bin Fidaali Badruddin, Husain Mo'eenuddin bin Taiyeb Ziyauddin, Mohammad Nuruddin bin Taiyeb Ziyauddin

Reasoning and Religiosity of Esotericism

Knowledge (‘ilm-علم) and wisdom (hikmah-حكمۃ) are, according to Isma’ili belief, eternal gifts from God, revealed to humanity through His prophets. God has successively dispatched six prophets bearing a law (shari’ah): Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus Christ and Muhammad. These prophets are ‘speakers’[53] (naatiq-ناطق), because they talk to men, proclaiming to them a shari’ah, an exoteric (zaahir-ظاهر) law with its commandments and prohibitions, its ritual obligation and legal definitions. By the side of each prophet-speaker stands an authorized representative (wasi or asaas-وصي، اساس) who knows and teaches eternally immutable ‘esoteric meaning’ (baatin-باطن) of all these prescriptions and regulations-though only to a small number of the elect.

Thus, Adam and his son Abel at his side, Noah and his son Shem, Abraham’s wasi was his son Ishmeal, Moses’s wasi was his brother Aron, and Jesus Christ’s was Simon Peter. The speaker-prophet of our era is Muhammad. His wasi or asaas is his cousin and son in law ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib. The latter’s descendents are the true imams of Islamic community (ummah); they alone know and transmit the ‘esoteric meaning’ of the divine revelation proclaimed by Prophet Muhammad. The imams, whose succession continued with the Fatimid caliphs in Cairo till the 21st imam Abul Qaasim at-Taiyeb and their succession is in its place till date though in seclusion, are thus the repositories of the divine message; they are the upholders of ‘Knowledge’ and ‘Wisdom’, which they transmit to their followers, they are the ‘friends of God’ (awliya Allah-أولیاء الله).[3]

The imams spread ‘Knowledge’ and ‘Wisdom’ based on exoteric and esoteric interpretation of divine law through ‘Summoners’, da’is, these are propagators or missionaries who summon people to follow the true imam and instruct the individual who ‘responds to the summons’, al-mustajib or the initiate, through wise sayings and necessary knowledge. The missionary or Da'i as a teacher is the most characteristic figure of the Isma’ili movement. From the very beginning, the Da'i’s travelled far and wide to spread the good tidings.

Tanzeel-تنزیل or Tafsir-تفسیر (outer meaning or commentary on the Qur'an) is completely based on Ta’weel-تأویل (inner meaning) without which Tanzeel becomes void and meaningless. The everlasting beautiful outward appearance is from inside and that which could not be seen and could not be understood by everyone. The belief that each and every Qur'anic verse has both outer and inner meaning as the same is the case with the sayings of Prophet Mohammad which are applicable and acceptable in all times till the last Day of Doom.

As distinct from the zaahir (evident meaning) of the literal wordings of sacred texts and religious prescriptions, notably the Qur'an and the Shari’ah, the baatin is the inward, hidden or esoteric meaning having deep and stronger impact on the deeds and thoughts of the believers.[32] In the Isma’ili-Taiyebi gnosis the word baatin goes hand in hand with ta’weel and it exclusively denotes the method of inducing the baatin for the allegorical, symbolic and esoteric interpretation or spiritual-hermeneutic exegesis of historic events and the world of nature as described by the sacred Islamic texts.[10] Ta’weel became the hallmark of Isma’ili thought and literature. It is to manifest the hidden so as to unveil the true spiritual reality only to those who are properly initiated into the community and who have acknowledged the spiritual guidance of the rightful imam of his era or his representatives who possess the rightful authority to interpret Islam in all its dimensions.[41] Qur'anic verses throws light on this subject in the following way:

  • And bestowed His favours, external and esoteric, in abundance on you? And yet there are men who contend about God without any knowledge or guidance or the Book enlightening. (al-Qur'an 31-20)
  • He is the first and He the last, the transcendent and the immanent; and He has knowledge of everything.[54] (al-Qur'an 57-3)
  • But those who are twisted of mind look for verses metaphorical, seeking deviation and giving to them interpretations of their own; but none knows their meaning except God; and those who are steeped in knowledge affirm: "We believe in them as all of them are from the Lord." But only those who have wisdom understand.[55] (al-Qur'an 3-7)

This type of allegorical interpretation is applied on the Hadith of Prophet Mohammad:

  • Unity is mercy, dissent punishment.[39]
  • The Qur'an is the real cure.
  • The mosque is where the pious live.
  • The pinnacle of wisdom is fear of God.
  • Paradise lies beneath your mother’s feet.

Numerous books are dedicated to this topic and it has been written throughout the Islamic era and the same is carried out today too by the missionaries. The distinction between the zaahir and baatin was an integral part of the religious system of thought elaborated by the Isma’ili missionaries of different periods and this particular process continued with the Taiyebis in Yemen. Below is a small example of esoteric text taken from Kitaab al-Kashf by Ja’far b. Mansur al-Yemen in the mid 4th century AH/10th century AD.

"The Qur’an begins with bismillaah al-rahmaan al-raheem (بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم); bismillaah is composed of seven letters. twelve letters emerges from this and that are al-rahmaan al-raheem. This verse is the beginning of the first chapter of Qur’an surat ul-hamd which has total seven verses. The seven letters, which are the bismillaah, signify the seven naatiq. The twelve letters that arise from these signify that for each naatiq there are twelve naqeebs or hujjats.[56] Thus the twelve letters, which are al-rahmaan al-raheem, that arise from the seven lettered bismillaah, together become nineteen letters. This signifies that from the naatiqs – after each naatiq – seven imaams and twelve hujjats arise, which makes nineteen. The same is the case with pillars of Islam, in which there are seven pillars each having twelve traditions."[57]

Zaahir-Exoteric Baatin-Esoteric
Islam Faith
Skies Prophets
Qur'an Household of Prophet Mohammad
Earth Ali bin Abi Taalib
Temporal world Spiritual world
Body Soul
Prayer Spiritual Mission
Ka’bah The Imam of the time
Water Knowledge
Oath of Allegiance The right path
Honeybee Believer
Salt Wisdom
Fruits The Imams from the progeny of Prophets

Library

Personal Alavi Library[58] housed in the Residence of Saiyedna saheb[59] is the centre of Isma'ili Studies with the special reference to Taiyebi Branch of Literature. There are various Academic and Research Institutions which carry out studies on Isma'ili Taiyebi Literature basically starting from 225 AH till date based on Ahaadees,[60] Akaaleem,[61] Riwaayaat[62] and historic events with the assistance of renowned and experienced scholars in their respective fields. Specifically the study of Isma'ili Literature is a part and parcel of the studies of Near-Eastern Languages and Culture. Generally every University that carries out these studies also includes the study of Arabic Language which is harboured by Isma'ili scholars. These specific, selective and special studies are centered in a very few Institutions which houses Isma'ili Taiyebi Manuscripts (MSS) found in Arabic.

During the second half of 20th century AD and in the recent years the scholarly, critical and significant research work is being carried out in European, American and Middle-Eastern Universities. But it always requires a second thought and important inputs based in Isma’ili dogmas from the authoritative seat of Da’wat. Scholars who are not at all in the system of Isma’ili Faith lacks that special touch while dealing or summarizing or translating texts of Core Beliefs. It is because these Isma’ili literary gems[63] had been written by Du’aat in presence of an Imam or by his commands. It contains an Oath[64] for the Imam on which its reader must have to follow and without one is not supposed to even open a book.

As these books which were guarded into the private possessions made its way to Scholars and Researchers, the central point of Oath was mindlessly neglected and anyone who had an access to these books started their work. No doubt great efforts and hard work have been carried out by the researchers but still there remains always a dot of doubt. The Institutions which possess rich and periodically diversified Isma’ili manuscripts has now become epicenter of scholarly activities and academic journalism. The centre of ad-Da’wat ul-Haadiyat ul-‘Alaviyah[65] houses several hundred manuscripts which is managed, preserved, conserved and enriched by the 45th Da’i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna saheb. This personal library contains some of the rare Islamic and Isma’ili titles and with every passing day newer titles are added.

This collection is in direct access, supervision and control of Da’i al-Mutlaq and therefore the nature and process of addition to the collection is also noteworthy and the fact that Da’i being the sole authority of Isma’ili-Taiyebi learning is cognizant of the contents of each and every MSS, old as well as recent ones. It has been observed that due to the maintenance of secrecy of Isma’ili Literature, the private family collections in Yemen, Sindh and Hind[66] are never in direct access to the public domain nor the MSS were lent or shared to any aspirant of the study. But the ad-Da’wat ul-Haadiyat ul-‘Alaviyah collection despite its original and unique source, the Da’i is lenient in sharing the MSS after thoroughly assessing the just and critical way of translating, editing and publishing. Though the centre of ‘Alavi Da’wat do not directly invite scholars or researchers from foreign universities, but time and again many interested foreign scholars have come straightforwardly and studied Isma’ili titles with the Da’i himself from Iran, UK, US and Europe.

At times, when the scholars who worked for the critical study and edition of any Isma’ili title they might be having only 2-3 MSS from different origins, i.e. where writer, place and period differ, there arose the demand for the consultation of more MSS. For this purpose, the MSS of ‘Alavi Da’wat collection because of its Indian origin, proved more fruitful for better text reading and editing. The other salient feature of ‘Alavi Library is that it is housed at the Da’is residence and most of the MSS are copied by the Du’aat from those which were brought to Vadodara when the Da’wat headquarters were shifted from Ahmedabad.

It has been well-preserved and well-maintained by the Da’i's great efforts. Like many other places where such MSS and bundled for centuries and remain in lock-and-key and are never referred or studies, the case is entirely different here. Here at ‘Alavi Library, Da’i consults and refers these MSS and accordingly copies its texts in individual papers for lecture purpose and hand over certain old MSS to his close aides to make its fresh copy by penning the entire text. With age-old methods the preservation of the MSS is carried out. As Da’i personally handles all the library affairs, the question of precaution, curing or fumigation never arises. But the Du’aat felt it compulsory to make a copy of every MSS as there was a constant fear of a single copy might get damaged by any unexpected accident or worm attack. Every year more and more MSS are added to the collection and also they are copied as and when required.

The MSS copied by 45th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Haatim Zakiyuddin saheb since 1405 AH/1985 AD:

Sr. No. Name - اسم الکتاب Saiyedna (Author) - اسم سیدنا المؤلف
1. Asaas ut-Ta'weel - اساس التأویل Qaadi an-No'maan bin Mohammad
2. Munirat ul-Basaa'ir - منیرۃ البصائر as-Sultaan al-Khattaab
3. al-Ibtidaa wal Intihaa - الإبتداء و الإنتھاء Hebatullaah al-Mo'ayyad ash-Shiraazi
4. Nahj ul-'Ibaadah - نھج العبادۃ Hebatullaah al-Mo'ayyad ash-Shiraazi
5. Risaalat un-Naqd - رسالۃ النقد Haatim bin Ibraahim al-Haamedi
6. Risaalat ul-Muqezah - رسالۃ الموقظۃ Sharafuddin bin Hamzah
7. Ziyaa ul-Basaa'ir - ضیاء البصائر Idrees 'Imaaduddin bin Hasan
8. Asraar ul-Imaam il-Mahdi - أسرار الإمام المھدي Imam 'Abdullaah al-Mahdi
9. Risaalat ul-Amn min al-Hayrat - رسالۃ الأمن من الحیرۃ Ya'qub as-Sijistaani

Islamic calendar: occasions and commemoration as per the calculation of Fatimid imams

Months - شھور Date - تأریخ Events - واقعات
  1. Moharram ul-Haraam[67] - محرم الحرام
1
2-9 Daily Majlis[68] conducted in the presence of Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna saheb where detailed account of Shohadaa-e-Karbalaa - شھداء کربلاء is presented coupled with the Admonition and Explanation of Shari'ah laws and Tenets
10
13 Birth of 20th Fatimid Imam Maulaana Aamir - 490 AH/1097 AD, Cairo
15 Birth of 15th Fatimid Imam Maulaana Nazaar al-Azeez - 344 AH/955 AD, Cairo
16 Urs Mubaarak of 3rd Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Haatim Mohiyuddin bin Saiyedna Ibraahim saheb - d. 596 AH/1199 AD - Hutayb Mubaarak - Yemen
18 Urs Mubaarak of 3rd Fatimid Imam Saiyed ur-Raake'een was Saajedeen Maulaana Ali Zayn ul-Aabedeen - d. 94 AH/712 AD - Jannat ul-Baqee' - Madinat ul Munawwarah
20
  • Urs Mubaarak of 35th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Nuruddin Noorbhai bin Shaikh Ali saheb - d. 1178 AH/1764 - Surat
  • Birth of 19th Fatimid Imam Maulaana Ahmad al-Musta'ali - 467 AH/1074 AD, Cairo
22 Birth of Ra's ul-Hudood Dr. Hakeemuddin Bhaisaheb Zulqarnain saheb - 1400 AH/1979 AD - Vadodara, Gujarat
23
  • Urs Mubaarak of Saiyedi Hasan Feer saheb Shaheed - d. 795 AH/1392 AD - Denmaal, Gujarat
  • Urs Mubaarak of Noor Bibi (Mother of 24th Da'i al-Mutlaq al-Yemeni Saiyedna Yusuf Najmuddin bin Sulaymaan) and Faatimah Bibi (Sister of the said Saiyedna saheb) - Dandi gaam (Maai saheb, Navsari)
27 Urs Mubaarak of Da'i al-Balaagh Saiyedi Fakhruddin saheb Shaheed - Galiyakot, Rajasthan
28 Urs Mubaarak of Saiyedi Musanji bin Taaj saheb Shaheed - Vadodara, Gujarat
2. Safar ul-Muzaffar - صفر المظفر 2
  • Urs Mubaarak of 18th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Ali Shamsuddin bin Saiyedna Abdullaah - d. 832 AH/1428 AD - Shaareqah, Yemen
  • Urs Mubaarak of Saiyedna as-Sultaan al-Khattaab bin Hasan - d. 533 AH/1138 - Yemen
14
  • Urs Mubaarak of 34th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Jalaal Shehaabuddin bin Saiyedi Nuhji saheb - d. 1158 AH/1745 AD - Jannat ul-Mumineen (Pratapnagar, Vadodara)
  • Urs Mubaarak of Kaka Akela - Kaki Akela saheb - Khambhat
17 Urs Mubaarak of 19th Fatimid Imam Maulaana Ahmad al-Musta'ali - d. 495 AH/1101 AD - al-Qaaherah al-Mo'izziyah - Cairo
18 Urs Mubaarak of Maulaatona Sakinah, the daughter of Imam Husain
20 Arba'een - Chehlum of Saiyed ush-Shohadaa Maulaana Imam Husain
22 Urs Mubaarak of 8th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Husain bin Saiyedna Ali saheb - d. 667 AH/1268 AD - San'aa (Yemen)
25 Urs Mubaarak of Khateebat-o-Karbalaa Maulaatona Zainab
27 Urs Mubaarak of 23rd Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Mohammad Ezzuddin bin Saiyedna Hasan saheb - d. 946 AH/1539 - Zabeed (Yemen)
29 Urs Mubaarak of Maulaana Imam Hasan al-Mujtabaa - d. 49 AH/669 AD - Jannat ul-Baqee' - Madinat ul Munawwarah
3. Rabi' ul-Awwal - ربیع الأول 2 Urs Mubaarak of Khaatim ul-Ambiyaa Saiyed ul-Awliyaa Muhammad - d. 11 AH/632 AD - Madinat ul Munawwarah and his Birth in Makkat ul Mukarramah in 1 'Aam ul-Feel[69]/570 AD
3 Birth of 16th Fatimid Imam Maulaana Husain al-Haakim - 375 AH/985 AD - al-Qaaherah al-Mo'izziyah, Cairo
8 Birth of 45th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Haatim Zakiyuddin saheb - 1379 AH/1959 AD - Vadodara, Gujarat
12 Urs Mubaarak of 6th Da'i al-Mutlaq Ali bin Hanzalah saheb - d. 626 AH/1229 AD - Hamdaan (Yemen)
14 Urs Mubaarak of Saiyedi Miyaji bin Taaj saheb - Umreth, Gujarat
15 Urs Mubaarak of 11th Fatimid Imam Maulaana Abdullaah al-Mahdi - d. 322 AH/934 AD - Mahdiyah, North Africa
17 Birth of 5th Fatimid Imam, Maulaana Imam Abu Abdillaah Ja'far us-Saadiq - 83 AH/702 AH - Madinat ul Munawwarah
22 Urs Mubaarak of Mukaasir ud-Da'wat Saiyedi Nazarali Bhaisaheb - d. 997 AH/1589 AD - Jannat ul-Mumineen (Pratapnagar, Vadodara)
4. Rabi' ul-Aakhar - ربیع الآخر 4 Milaadayn Kareemayn - میلادین کریمین : Two Birthdays - Birth of Maulaana Imam uz-Zamaan[70] Abul Qaasim Taiyeb ul-'Asre wal Heen - 524 AH/1130 AD - al-Qaaherah al-Mo'izziyah and Birth of 44th Da'i al-Mutlaq al-Alavi al-Faatemi Saiyedna Abu Haatim Taiyeb Ziyauddin saheb[71] - 1351 AH/1932 AD - Badri Mohalla, Wadi, Vadodara (Gujarat, India)
11 Urs Mubaarak of 14th Fatimid Imam Maulaana Ma'ad al-Mo'iz - d. 365 AH/975 AD - al-Qaaherah al-Mo'izziyah, Cairo
16 Urs Mubaarak of 25th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Fakhruddin Jalaal bin Hasan saheb - d. 975 AH/1567 AD - Ahmedabad
19 Urs Mubaarak of 31st Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Badruddin Hasan bin Wali saheb - d. 1090 AH/1679 AD - Ahmedabad
27 Urs Mubaarak of 26th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Burhaanuddin Dawood bin Ajabshah saheb - d. 997 AH/1589 AD - Ahmedabad
5. Jumaadi ul-Ulaa - جمادي الأولی 1 Urs Mubaarak of 7th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Ahmad bin Mubaarak saheb - d. 627 AH/1230 AD - Hamdaan (Yemen)
11 Urs Mubaarak of Saiyedi Nuruddin saheb - Dongaam (Aurangabad)
12 Urs Mubaarak of Saiyedato Nisaa il-Aalameen, Umm ul-A'immat il-Mayaameen, Maulaatona Faatimah az-Zahraa bint Mohammad ul-Mustafaa - d. 11 AH/632 AD - Madinat ul Munawwarah
6. Jumaadi ul-Ukhraa - جمادي الأخری 14 Urs Mubaarak of Gunj Shohadaa - Ahmedabad
15 Urs Mubaarak of 27th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Burhaanuddin Dawoodji bin Qutubshah saheb - d. 1021 AH/1612 AD - Ahmedabad
20 Birth of Umm ul-A'immah Ziyaa ul-Madeenah Maulaatona Faatimah az-Zahraa - 5 Year of Nubuwat/614 AD - Makkat ul-Mukarramah
25 44th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Taiyeb Ziyauddin saheb (d. 1436 AH/2015 AD) became the first Indian Da'i who along with his Mazoon and Mukaasir took the longest pilgrimage tour-زیارات مقدسات covering all the holy places for 45 days
27 Urs Mubaarak of Da'i al-Balaagh Saiyedna Lamak bin Maalik saheb - d. 510 AH/1116 AD - Hamadaan, Yemen
28
  • Urs Mubaarak of Da'i al-Balaagh Saiyedna Yahyaa bin Lamak saheb - d. 520 AH/1126 - Hamadaan, Yemen
  • Urs Mubaarak of 7th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Ahmad bin Mubaarak saheb - d. 627 AH/1230 AD - Hamadaan, Yemen
29 Urs Mubaarak of Da'i ad-Du'aat Qaazi al-Quzaat[72] Saiyedna Qaazi No'maan bin Mohammad at-Tameemi al-Maghrebi - d. 363 AH/974 AD, Cairo
7. Rajab ul-Murajjab - رجب المرجب 6 Urs Mubaarak of 39th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Mufeeduddin Najmuddin bin S Shaikhali saheb - d. 1282 AH/1865 AD - Jannat ul-Mumineen (Pratapnagar, Vadodara)
7 Urs Mubaarak of 28th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Shaikh Aadam Safiyuddin bin Taiyeb shah saheb - d. 1030 AH/1621 AD - Saraspur, Ahmedabad
13-14-15 Ayyaam ul-Beez - أیام البیض : Wilaadat (birth) of Ameer ul-Mumineen Maulaana 'Ali bin Abi Taalib in Ka'batullaah - 30 'Aam ul-Feel and Fasting of Umm-e-Daawood
14
  • Urs Mubaarak of Da'i al-Balaagh Saiyedi Ya'qoob saheb - Patan
  • Urs Mubaarak of 14th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Abdul Muttalib Najmuddin bin S. Mohammad saheb - d. 755 AH/1354 AD - Hisn-e-Zimarmar, Yemen
15 8 Rak'aat[73] Prayer of afternoon - صلوۃ الزوال : The day when Maulaatona Faatimah bint Asad came out from Ka'batullaah holding Maulaana 'Ali in her hands
17
  • Urs Mubaarak of 43rd Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Yusuf Nooruddin bin S. Badruddin saheb - d. 1394 AH/1974 AD - Mazaar-e-Yusufi, Badri Mohalla, Vadodara
  • Urs Mubaarak of 33rd Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Mo'ayyaduddin Hebatullaah bin S. Ziyauddin saheb - d. 1151 AH/1738 AD - Bustaan-e-Badri, Wadi, Vadodara
18 Urs Mubaarak of 13th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Ali Shamsuddin bin S. Ibraaheem saheb - d. 746 AH/1345 AD - Hisn-e-Zimarmar, Yemen
21
  • Urs Mubaarak of Saiyedi Shaikh Aadam bin S. Nooruddin saheb - Surat
  • Urs Mubaarak of Mazoon ud-Da'wat Saiyedi Bhaisaheb Sharafuddin bin S. Najmuddin saheb - Jannat ul-Mumineen (Pratapnagar, Vadodara)
  • Mohtaramah Maa-sahebah[74] Keebu bint Sharafuddin, Zawjat-e-Saiyedna Badruddin saheb - Jannat ul-Mumineen (Pratapnagar, Vadodara)
25 Urs Mubaarak of 37th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Shamsuddin Shaikhali bin S. Shamsuddin saheb - d. 1248 AH/1832 AD - Bustaan-e-Badri, Wadi, Vadodara
26 Laylat ul-Mab'as or Laylat ul-Israa wal Me'raaj - لیلۃ المبعث، لیلۃ الإسراء و المعراج - Great night of the Ascention of Mohammad to the 8 Heavens
27 Yaum ul-Mab'as - یوم المبعث and Fasting : First Aayat of Qur'an i.e. the beginning of سورۃ العلق was revealed on Ghaar-e-Hiraa, Mohammad was honoured as Nabi and Master of all Ambiyaa - 40 'Aam ul-Feel/610 AD - Makkat ul Mukarramah
8. Sha'baan ul-Kareem - شعبان الکریم 5
7 Inauguration of the mausoleum of 42nd Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Badruddin Fidaali located at Bustaan-e-Badri, Wadi, Vadodara in 1435 AH/2014 AD on the hands of 44th Da'i Saiyedna Taiyeb Ziyauddin saheb - d. 1436 AH/2015 AD
8 Urs Mubaarak of 42nd Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Badruddin Fidaali bin S Fakhruddin saheb - d. 1377 AH/1958 AD - Bustaan-e-Badri, Wadi, Vadodara
10 Inauguration of Masjid e Badri, Worli, Mumbai in 1435 AH/2014 AD on the hands of 44th Da'i Saiyedna Taiyeb Ziyauddin saheb - d. 1436 AH/2015 AD
14 Laylat un-Nisf {Shab-e-Baraat} - لیلۃ النصف. A special prayer of 14 Rak'aat called Washsheq[75]
15
  • Yaum-e-Tahweel ul-Qiblah - یوم تحویل القبلۃ: Ka'batullaah became the Qiblah of Islam in 2 AH/624 AD - Madinah
  • Marriage of Maulaana 'Ali Ameer ul-Mumineen with Daughter of Prophet Mohammad, Maulaatona Faatimah az-Zahraa - 2 AH/624 AD - Madinah
  • Urs Mubaarak of 17th Faatemi Imam Maulaana 'Ali az-Zaahir - d. 427 AH/1036 AD - al-Qaaherah al-Mo'izziyah, Cairo
  • Urs Mubaarak of 20th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Hasan Badruddin bin S. Idrees saheb - d. 918 AH/1512 AD - Masaar, Yemen
16 Urs Mubaarak of 2nd Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Ibraaheem bin Husain al-Haamedi saheb - d. 557 AH/1162 AD - Ghail-e-Bani Haamid, Yemen
20 Saiyedna Haatim Zakiyuddin saheb took the reign of Da'wat e 'Alaviyah as a 45th Da'i al-Mutlaq by taking Oath of Allegiance of the community in Masjid e Nooraani, Wadi, Vadodara in 1436 AH/2015 AD
22 Urs Mubaarak of Saiyedatona Hurrat ul-Malekah Arwa binte Ahmad saheba. Hujjat of 20th Faatemi Imam Maulaana Mansoor al-Aamir - d. 532 AH/1138 AD - Zi-Jablah, Yemen. Beginning of Da'wat e Itlaaqiyah.[48]
26 Urs Mubaarak of 36th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Hameeduddin Shamsuddin bin S Hebatullaah saheb - d. 1189 AH/1775 AD - Bustaan-e-Badri, Wadi, Vadodara
27 Urs Mubaarak of 5th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Ali bin Mohammad bin al-Waleed saheb - d. 612 AH/1215 AD - Haraaz, Yemen
9. Ramazaan ul-Mo'azzam[76] - رمضان المعظم 5 14th Fatemi Imam Maulaana Ma'ad al-Mo’iz entered the city of Cairo and offered prayers in his Palace. The city of Cairo got its name from him as al-Qaaherah al- Mo’izziyah
7 By the order of Imam al-Mo’iz, Jaame’-e-Azhar was inaugurated by Maulaana al-Qaa’id Jawhar in Cairo that became the Capital of Fatemi Sultanate. Usage of Misri Calendar was officiated in the entire Hukumat. Azaan was said publicly with the recitation of "Mohammadun wa 'Aliyun Khayr ul-Bashar wa ‘Itratohoma Khayr ul-‘Itar". Fatemi law and jurisprudence was practiced.
8 This was the memorable day in the history of Fatemi Imamat. Under the guidance of Imam al-Mo’iz, his commander Maulaana al-Qaa’id al-Jawhar as-Saqali conquered Egypt. The foundation of Cairo was laid along with Jaame’-e-Azhar and Palaces.
9 Urs Mubaarak of 16th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Abdullaah Fakhruddin bin Ali saheb - d. 809 AH/1407 AD - Hisn-e-Zimarmar, Yemen
10
  • Birth of 17th Fatemi Imam Maulaana 'Ali az-Zaahir in Cairo - 395 AH/1005 AD
  • 41st Da’i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Fakhruddin Jivabhai bin Saiyedna Ameeruddin saheb began composing the ash'aar for the beginning (إبتداء) and ending (وداع) of Shahrullaah. Till 1332 AH/1914 AD, he completed composing 19 abyaat which is based on the 19 huroof-حروف of 'Bismillaah'. Many of these abyaat are recited in Shahrullaah
12 Urs Mubaarak of 15th Fatemi Imam Maulaana Nazaar al-'Azeez - d. 386 AH/996 AD - al-Qaaherah al-Mo'izziyah, Cairo
15 Birth of the 1st Fatemi Imam, Maulaana Hasan al-Mujtabaa - 3 AH/631 AD - Madinah
16 Birth of 18th Fatemi Imam Maulaana Ma'ad al-Mustansir in Cairo - 420 AH/1029 AD - al-Qaaherah al-Mo'izziyah
17 First battle of Islam, Battle of Badr fought in which Abul Qaasim Mohammad became victorious and the arch-enemy Abu Jahal was killed
18 Night to offer 24 Rak'at Naafelat namaaz[77] when Ameer ul-Mumineen Maulaana 'Ali bin Abi Taalib was severely injured in the mehrab of Masjid e Kufa
20 24 Rak'at Naafelat namaaz, Night of the Martyrdom of Ameer ul-Mumineen Maulaana 'Ali bin Abi Taalib in Kufa in 40 AH/661 AD
21
  • Martyrdom of Ameer ul-Mumineen Maulaana 'Ali bin Abi Taalib
  • Birth of 14th Fatemi Imam Maulaana Ma'ad al-Mo'iz in Cairo - 319 AH/931 AD
22 Laylat ul-Qadr - لیلۃ القدر : Washsheq[75] of 24 salaams, 20 rak'ats and Waseelah Mubaarakah[78]
28 Birth of Mukaasir ud-Da'wat Saiyedi Mohammad Bhaisaheb Nuruddin saheb - 1394 AH/1974 AD - Vadodara, Gujarat
29 Urs Mubaarak of 38th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Hameeduddin Shamsuddin bin Saiyedna Shaikhali saheb - d. 1252 AH/1837 AD - Bustaan-e-Badri, Wadi, Vadodara
30 Night of Eid ul-Fitr - عید الفطر. Washsheq Raat of 24 rak'ats
The night of the last Jumo'ah of Shahrullaah is the Night of Aakhri Jumo'ah: Washsheq of Wadaa'-e-Ramazaan - وداع شھر اللہ & Waseelah[78] of Ambiyaa and the day of Jumo'ah is Aakhri Yaum ul-Jumo'ah: Waseelah of Ambiyaa
10. Shawwaal ul-Mukarram - شوال المکرم 1 'Eid ul-Fitr - عید الفطر also known as Ramazaan 'Idd (The Celebration after the 30 days of Ramazaan Fasting)
6 Urs Mubaarak of 17th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Hasan Badruddin bin S. Abdullaah - d. 821 AH/1418 AD - Hisn-e-Zimarmar, Yemen
7 Urs Mubaarak of Saiyedna Mohammad bin Taaher al-Haarisi - Ma'zoon-e-Mutlaq[23] of 3rd Da'i Saiyedna Haatim and author of the Du'aa of al-Aql al-Awwal
8 Urs Mubaarak of 15th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Abbaas bin S. Mohammad saheb - d. 779 AH/1378 AD - Hisn-e-Zimarmar, Yemen
10
  • Urs Mubaarak of Saiyedna Hebatullaah al-Mo'ayyad ash-Shiraazi - Baab ul-Abwaab[79] of 18th Fatimid Imam Maulaana Mustansir Billaah - d. 470 AH/1078 AD
  • Urs Mubaarak of 21st Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Husain Husaamuddin bin S. Idrees - d. 933 AH/1527 AD - Masaar, Yemen
  • Urs Mubaarak of 11th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Ibraaheem bin S. Husain - d. 728 AH/1328 AD - Hisn-e-Af'edah, Yemen
12 Birthday of 11th Fatimid Imam Maulaana 'Abdullaah al-Mahdi - 260 AH/874 AD
13
  • Urs Mubaarak of 12th Fatimid Imam Maulaana Mohammad al-Qaa'im - d. 334 AH/946 AD - Mahdiyah, North Africa
  • Urs Mubaarak of 30th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Zakiyuddin Taiyeb bin S Shaikh Aadam - d. 1047 AH/1638 AD - Saraspur, Ahmedabad
  • Saiyedi Ameenji bin Jalaal - Witness of the Nass-e-Jali[80] of Saiyedna Ali saheb - d. 1031 AH/1622 AD - Saraspur, Ahmedabad
  • Urs Mubaarak of Mukaasir ud-Da'wat during the 44th Da'i, Saiyedi Husain Mo'eenuddin saheb - d. 1429 AH/2008 AD - Jannat ul-Mumineen, Pratapnagar, Vadodara
20 Urs Mubaarak of 41st Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Fakhruddin bin Saiyedna Ameeruddin saheb - d. 1347 AH/1929 AD - Bustaan-e-Badri, Wadi, Vadodara. He is the Da'i who did Wa'az[81] in Arabic-Persian simultaneously. He composed an Anthology of Poetry in Arabic, Persian, Urdu and Lisaan ud-Da’wat il-‘Alaviyah comprising many topics such as prayers, holy months, obedience, Da’wat, Da’i, Ahl ul-Bayt, misaaq, pillars of Islam, salutation, love and respect etc.
27 Urs Mubaarak of 16th Fatimid Imam Maulaana Husain al-Haakim - d. 411 AH/1021 (Ascention towards the Heavens)
28 Urs Mubaarak of 13th Fatimid Imam Maulaana Isma'il al-Mansoor - d. 341 AH/953 AD - Mahdiyah
11. Zulqa'adat il-Haraam - ذو القعدۃ الحرام 4 Urs Mubaarak of 20th Fatimid Imam Maulaana Mansoor al-Aamir - d. 526 AH/1132 AD - al-Qaaherah al-Mo'izziyah - Cairo
10
  • Birth of Umm ul-Mumineen Mohtaramah Mokarramah Maa Saahebah Azimahbu binte Mukaasir ud-Da'wat Saiyedi Bhaisaheb Nazarali saheb - 1360 AH/1941 AD - Vadodara
12 Urs Mubaarak of Yemeni Da'i Saiyedna Ali bin Mohammad as-Sulayhi saheb, Yemen
13 Urs Mubaarak 9th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Ali bin S Husain saheb - d. 682 AH/1284 AD - San'aa, Yemen
19 Urs Mubaarak of 19th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Idrees Imaaduddin bin S Hasan saheb - d. 872 AH/1468 AD - Shibaam, Yemen
21
  • Urs Mubaarak of 22nd Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Ali Shamsuddin bin S Husain saheb - d. 933 AH/1527 AD - Masaar, Yemen
  • Inauguration of Masjid e Nooraani, Wadi, Vadodara in 1393 AH/1973 AD on the hands of 43rd Da'i Saiyedna Yusuf Nooruddin saheb - d. 1394 AH/1974 AD
23 Urs Mubaarak of Da'i al-Mutlaq Shaheed-e-Aazam Saiyedna Ali Shamsuddin bin S. Ibraheem[82] 29th saheb - d. 1046 AH/1637 AD - Ahmedabad
25 Urs Mubaarak of 4th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Ali Shamsuddin bin S. Haatim saheb - d. 605 AH/1209 AD - San'aa - Yemen
29 Fasting (Roza) of Nuzool-e-Ka'batullaah (Baytullaah descended on the earth)
12. Zul Hijjat il-Haraam - ذو الحجۃ الحرام 1
  • Urs Mubaarak of Maa-sahebah Mohtaramah Khadeejah al-Kubraa Meethibu binte Rajabali, wife (زوجۃ طاھرۃ) of 43rd Da'i Saiyedna Yusuf Nooruddin saheb - d. 1405 AH/1985 AD - Jannat ul-Mumineen, Pratapnagar, Vadodara
  • Urs Mubaarak of 12th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Mohammad bin Saiyedi Haatim - d. 729 AH/1329 AD - Hisn-e-Af'edah, Yemen
4 Urs Mubaarak of Maa-sahebah Mohtaramah Ne'matbu binte Mukaasir ud-Da'wat Saiyedi Sharafuddin saheb, wife (زوجۃ طاھرۃ) of 41st Da'i Saiyedna Jivabhai Fakhruddin saheb - 1336 AH/1918 AD - Jannat ul-Mumineen, Patapnagar, Vadodara
6 Urs Mubaarak of Saiyedi Khawj bin Malak saheb - 1009 AH/1601 AD - Kapadwanj, Gujarat
9 Yaum-e-Arafah - یوم عرفۃ and Night of 'Eid ul-Azhaa - عید الاضحی. Takbeerah of the ritual slaughter (بھیمۃ الانعام) begins from the farz of Fajr prayer
10 Yaum-e-'Eid ul-Azhaa (عید قرباني). The day of the Ritual Sacrifice of a Halaal Animal - Zabeehat (ذبیحۃ)
13
  • Takbeerah ends on the farz of 'Asr prayer
  • Urs Mubaarak of Maulaai Firoz saheb - Ahmedabad
16
  • Urs Mubaarak of Maa-sahebah Mohtaramah Raanibu binte Ghulaam Husain, wife (زوجۃ طاھرۃ) of 42nd Saiyedna Fida'ali Badruddin saheb - d. 1381 AH/1962 AD - Jannat ul-Mumineen, Patapnagar, Vadodara
  • Urs Mubaarak of 24th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Yusuf Najmuddin bin Saiyedi Sulaymaan saheb - d. 974 AH/1567 AD - Taybah, Yemen. The last Taiyebi Da'i who did Da'wat in Yemen and is buried there but was born in Sidhpur, Gujarat
  • Dhaaro - Death Anniversary of Khaadim-e-Da'wat Naiknaam Shaikhali bin Alibhai, Jannat ul-Mumineen, Patapnagar, Vadodara
18
20 Urs Mubaarak of 40th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Ameenuddin Ameeruddin bin Saiyedna Najmuddin saheb - 1296 AH/1879 AD - Jannat ul-Mumineen, Pratapnagar, Vadodara
29 First night of the first month Muharram ul-Haraam of the New Year. The most important tradition to arrange Maa'edto Aal-e-Mohammad - مائدۃ آل محمد - Thaal[83] (big plate) of different items and dishes is kept and all the members of the family sit together on the floor and take the grace - برکات and pray for the blessings, progress, health and peace in the New Year

Society

Allah created humans as a final and complete being which is the sign of His Supreme Authority. The position of humans is above all His creations. Unlike others he needs society, education and work to survive. He, the Exalted made manifest from the hidden knowledge and the stored judgement in Adam and Eve (آدم ۔ حواء), the two parents, a male and a female, as a cause for the creation of mankind and society to reveal His mighty power. He paired them and they procreated, and the children and the number increased. They were transferred through the chaste loins and pure approved wombs.[84] Alavi Society is based on 6 steps like everything which has 6 dimensions. These 6 steps is further rooted in 6 distinguished things created by Allah for His divine mission-دعوۃ. It is 1. Qur’an (القرآن) – the divine book, 2. Nabi-نبي (warner) – prophet, 3. ‘Aalim-عالم (learned) – the vicegerent of the prophet, 4. Shaahid-شاهد (witness) – the imam of the descendants of prophet, 5. ‘Aabid-عابد (pious man) – missionary in the place of imam, and 6. Khalq-خلق (universe) – things into existence.

It is relayed by the eminent 15th century Sunni Egyptian author al-Maqrizi, Fatimid Caliph Imam al-Mo'iz wished to impart the principles of compassionate society and governance to the leaders of the Kutama tribe and to deter them from an opulent lifestyle. He says, "I summoned you in my chamber so that you could see what I do when I am away from you and far from your eyes. My status exceeds yours only because I have responsibility over your affairs on earth and because Allah has singled me out as your Imam. I busy myself with letters that come to me from the east and west, to which I respond in my own hand."[85] This is how Imam responded to each and every society members. The six dimensions or "M-م" of the Alavi Society in place of above mentioned things are:

1. Madrasah (مدرسۃ) – religious seminary: It stands for the teaching of the holy Book where children learn the basics of their community. It is the beginning of their involvement in the social development and relations. The first heavenly order that the Prophet Mohammad received at Mount Noor under the Hira cave[86] was "to read". So it became necessary for every believer to acquire knowledge throughout his lifetime from the designated person and the representative of Prophet Mohammad from his progeny. So, Madrasah is not only meant for children but it is the learning hub for those who are keen in knowing the realities of creation. Prophetic traditions says, "Seditions appear and crush believers-your only salvation is your learning."[39] Social health based on the overall knowledge is served by this "M" of Madrasah. The importance of reading which is the stepping stone of any learning institution could be well found in the foremost Qur’anic verses, "READ in the name of your Lord who created. Created man from an embryo. Read, for your Lord is most beneficent. Who taught by the pen. Taught man what he did not know." [87](al-Quran 96-1)

2. Misaaq (میثاق) – covenant: After completing basic religious and social learning, a learner or an ordinary Alavi initiate steps into puberty and towards intellectual advancement. Now in order to become a member of a community and begin his spiritual journey with an Imam, he has to give unconditional and lifetime oath of fealty or the promise for loyalty to the Imam’s representative i.e. Da'i al-Mutlaq. This divine tradition and sublime submission was initiated from heavens and will be continued till the last day of this creation. The Prophets took this oath from their respective people of their time and they commanded their missionaries to do so in order to protect their faith. The initiate is also bound by this oath to keep secret the esoteric knowledge imparted to him by a hierarchy of teachers authirized by the Isma'ili Imam.[41] He has to renew this oath to Imam every year on 18th Zul Hijjah known as Eid e Ghadeer e Khumm-عید غدیر خم.

majlis e husaini during Moharram
An assembly-majlis in a mosque during Moharram where Da'i delivers an extensive lecture with the mourning on Imam Husain

Once the believer had solemnly bound himself through the oath, he could undergo a step-by-step introduction into 'wisdom'-not all at once, for that would exceed his mental capacity. 'You are being put to a test,' the Da'i would say to his disciples, 'For you are beginners, and a beginner is like an infant: you should start first with milk and only later nourish yourselves with food.'[3] This "M" of Misaaq induces religious responsibility into faithful’s life and it helps to bring maturity for social well-being. For this Qur’an says that, "When We made the covenant with the Prophets, and with you (O Mohammad), as with Noah and Abraham, Moses and Jesus son of Mary, a binding covenant, (It was) so that Allah may ask the truthful of their sincerity. As for the infidels, He has prepared a painful punishment for them."[88](al-Quran 33-7)

3. Masjid (مسجد) – mosque: After offering covenant to Da’i, the head of the community, An Alavi tries his level best to fulfill all its obligations and this begins at the very doorstep of a mosque. The centrality of the mosque is inevitable for a believer. Each and every socio-religious activity revolves around it. Prophetic traditions says, "The mosque is where the pious live."[39] A believer goes three times daily to offer prayers. There he is educated and informed about different social programs and being a part of a community how he should serve his fellow members and actively participate in the social and welfare activities. This "M-م" of Masjid-Mosque proves to be a perfect training centre for creating responsibility, positivity, respect and thoughtfulness among people. Being a learned and authoritative person, a Da'i in his capacity trains his followers in maintaining social etiquettes and ethos by imparting necessary knowledge in his sermons. Da'i is the soul of the mosque and with his prostration, people in the mosque prostrates in front of Allah. The Qur’an says about a mosque which is the best place for worship, that "O sons of Adam, attire yourselves at every time of worship; eat and drink, but do not be wasteful, for Allah does not like the prodigals."[89](al-Quran 7-31)

4. Mazaar (مزار) – mausoleum: It is an important place for a believer that is filled with spirituality and devotion. A holy person having special designation conferred by an Imam in the spiritual hierarchy is buried here. After offering prayers in a mosque people come to pay respect to the mausoleum and take waseelah-intercession while doing supplication to fulfill their wishes in front of Allah. Usually mausoleum or tomb of a Da'i or a religious authority is situated besides the mosque. It plays a key role in social bonding as each and every community member visit it daily or weekly or when he wishes. If anyone visits a Rawzah-mausoleum of a particular Da'i then it is said that, he took blessings of all those people who were in the covenant of that Da'i. Mazaar of a Da'i is also called "Rawzah" as it is like a paradise and one can feel its fervor and freshness by spiritually attaching himself to Da'i. Every believer is a martyr-Shahid and the mausoleum of a Da'i is the master of all martyrs who were from his believers. Visiting mausoleum is like going to the entrance and gate of paradise. If one has learned Qur’anic recitation in Madrasah, gave Misaaq to his Da'i and has an habit of coming to a mosque for prayers, then surely he will visit Mazaar.

In this account, Imam Ja'far as-Saadiq addresses Kufan people and encourages them to visit the tomb of al-Husayn b. 'Ali: 'If one of you performs the hajj in the course of your lifetime and does not visit the grave of al-Husayn, then you have departed from one of the duties and rights of Allah and His messenger. It is the duty ordained upon every believer.'[90] Qur’an reiterates that same thing that, "The greediness of plenitude keeps you occupied, till you reach the grave. But you will come to know soon; indeed you will come to know soon."[91](al-Quran 102-1)

5. Majlis (مجلس) – religious gathering: an assembly or a special private audience accompanied with prayer where a discourse of a Da'i is held is generally termed as majlis. It begins with the praise and elegy relating to the household of Prophet Mohammad or a religious dignitary associated with them. Prophetic traditions says, "The most commodious assembly is best."[39] The main majlis is held during the first 10 days of Moharram in the commemoration of the martyrdom of the grandson of Prophet Mohammad, Imam Husain. Throughout the year different types of majlis are held during the inauguration of any place, oath of fealty, marriage, birthday, sehra, ziyaarat, weekly lectures, madrasah or mausoleum. As per the occasion and time, every member of the community more or less participates in these majlis. It accounts to be a crucial cord of social harmony and awakening as one who attends it comes to know his roots, history, tenets, good-evil aspects of life, relations with others and social customs.

A "Thaal"[92] in which people sit together with legs folded to eat and it is kept on the floor

Under the Fatimids, these type of private lectures or teaching sessions were organized for different categories of participants in Cairo, including the initiates, courtiers, high officials, women and royal women.[41] During the reign of Fatimid Caliph Imam al-Mustansir Billah, his Da'i al-Mu'ayyad leaves nothing to be desired in the field of knowledge and rhetorical skill through conducting various majlis. He continued to be honoured as the connecting link and catalyst of an unbroken religious and social tradition extending from Fatimid Egypt to Tayyibi Yemen and India. Right up until today, after more than a thousand years of history, the entire Tayyibi community still regards him as their spiritual ancestor and social torch-bearer.[93] The holy book Qur’an says this point in a very beautiful way, "O you who believe, when you are told to make room in the assemblies, then make room; Allah will give you more room to spread. When you are told to rise, then rise; Allah will raise those of you who believe, and those who have knowledge, in position. Allah is aware of what you do."[94](al-Quran 58-11)

6. Maa’edah[83] (مائدۃ) – meals taken together by family or community members in a single big plate: This big dinning plate is also called "thaal" [83] in which special Bohra dishes is served collectively and all those sitting around it on the floor takes their meals together. Maa’edah is kept on a little elevated tool called "taraqqi".[95] There is a custom of arranging a big thaal decorated with all types of dishes on the first night of a new year in which the entire family sit and eat and pray for the prosperous year. There are strict rules governing the etiquettes of eating or sitting in a "thaal". 7 people used to sit in it and they all begin by taking a pinch of salt and reciting "bismillaah". Washing hands before and after sitting on the thaal is compulsory. One should lick his fingers after finishing his meal and he should never leave a bit of food in the "thaal". People sit in Maa’edah in Jamaa’at-khaana[96] and take lunch or dinner on various social or religious occasions. Sociability increases among community members as they often sit together and discusses current affairs of their interest in a "thaal". Prophet Mohammad and his household taught the tradition of Maa’edah. It has become an inseparable part of Alavi Bohras’ social life. One can find this in this Qur’anic verse, Said Jesus, son of Mary, "O Allah, our Lord, send down a table well laid out with food from the skies so that this day may be a day of feast for the earlier among us and the later, and a divine sign from You. Give us our (daily) bread, for You are the best of all givers of food."[97](al-Quran 5-114)

Salient features

The City of Vadodara

The Peaceful City of Vadodara (Gujarat, India)[98] is the Centre of Da'wah Haadiyah 'Alaviyah الدعوۃ الھادیۃ العلویۃ (Alavi Bohras, Alavi Da'wat) since 1110 AH/1698 AD when 32nd Da'i e Mutlaq الداعي المطلق Saiyedna Jivabhai Ziyauddin migrated along with community members to Vadodara due to persecution and tyranny of other Muslim and Bohra communities. Saiyedna helped each and every Alavi Bohra migrant to get settled in Wadi area gifted by the Shi'a benevolent person Miya Mahmood. He constructed a Mosque, named Ziyaai Masjid at the entrance of the Mohalla (locality) called Badri Mohalla.

Du'aat (missionaries) after migration

Alavi Bohras have all the Du'aat دعاۃ from 32nd till the 44th Da'i e Mutlaq Saiyedna Taiyeb Ziyauddin buried in Vadodara except 35th Da'i whose grave is in Surat. So during these 3 centuries 12 Du'aat have their mausoleum at a single place i.e. Vadodara.

Da'i knows everyone

8000 believers of Well-Knit, Educated and Organized Alavi Bohra Worldwide Community has a distinction that their Saiyedna saheb known popularly as Aqaa Maulaa knows each and every of the community by his Name, Family, Social Status, Education and Occupation. He directly meets everyone and resolves issues with his own capacity be it Spiritual, Social, Financial, Marital or Personal. He is surrounded by his Ashaab اصحاب or believers wherever he goes and doesn't need any security.

Asbaaq

Aqaa Maulaa near the qabr of Saiyedna Ziyauddin saheb
Aqaa Maulaa in the Mausoleum of 6 Du'aat in Bustaan e Badri (Vadodara) during the 'Urs Mubaarak of 32nd Da'i Saiyedna Jivabhai Ziyauddin bin Saiyedi Nuhji - 9-11-1436 AH

Asbaaq[99] of Faith: Since years together, Da'i, Mazoon, Mukaasir and Ra's ul-Hudood impart Religious Knowledge centred on Isma'ili Taiyebi Literature,[100] dealing with Aqaa'id-عقائد (dogmas, beliefs), Sunan-سنن (traditions), Rusoomaat-رسومات (customs), Aa'maal-اعمال (deeds), Zamaan-e-Haal-زمانۂ حال (current affairs) by conducting Special as well as General Daras-درس[101] (learning classes) weekly. Alaviyeen-علویین i.e. Believers from all walks of life come to acquire knowledge directly from Da'wah Central Authority to enhance their Intelligence and Wisdom.

‘Urs Mubaarak

‘Urs Mubaarak-عرس مبارک is the auspicious and historic day commemorating the Death Anniversary of the holy personalities of Ahl ul-Bayt, Missionaries (Du’aat-دعاۃ) or the Deputies (Walis) of the missionaries in India during the period of Da’wat when it was in either Misr or Yemen. After the prayer of sunset (maghrib-مغرب) people gather in a mosque or in a mausoleum in the presence of Da’i al-Mutlaq to pay respect in the form of sweets, chaadar (flowery sheet), ghilaaf (decorative drape). It is a unique socio-religious festival in which Da’i al-Mutlaq (Saiyedna saheb) addresses people and makes them aware about the simple and pious life of Du’aat-دعاۃ, their works and sacrifices, their prayers and admonitions. Tenets of Isma’ili-Taiyebi faith are dealt with in detail in such gatherings such as salvation, life after this world, accounts and answers to be given to angels, paradise and hell, good and bad deeds and its reward or punishment, the day of qeyaamah (یوم القیامۃ), the proceedings of the deceased in his grave, supplication and prayer for the pardon of evil actions etc. In the gathering eulogy of the deceased holy personality (Da’i) is recited by the Zaakireen.[102] A feast is arranged for all of them present in the majlis and Supplication of Purity (Faatihah-فاتحۃ) is recited before taking the food. In the morning, the next day after offering prayer of dawn (fajr-فجر) the same type of majlis is held but a special supplication called “Sadaqallaah-صدق اللہ” [103] is recited for the deceased and then after paying respects a special dish called Malida is arranged for all the participants. This is the unique way to offer tribute to the deceased who had laid their lives for the Truth and Justice and to commemorate their true stories of piety and strive to get the best in the Hereafter.

Ten days of Moharram

Sabeel e Husaini of Silver
Sabeel (water-outlet with earthen pots) made up of Silver erected on the corner of Badri Mohalla every year 2 days before the day of 'Aashuraa

Moharram ul-Haraam-محرم الحرام is the first month of Islamic Lunar Year and its first ten days have a great significance in Shi’i world. When New Year is celebrated with merriment and joy, Alavi Bohras have a total different course of traditions to greet the gracefulness of the New Year. The first ten days are called ‘Asharah Mubaarakah-عشرۃ مبارکۃ as it is marked with weeping and mourning on the Martyrdom of the 2nd Imaam Abu ‘Abdillaah Husain, grandson of Prophet Mohammad in Karbalaa. 72 martyrs laid their lives for Truth against the demand of Bay’at-Oath of Allegiance[64] by Yazeed. Till the tenth day known as Yaum e ‘Aashuraa, Da'i al-Mutlaq recites sermons and delivers lectures everyday in the morning in Jaame’ Masjid, Vadodara. Lectures encompass guidance and admonitions relating to all aspects of life and it is the golden opportunity for the community members to meet each other. All these days are packed with the religious and social activities revolving around the life and sacrifices of Ahl ul Bayt. A beautiful Sabeel-water outlet made of silver is erected every year at the entrance of Badri Mohalla conceptualized by Neknaam Shaikhali Alibhai acting on the oders od 42nd da’i Saiyedna Fidaali Badruddin in 1366 AH/1946 AD. It was first erected publicly only for a year in Mumbai at Mohammad Ali road and then it was taken to Vadodara. Alavi Bohras cook a special sweet dish "Lachko"[104][105] on the first night and first day of a New Year and it is kept in a big platter-Thaal[83] adorned with many types of dishes and fruits. On the tenth day of Moharram i.e. ‘Aashuraa a dish called "Khichdo"[106] is cooked for the whole community at different places to commemorate the martyrdom of Maulaana Imaam Husain.

Community at a glance

Status

this missionary was martyred in Ahmedabad and his tomb stands as a testimony for that
29th Da'i al-Mutlaq, the great martyr Saiyedna Ali Shamsuddin[107] and the Court of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir

This is the Nano-Minority Community[108] of Gujarat- In the world Muslims are in Minority. In Muslims, Shi'a are a Minority. In Shi'as, Isma'ilis are a Minority. In Isma'ilis, Bohras are a Minority. In Bohras, Alavi Bohras are a Minority. Meaning Alavi Bohras are a Minority (Bohras) into a Minority (Isma'ilis) into a Minority (Shi'a) into a Minority (Muslims).

Language

Devdi Mubaarak: Residence of Da'i al-Mutalq[25] of Alavi Bohras since 300 yrs. This is the centre of Alavi Heritage and Culture[109]

Lisaan ud-Da'wat il-'Alaviyah[110] (LDA) لسان الدعوۃ العلویۃ is the Unique language spoken by Worldwide Alavi Bohras. It is basically Gujarati Language but it is embellished, supported and structured by Arabic, Persian and Urdu words, idioms, phrases, adverbs, proverbs or sometimes the whole sentence. It is very sweetly spoken among community members in homes, daily routine and socio-religious gatherings. Da'i al-Mutlaq is doing lot many efforts in keeping this language alive. He prefers to speak in LDA and advocates others too to follow him. It has been evolved since centuries in Gujarat during the time of 18th Faatemi Imaam Maulaana Mustansir billaah who sent his missionaries for the propagation of Isma'ili faith around the end of 5th century AH.

Culture

Alavi Bohras have a culture that is unique in terms of dressing style, eating habits and working for livelihood. Majority of the Alavi Bohras stay in Vadodara, Gujarat and are engaged in their own business be it their shops or factories. Learning and Education is given a lot of importance but the preference of carrying on their family business always remains on top. There is no restriction for females as far as education, job and business is concerned, as the same is not the case in other societies and cultures. Females are given the same status and freedom as the males of the communities, but the things should be done under the Islamic practices and social framework. There are many initiatives carried out for the overall progress and development of the skills pertaining to ladies. In terms of eating habits, Alavi Bohras like each and every type of food and being a Gujarati say, "yes" to everything lawful and healthy. They are very peaceful people with no interests in behavior that is termed as unlawful in the society. They believe in "The Love for All", gives the reward as, "The Love from All".

Website

In 1425 AH/2004 AD during the time of 44th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Abu Haatim Taiyeb Ziyauddin saheb, the website[111] was conceptualized and launched with the sole aim of making the community and World aware of the History, Practices, Customs, Events, News, Principles, Calendar, Literature, Prayers, Business, Family and Social life, Education, Occupation etc. of Alavi Bohras. It has been controlled, edited and promoted by the office of Saiyedna saheb. Hence there remains no need to confirm any information and news of the community. It can be said that, the World gets the first-hand information directly from the Da'i himself. Since its launch it caters to each and every aspect of the community. If any layman who doesn't know the ABC of Alavi Bohras, then by visiting the website no question of his will remain unanswered. Every scholar or a researcher who is doing work on Alavi Bohras will dedfinitely have to go through this community website.

Mobile app

Exclusive Mobile Application "Ahl uz Zikr"[112] was launched in June 2016 on Android as well as on iOS platform. This application has now became the main medium of connectivity between Da’wat e Haadiyah-Chief Religious Authority and the community members. Office of Da'i saheb is gradually updating and adding all required features for the community learning and development. Ahl uz Zikr has become the prime source of all Divine Knowledge apart from the community website. Looking at the wide acceptance of Mobile phone among the youngsters, its a need of time to have such acceptable platform for propagation of Right Ideas. It includes News, Events, Farmaan, Conversation, Audio, Video, Classifieds, Calendar, Date Conversation, Namaaz Timings, History, Qiblah Direction, Supplication, Hadees, Tasbeeh counter etc.

Bank

Alavi Bohras have a leading co-operative bank in the city of Vadodara named as 'Alavi Bohra Co-operative Bank'. It is a very popular bank among the city residents and serve as good employer for the Alavi Bohra community and its people.

History of the Imāmī-Alāvī Bohras

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ US, UK, UAE, Australia, Europe, Russia
  2. ^ Daftary, Farhad (2011). A Modern History of the Ismailis: Continuity and Change in a Muslim Community. London: I.B.Tauris and The Institute of Ismaili Studies. p. 355. ISBN 978 1 84511 7177. 
  3. ^ a b c Halm, Heinz (2001). The Fatimids and their Traditions of Learning. New York: I B Tauris. pp. 17, 18, 19, 82. ISBN 1-86064-313-2. 
  4. ^ Abul Qaasim, Taiyeb (2008-03-14). "Imam". 
  5. ^ "Welcome to the Official Website of Shi'a Isma'ili Musta'alavi Taiyebi Alavi Bohras - Home page". 
  6. ^ [alavibohra.org]
  7. ^ The succession of the Fatimd Imam al-Amir; by: S M Stern;p.195-230
  8. ^ The last hujjat of the Manifest Imam (Imam e Zaahir) 21st Fatimid Imam Abul Qaasim at-Taiyeb in Yemen organizing Da'wah activities after the seclusion of Imam in 528 AH from Cairo
  9. ^ Shaheed Aazam, 29th Alavi Da'i (2014-08-25). "Saiyedna Ali". 
  10. ^ a b c d e Daftary, Farhad (2007). The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines. UK: Cambridge University Press & Institute of Isma'ili Studies. pp. 238–239, 261–264, 276, 277, 515, 522. ISBN 978-0-521-61636-2. 
  11. ^ Misra, Satish C (1985). Muslim Communities in Gujarat. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd. p. 73. 
  12. ^ Hollister, John Norman (1979). The Shi'a of India. New Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. p. 277. 
  13. ^ Badruddin, Hasan bin Wali (1669). Diwaan e Hasan. Ahmedabad. p. 99. 
  14. ^ Diwaan-e-Shams: 37th Da’i-e-Mutlaq Shaikhali Shamsuddin bin Hameeduddin (d. 1248 AH/1833 AD)
  15. ^ a b c Da'i or missionary in India following the command of Manifest Fatimid Imam (Imaam e Zaahir) of Cairo acting as bridge between Imam and his faithful subjects
  16. ^ W, Ivanow (1936). A Creed of the Fatimids. Bombay. pp. 13–17. 
  17. ^ [alavibohra.org]
  18. ^ Daftary, Farhad (2007). The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines. UK: Cambridge University Press & Institute of Isma'ili Studies. p. 276. ISBN 978-0-521-61636-2. 
  19. ^ Haatim, Zakiyuddin (2017-02-14). "Saiyedna". Team Alavi. 
  20. ^ Mutlaqeen, Succession in Vadodara (2015-12-10). "Du'aat Missionaries". 
  21. ^ a b Oath, Allegiance (2015-06-07). "Misaaq". 
  22. ^ a b Mukaasir's responsibility is to study beliefs and tenets of other communities and sects and explain the realities and facts about the True Faith
  23. ^ a b Mazoon is the high spiritual status after da'i. He sits on the right of the da'i during assemblies or Majaalis. He takes Oath of Allegiance from the Faithfuls.
  24. ^ Ra's ul Hudood is the Head of all 24 High Serving people sitting in the first row of Da'wah Assemblies. He conveys commands of his Higher-ups i.e. Da'i, Mazoon and Mukaasir to the Ashaab of other services
  25. ^ a b It is the holy and respected place where every faithful comes to meet Da'i for religious purposes and for personal issues. It is the Official Residence of a Da'i.
  26. ^ Hand-written books of old ages called as Manuscripts
  27. ^ a b A doctrinal term of Shi'i Isma'ili Faith denoting the Obedience and Submission to the Rightful person, be it vicegerent-wasi of Prophet, Imam in the progeny of wasi or Da'i in the place of Imam during his seclusion
  28. ^ Bayaan or Wa'az or Taqreer is the deliverance of Saiyedna saheb in the mosque or near the tomb where Alavi Bohras gather to pray and to listen the discourses relating to the life sciences and heareafter
  29. ^ "Alavi Bohras - Akhbaar - The Ceremony of Misaaq-e-Jadeed". alavibohra.org. 
  30. ^ Shaahid- Every holy person who is divinely designated and spiritually connected with the Prophet Mohammad and his progeny becomes the witness of the deeds of his followers during the Last Day of Judgement
  31. ^ a b Zakiyuddin, Haatim (2016). al-Qaraatees ul-Haatemiyah. Vadodara: Da'wat e Haadiyah 'Alaviyah. 
  32. ^ a b Ismail K, Poonawala (2002). The Pillars of Islam. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. pp. 367, 496, 502. ISBN 0195655354. 
  33. ^ Ali, Zahid (1954). Hamare Ismaili Mazhab ki Haqeeqat awr uska Nizaam. Hyderabad. p. 321. 
  34. ^ a b Daftary, Farhad (2011). A Modern History of the Isma'ilis. New York: I B Tauris Publishers & IIS. p. 360. ISBN 978 1 84511 7177. 
  35. ^ a b c Hudood: 24 Spiritual Ranks governed by the head-Ra's under the supervision of Mukaasir e Mutlaq
  36. ^ Poonawala, Ismail K (1977). Biobibliography of Isma'ili Literature. California: Undena Publications. p. 375. ISBN 0890030057. 
  37. ^ Daftary, Farhad (2007). The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines. New York: Cambridge University Press & IIS. pp. 217, 515. ISBN 9780521616362. 
  38. ^ A branch of Isma'ilism who believe in the seclusion of Imam at-Tayyeb, the son of Fatimid caliph Imam al-Amir from Cairo in 528/1134 and then began the succession of his representatives from Yemen in 532/1138 known as du'aat e mutlaqeen and majority of them are today known as Bohras
  39. ^ a b c d e f al-Qadi, al-Qudai (2016). Light in the Heavens: Sayings of the Prophet Mohammad. New York: New York University Press. pp. 4,7,11,16,31,77,83,125,131,141,157. ISBN 9781479867851. 
  40. ^ This book "Light in the Heavens" has been edited and translated by Tahera Qutbuddin
  41. ^ a b c d e Daftary, Farhad (2012). Historical Dictionary of the Ismailis. UK: The Scarecrow Press, Inc. pp. 15,31,111,133,151,155,166,202,205. ISBN 9780810861640. 
  42. ^ Hasan bin Nooh, al-Bharuchi (1958). Kitaab ul Azhaar wa Majma' ul Anwaar. Damascus: Matba't ul-Jaame'at us-Suriyah. p. 221. 
  43. ^ The spiritual authority from the progeny of Wasi who is present all the time for the guidance of people
  44. ^ Mohammad, Nuruddin (2011). Ashaab ul Yameen. Vadodara, Gujarat: Da'wat e Haadiyah 'Alaviyah. p. 76. 
  45. ^ Haqq na Du'aato ni Tawaareekh. Surat: Progressive Publications. 1974. p. 93. 
  46. ^ Maulaai: Spiritual representative of Da'i al-Mutlaq enjoying the respectable position and protecting Isma'ili faith in every aspects under the direct instructions of Da'i
  47. ^ a b Diwanji, Hayderali (1944). Hadaa'iq Sirat e Fozalaa e Ahmedabad. Mumbai: Matba e Mohammadi. pp. 33, 61. 
  48. ^ a b c d The Taiyebi spiritual mission led by the 1st Da'i Saiyedna Zo'eb in Yemen under the hidden guidance of Imam us Satr, the Imam under Occultation 21st Imam at-Taiyeb and his progeny.
  49. ^ [www.alavibohra.org]
  50. ^ "Alavi Bohras - Exclusive Feature - Masjid-e-Ziyaaii". www.alavibohra.org. 
  51. ^ Blank, Jonah (2001). Mullahs on the Mainframe: Islam and Modernity among the Daudi Bohras. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. p. 43. ISBN 0226056767. 
  52. ^ a b Death Anniversary and social gathering or Majlis to commemorate the life and works of a high esteemed person in Da'wah Hierarchy
  53. ^ A speaking or divine law-announcing prophet who brings a new set of religious law based on the Oneness of God.
  54. ^ "Tanzil - Quran Navigator | القرآن الكريم". tanzil.net. Retrieved 2017-12-29. 
  55. ^ "Tanzil - Quran Navigator | القرآن الكريم". tanzil.net. Retrieved 2017-12-29. 
  56. ^ A high rank person in the spiritual hierarchy of divine mission-da’wah of Fatimid Imams and they were twelve in number each in charge of a separate da’wah region called jazeerah (pl. jazaa’ir)
  57. ^ Velji, Jamel A. (2016). An Apocalyptic History of the Early Fatimid Empire. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 62. ISBN 9780748690886. 
  58. ^ Daftary, Farhad (2007). The Isma’ilis: Their History and Doctrines. UK: Cambridge University Press and IIS. p. 241. ISBN 978-0-521-61636-2. 
  59. ^ He is the Supreme Authority as a Da'i ul Mutlaq of Alavi Bohras during the seclusion of 21st Fatemi Imam Maulaana Abul Qasim at-Taiyeb
  60. ^ Actions, Sayings and Traditions of Mohammad al-Mustafaa, the last Prophet of Islam described in various pieces of Islamic Literature
  61. ^ Supplications, Wise Sayings and Traditions of Maulaana Ali al-Murtazaa, the Vicegerent of Mohammad
  62. ^ Quotes, Events, Miraculous Descriptions, Sayings, Esoteric Meanings explained by the Imam or Da'i, from the progeny of Mohammad
  63. ^ Books based on beliefs, customs, traditions, jurisprudence, justice, dialogue, history etc
  64. ^ a b Bay'at-Pact of Promise taken from a reader that he will read, understand, copy and convey the text written by the author with its true spirit and pure meaning and will only study this book by the authority appointed by Imam or Da'i
  65. ^ The Spiritual Seat, Divine Mission and Heavenly Call of Da'i of Alavi Bohras linked to the first Prophet of Islam and the First Creation of Allaah
  66. ^ The three Jazirah-Islands controlled by Da'i al-Mutlaq after the Satr-concealment of the Imam of Progeny of Mohammad Rasoolullaah, the last messenger of Islam
  67. ^ [alavibohra.org]
  68. ^ A private or public gathering of Alavi Bohras in presence of Saiyedna saheb where Ash'aar e Husainiyah, Marsiyah, Lecture and Rusoomaat e Da'wah are performed
  69. ^ The year of the Attack of the army with While Elephants on Makkah which was led by Yemeni Commander Abrahah who came to destroy Ka'bah
  70. ^ The Imam of the time from the progeny of Mohammad who is present on the back of this earth at all times appointed by his father through Nass
  71. ^ "Alavi Bohras - 44th Ad-Da'i al-Faatemi HUZOOR-E-'AALI SAIYEDNA TAIYEB ZIYAUDDIN SAHEB". alavibohra.org. 
  72. ^ It is the supreme authoritative position during Fatimid Caliphate where he enjoyed the status of Chief Missionary and Chief Justice under the direct commands of an Imam
  73. ^ A unit of prayer-namaaz which consists of standing, one time bowing and two times prostrating
  74. ^ The wife of the Da'i who presides every assembly or majlis meant for only ladies in houses or in masjids and she takes care of their complains and daily affairs
  75. ^ a b It is Naafelat (Voluntary) prayer offered after Maghrib and 'Ishaa il-Aakherat Namaaz. It has multiple Rak'aat and one who prays it is supposed to have prayed for the whole night. Technically, during such meritorious nights, a faithful must pray for the whole night, but this designated Naafelat prayer amounts to the Reward of the prayer of Whole Night.
  76. ^ [alavibohra.org]
  77. ^ After farz and sunnat namaaz, this type of prayer is offered voluntarily and it is up to the believer how many rak'at he intends to offer
  78. ^ a b Intercession and Intermediary person from Da'wah Shareefah with special status who is granted permission and has spiritual powers to pardon mistakes of Believers and invites reward for good deeds from Allaah Ta'aala
  79. ^ Baab is the Shi'a-Isma'ili term used for the immediate person who is of high spiritual status after Muhammad or the Imam from his progeny. Baab ul Abwaab means the Door of the Doors, that leads to the Zenith of Spiritual Hierarchy i.e. Imam. Maulaa 'Ali is the Baab of Mohammad
  80. ^ Nass-e-jali is the explicit appointment or public declaration of a Spiritual Authority as a successor by a predecessor
  81. ^ Wa'az-Lectures delivered by a Da'i among his subjects citing references from Qur'an and the traditions of the Prophets. It is done privately or publicly during various social events.
  82. ^ [alavibohra.org]
  83. ^ a b c d Maa'edah is a term used specially in Alavi & Dawoodi Bohras customary social events when followers get together and sit around a big platter in a group of 7 on the floor and eat from a single plate. Each item they eat or drink together with strict discipline and in the last the food left in the plate is equally distributed among a group
  84. ^ Jiwa, Shainool (2009). Towards a Shi'i Maditerranean Empire: Fatimid Egypt and the Founding of Cairo. London: I B Tauris Publishers & The Institute of Ismaili Studies. pp. 23, 24. ISBN 978 1 84511 960 7. 
  85. ^ Jiwa, Shainool (2018). The Fatimids. London: I B Tauris & The Institute of Ismaili Studies. pp. 91, 92. ISBN 978 1 78453 935 1. 
  86. ^ A cave on Mount Noor-Jabal un Noor in Mecca where Prophet Mohammad prayed and received the first verses of Qur'an when he was 40 years of age
  87. ^ "Tanzil - Quran Navigator | القرآن الكريم". tanzil.net. Retrieved 2018-03-03. 
  88. ^ "Tanzil - Quran Navigator | القرآن الكريم". tanzil.net. Retrieved 2018-03-03. 
  89. ^ "Tanzil - Quran Navigator | القرآن الكريم". tanzil.net. Retrieved 2018-03-03. 
  90. ^ Haider, Najam (2011). The Origins of the Shi'a. New York: Cambridge. p. 246. ISBN 978 1 107 01071 0. 
  91. ^ "Tanzil - Quran Navigator | القرآن الكريم". tanzil.net. Retrieved 2018-03-03. 
  92. ^ A big round platter in which food is served in a single plate or bowl is kept from where everyone sitting in a thaal takes their share and in turns
  93. ^ Klemm, Verena (2003). Memoirs of a Mission: The Ismaili Scholar, Statesman and Poet al-Mu'ayyad fi'l-Din al-Shirazi. London: I B Tauris & The Institute of Ismaili Studies. pp. 64,104. ISBN 1 85043 422 0. 
  94. ^ "Tanzil - Quran Navigator | القرآن الكريم". tanzil.net. Retrieved 2018-03-03. 
  95. ^ It is a round stand on which "thaal", a big plate is kept and it is little above the ground to ease in taking morsels
  96. ^ A place near the mosque where people gather to take meals together in a Thaal during different occasions.
  97. ^ "Tanzil - Quran Navigator | القرآن الكريم". tanzil.net. Retrieved 2018-03-03. 
  98. ^ Centre, Da'wat e Haadiyah (2007-07-23). "Vadodara". 
  99. ^ Asbaaq means the religious assemblies and private gathering in which Authorities impart knowledge on faith and practices among trustworthy subjects
  100. ^ Literature, Faatemi Imaam (2007-03-13). "Isma'ili". Team Alavi. 
  101. ^ [alavibohra.org]
  102. ^ Zaakireen are the assembly members of a Da'i who sit directly in the row opposite to him and they are assigned special task to recite the poetic composition in rhythmic or non-rhythmic way in various social gatherings
  103. ^ It is the unique supplication composed by the orders of Imam which contains the merits of Ahl e Bayt, Qur'anic verses, Hadees of Mohammad and holy words of Imam pertaining to the realities of this life and the Hereafter. It begins with Sadaqallaah, means the truth prevails only through the Almighty and His Messenger
  104. ^ Alavi Bohra Recipes at-Taiyebaat (15 September 2017). "Alavi Bohras: Traditional Recipe of New Year - Lachko" – via YouTube. 
  105. ^ "Lachko" is a traditional sweet dish of Alavi Bohra community which is made by all, only once in a year. People of the community make it on New Year’s Eve and have it with all family members after offering Namaaz of Magrib-Ishaa, and also in the Breakfast on New Year Day.
  106. ^ "Khichdo" is prepared from different cereals and mutton. It is the age-old tradition to cook it on the 10th and 21st day of every month. It was first made by the Banu Asad clan on the plains of Karbalaa at the time when the caravan of Ahl ul Bayt was about to depart towards Kufaa after the martyrdom of Imaam Husain
  107. ^ [alavibohra.org]
  108. ^ Alavi, Bohras (2003-02-14). "Minority". 
  109. ^ [www.alavibohra.org]
  110. ^ Lisaan e Da'wat, Arabicized Gujarati Language (15 Nov 2011). "Lisaan al-Da'wah al-'Alaviyah". 
  111. ^ "Welcome to the Official Website of Shi'a Isma'ili Musta'alavi Taiyebi Alavi Bohras - Home page". www.alavibohra.org. 
  112. ^ Bohras, Da'wat-e-Haadiyah, Alavi (16 September 2017). "Ahl uz Zikr" – via Google Play. 

File:Imam chart.pdf

Further reading

  • Daftary, Farhad: Isma'ili Literature: A Bibliography of Sources and Studies. London, 2004.
  • Abdul Husain, Mian Bhai Mulla: Gulzar e Daudi for The Bohras of India. Progressive Publication, Surat, 1977. p. 31, 46
  • Daftary, Farhad: The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2007. p. 3, 201, 241, 276, 282, 299, 512, 513
  • Poonawala, Isma'il K: Bibliography of Isma'ili Literature. Undena Publication, Malibu, California, 1977. p. 13, 369, 368
  • S M Stern: The succession of the Fatimd Imam al-Amir.
  • Daftary Farhad: Sayyida Hurra: The Isma‘ili Sulayhid Queen of Yemen.
  • SV Mir Ahmed Ali: The Holy Qur'an: Commentary of Qur'an-e-Majeed. Peer Mahomed Ebrahim Trust, Karachi. 1976
  • Daftary, Farhad: A Modern History of the Ismail. Article on "Alavi Bohras" by Tahera Qutbuddin. IIS, London, 2011. p. 355

External links