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Alain de Benoist

Alain de Benoist
20110402 De Benoist.png
Alain de Benoist in 2012
Born (1943-12-11) 11 December 1943 (age 75)
Alma materUniversity of Paris
SchoolNouvelle Droite
Notable ideas
Modernization and secularization of Christian Values, Repaganization of the West, Pensée unique, Nouvelle Droite, Ethnopluralism

Alain de Benoist de Gentissart (/də bəˈnwɑː/; French: [də bənwa]; born 11 December 1943), also known as Fabrice Laroche, Robert de Herte and other aliases,[1] is a French journalist and political philosopher, a founding member of the Nouvelle Droite ("New Right"), and the leader of the ethno-nationalist think tank GRECE.

Principally influenced by thinkers of the German Conservative Revolution,[2] de Benoist is opposed to Christianity, the rights of man, neoliberalism, representative democracy, egalitarianism; and what he sees as embodying and promoting those values, namely the United States.[3][4][5] He theorized the notion of ethnopluralism, a concept which relies on preserving and mutually respecting individual and bordered ethno-cultural regions.[6][7]

His work has been influential with the alt-right movement in the United States, and he presented a lecture on identity at a National Policy Institute conference hosted by Richard B. Spencer; however, he has distanced himself from the movement.[8][9]

Biography

Early life (1943–1961)

Coat of arms of House de Benoist

Alain de Benoist de Gentissart[10] was born on 11 December 1943 in Saint-Symphorien (now part of Tours), Centre-Val de Loire,[11] the son of a head of sales at Guerlain, also named Alain de Benoist (1902—1971), and Germaine Langouët (1908—1981).[12][10] De Benoist grew up in a bourgeois and Catholic family.[12] While his mother came from the lower-middle class of Normandy and Brittany, his father alledgelly belonged to the Belgian nobility.[1] During WWII, de Benoist's father was a member of the resistance armed group French Forces of the Interior. He was a self-declared Gaullist, while his wife Germaine was rather left-leaning;[12] and the de Benoist family divided between Free France and Vichy France during the war.[13]

De Benoist was still in high school at Lycée Montaigne and Louis-le-Grand during the turmoils of the Algerian war (1954-1962),[14] which shaped his political views.[1] In 1957 at 14, he met the daughter of the antisemite journalist and conspiracy theorist Henry Coston, and began his journalist career three years later by writing for Henry Coston's magazine, Lectures Françaises.[12][15] De Benoist however stayed away from Coston’s conspiracy theories on the Freemasonry and the Jews.[1]

At 17 in 1961, he met François d'Orcival, with whom he became the editor of an underground newspaper for the pro-colonial paramilitary organisation OAS, titled France Information.[16] The same year, he joined the student society Federation of Nationalist Students (FEN) and became in 1962 the secretary of the organization's magazine, Cahiers universitaires, in which he wrote the main articles along with D'Orcival.[12][17] He would then start as a student in law and litterature a period of political activism and passion for fantastique cinema.[13] According to Pierre-André Taguieff and Pierre Milza, de Benoist had an intellectual curiosity that was lacking from his elder colleagues like Dominique Venner (1935–2013) and Jean Mabire (1927—2006), and de Benoist showed them a conceptual universe "that they could not imagine", nor its "possible ideological exploitations".[12]

Radical political activism (1962–1967)

De Benoist met Dominique Venner in 1962.[12] The following year, he took part in the creation of Europe-Action, a white nationalist magazine created by Venner in which he worked as a journalist.[18] De Benoist published at that times his first essays: Salan devant l'opinion ("Salan faces the (public) opinion", 1963) and Le courage est leur patrie ("Braveness is their motherland", 1965), defending French Algeria and the OAS.[12][18]

Between 1963 and 1965, de Benoist was a member of the Rationalist Union and likely began to read Louis Rougier's criticism of Christianity—who was also an adherent of the organization—during this period. They maintained a relationship and Rougier's thesis deeply influenced de Benoist's own anti-Christianity.[19] "We oppose Rougier to Sartre," de Benoist wrote in 1965, "like we oppose verbal delirium to logics [...], because biologicial realism is the best support against those idealistic chimeras".[12] De Benoist continued his journalistic career and became in 1964 the editor-in-chief of the weekly publication Europe-Action Hebdomaire,[20] holding the same position at L'Observateur Européen from 1964 to 1968.[21] He also wrote in the neo-fascist magazine Défense de l'Occident, founded in 1952 by Maurice Bardèche.[18]

After a visit to South Africa at the invitation of Hendrik Verwoerd's National Party government, de Benoist co-wrote with Gilles Fournier the 1965 essay Vérité pour l'Afrique du Sud ("Truth for South Africa"), in which they endorsed apartheid.[22] The following year, he co-wrote with D'Orcival another essay, Rhodésie, pays des lions fidèles ("Rhodesia, country of the faithful lions", 1966), in defense of Rhodesia, a breakaway country in southern Africa ruled by a white-minority government. The then prime minister of the unrecognised state, Ian Smith, prefaced the book.[15] Returning from a trip to the United States, de Benoist deplored the suppression of racial segregation and wrote as a prediction that the system would survive outside the law, thus in a more violent way.[22][23]

In two essays published in 1966, Les Indo-Européens ("The Indo-Europeans") and Qu'est-ce que le nationalisme? ("What is nationalism?"), de Benoist contributed to define a new European nationalism, where the European civilization—or the "white race"—[24] would be considered above its constituting ethnic groups, all united in a common empire and civilization including Russia. This theory was embodied in the program of the European Rally for Liberty (REL), in which de Benoist was a member of the national council, during the 1967 legislative election, and later became a core idea of GRECE in 1968.[25]

The successive electoral failures of far-right movements—from that of presidential candidate Jean-Louis Tixier-Vignancour in 1965, who de Benoist had supported via the "T.V. Committees", to the debacle of the REL in March 1967,—led de Benoist to question his political involvement and focus on a meta-political strategy. According to him, he decided in the fall of 1967 “to make a permanent and complete break with political action” and to launch a review.[26] [25] During the May 1968 events, then 25, he was a journalist for the professional magazine L'Écho de la presse et de la publicité.[18]

Nouvelle Droite and media fame (1968–1993)

Along with militants of the REL and FEN, de Benoist founded in 1968 GRECE, an ethnonationalist think-tank, of which he soon became the leader and its "most authoritative spokesman".[27][28] In the 1970s, de Benoist adapted his geopolitical view-points, from a pro-colonial attitude towards third-Worldism;[29] from the defense of the "last outposts of the West" towards anti-americanism;[30] and from a biological to a cultural definition of "difference", developed in his ethnopluralist theories.[31]

His works, along with others published by the think tank, led what media called the "Nouvelle Droite" to fame in the late 1970s.[32] De Benoist became a critic for mainstream right-wing magazines, namely Valeurs Actuelles (from 1970 to 1982) and Le Figaro Magazine (from 1977 to 1992),[33] and received in 1978 the Prix de l'essai from the Académie française for his book Vu de droite: Anthologie critique des idées contemporaines, which sold 30,000 copies.[34]

While he had abandoned political parties and elections from 1968 onward to focus on meta-politics,[16][35] de Benoist was nonetheless a candidate in a far-right micro-party (Party of New Forces) during the 1979 European elections.[36] In the 1984 election to the European Parliament, he announced his intention to vote for the French Communist Party, and justified his choice by defining the party as the most credible anti-capitalist, anti-liberal, and anti-American political force then active in France.[37]

De Benoist met Alexandr Dugin in 1989. Then soon became close collaborators: de Benoist was invited by Dugin to Moscow in 1992 and the latter presented himself as the corresponsant of GRECE in Moscow. They however broke their relationship in 1993, after a virulent campaign in French and German media against the "red and brown threat" in Russia. While de Benoist aknownledged ideological differences on eurasianism and Heidegger, the two of them have maintained regular exchanges since then.[38]

Intellectual re-emergence (1994–present)

In 1979 and 1993, two press campaigns launched in French liberal media claiming that de Benoist was a "closet Fascist" or a "Nazi" damaged his reputation and influence in France. They accused him of hiding his racist and anti-egalitarian beliefs in a seemingly acceptable way, by replacing the hierarchy of races with "ethno-pluralism".[1] In the early 1990s, although he still frequently comments on politics, de Benoist chose to focus on his intellectual activity and avoid media attention.[1]

Since the 2000s onward however, public interest for his works have re-emerged:[11] he has made several media appearances in France Culture, Europe 1, Telemadrid, Radio Courtoisie or Il Giornale, and his writings have been published in several academic journals like the New Left Telos, the white nationalist[39] Mankind Quarterly, the paleoconservative Chronicles, the nationalist Occidental Quarterly and the radical traditionnalist Tyr.[40][41]

He was one of the adherents to the 2002 Manifesto Against the Death of the Spirit and the Earth.[42][43]

In a 2002 republication of Vu de droite, de Benoist reiterated what he wrote in 1977: the “greatest” danger in the world today was the “progressive disappearance of diversity from the world," including biodiversity of animals, cultures and peoples.[11] De Benoist is now the editor of two journals: Nouvelle École (since 1968), and Krisis (since 1988).[44]

Although the extent of the relationship is debated by scholars, de Benoist and the Nouvelle Droite have influenced the ideological and political structure of the European Identitarian Movement.[45][46] Part of the alt-right also claims to have been inspired by de Benoist's writings.[45]

Views

From being close to pro-colonial movements and adopting an ethnobiological perspective at the beginning of his writings in the 1960s,[47][24] when he endorsed apartheid with Gilles Fournier as the "last outpost of the West" at a time of "decolonisation and international negrification",[22] de Benoist gradually moved towards a defense of the Third-World against American imperialism and a more cultural definition of "difference", theorized in his concept of ethnopluralism. De Benoist is also an ardent critic of globalisation, unrestricted mass immigration, liberalism, postmodern society and what he calls the “ideology of sameness.”[31][1] Scholars question if this evolution in de Benoist's concepts should be considered a sincere ideological detachment from a far-right activist youth,[48] or rather a meta-political strategy to reshape unegalitarian ideas into acceptable differentialist terms.[49][50]

Political scientist Jean-Yves Camus describes the key idea of de Benoist's writings in those terms: "through the use of meta-politics, to think the ways and means that are necessary in order for European civilization, based on the cultural values shared on the continent until the advent of globalization, to thrive and be perpetuated."[51] Though he embodies the core values of GRECE and the Nouvelle Droite, de Benoist’s works are not always identical to those of other thinkers of the movements. He for instance disavowed Guillaume Faye's “strongly racist” ideas regarding Muslims after the publication of The Colonization of Europe: Speaking Truth about Immigration and Islam in 2000.[51] De Benoist is indeed opposed to political violence, stating that he had been building "a school of thought, not a political movement."[52]

Identity

Inspired by Martin Buber’s philosophy of dialogue and his Ich und Du concept, de Benoist defined "identity" as a "dialogical" phenomenon in We and the Others ("Nous et les autres", 2006). According to him, one's identity is made of two compenents: the "objective part" that comes from one’s background (ethnicity, religion, family, nationality), and the "subjective part", freely chosen by the individual. Identity is therefore a process in constant evolution, rather than a completely fixed notion.[51] In 1992, he consequently dismissed the Front National use of ethnopluralism, on the grounds that it portrayed "difference as an absolute, whereas, by definition, it exists only relationally."[53][54] De Benoist believes that knowledge of ethnic and religious traditions is a duty, which must be passed on to following generation, and is critical of the idea of a moral imperative to cosmopolitanism.[55]

If scholars like Pierre-André Taguieff have labeled the Nouvelle Droite a form of “mixophobia”, due to its focus on the concept of "difference", de Benoist has also criticized what he calls "the pathology of identity", that is to say the political use of identity by the populist Right in order to push an "us versus them" debate escorted by "systematically and irrationally hating". The difficulty of understanding de Benoist’s views on identity lies in the fact that his writings have experienced multiple re-synthesis since the 1960s. In 1974, he said: "there is no superior race. All races are superior and each of them has its own genius”, thus admitting the reality of biological races, without concluding on their alleged essential inequality. Suspicions have arisen of a subtle meta-political guise designed with the aim of re-establishing the original fascist idea around a new framework, and de Benoist has been influenced by Carl Schmitt's distinction between friend and enemy as the core issue of politics. He however sees immigrants as eventually victims of globalization, and also explained that immigration was first of all a consequence of big companies being greedy for profits and preferring to import cheap labor.[55]

Ethnopluralism

De Benoist rejects the nation state and nationalism, on the ground that both liberalism and nationalism eventually derive from the same metaphysics of subjectivity,[56] and that the centralized and "Jacobin" state French Republic had destroyed regional identities in the project of “one and indivisible” France.[11] He stands instead for the political autonomy of each and every group, favoring an integral federalism built on the principle of subsidiarity, that would transcend the nation state and give way to regional identities and a common continental one at once.[51][57]

Liberalism

De Benoist is a critic of the primacy of individual rights, an ideology he sees embodied in humanism, the French Revolution, and the American Founding Fathers. While not a Marxist, de Benoist has been influenced by the communist analysis of the nature of capitalism and conflicting class interests, exposed by Karl Marx in Das Kapital. As a result, another of his core ideas is that the world is facing the "hegemony of capital" and the "pursuit of self-interest", two typical trends of the postmodern era. According to Jean-Yves Camus however, if de Benoist can share anti-capitalist analysis with leftists, the nature of his goal is indeed different, as de Benoist considers the unlimited expansion of the free market and consumerism as key contributors to the erasure of peoples’ identities. Furthermore, although he aknowledges their existence, he does not makes an essential distinction between the "working class" and the "bourgeoise", but rather between the "new dominant class" and the "people".[51] In 1991, his magazine Eléments described via its editorial staff how "too systematic anti-egalitarianism [could] lead to social Darwinism, which might justify free-market economy".[55]

United States

De Benoist is opposed to the American liberal idea of a melting pot.[58] A critic of the United States, he has been quoted as saying: "Some people do not accept the thought of one day having to wear the Red Army cap. In fact, it is a terrible prospect. However, this is not a reason to tolerate the idea of one day having to spend what we have left to live on by eating hamburgers in Brooklyn."[59][60] In 1991, he complained that European supporters of the first Gulf War were "collaborators of the American order."[61]

Islam

De Benoist has supported ties with Islamic culture in the 1980s,[62] on the grounds that the relationship would be distinct from what he saw as the consumerism and materialism of American society, as well as the bureaucracy and repression of the Soviet Union.[63]

Paganism and Christianity

He also opposes Christianity as inherently intolerant, theocratic and bent on persecution.[64]

Influences

De Benoist's influences include Antonio Gramsci,[65] Ernst Jünger, Martin Buber, Jean Baudrillard, Georges Dumézil, Ernest Renan, José Ortega y Gasset, Vilfredo Pareto, Karl Marx,[51] Guy Debord, Arnold Gehlen, Stéphane Lupasco, Helmut Schelsky, Konrad Lorenz, the Conservative Revolutionnaries, the non-conformists of the 1930s,[66] Johann Gottfried Herder, Johannes Althusius, interwar Austro-Marxists,[51] and communitarian philosophers such as Alasdair MacIntyre and Charles Taylor.[67]

Critics

His critics, such as Thomas Sheehan, argue that de Benoist has developed a novel restatement of fascism.[68] Roger Griffin, using an ideal type definition of fascism which includes "populist ultra-nationalism" and "palingenesis" (heroic rebirth), argues that the Nouvelle Droite draws on such fascist ideologues as Armin Mohler in a way that allows Nouvelle Droite ideologues such as de Benoist to claim a "metapolitical" stance, but which nonetheless has residual fascist ideological elements.[69] De Benoist's critics also claim his views recall Nazi attempts to replace German Christianity with its own paganism.[70] They note that de Benoist's rejection of the French Revolution's legacy and the allegedly "abstract" Rights of Man ties him to the same Counter-Enlightenment right-wing tradition as counter-revolutionary Legitimists, fascists, Vichyites and integral nationalists.[71]

Private life

A neo-pagan,[72] de Benoist married Doris Christians in 1971 and has two children.[73] He is a member of the high IQ society Mensa[74] and owns the largest private library in France,[75] with an estimate of 150,000[76] to 250,000 books.[1]

Selected works

French

  • Salan devant l'opinion (sous le pseudonyme de Fabrice Laroche) (Saint-Just, 1963).
  • Les Indo-Européens (G.E.D., 1966).
  • L'Empirisme logique et la Philosophie du Cercle de Vienne (Nouvelle École, 1970).
  • Nietzsche: Morale et « Grande Politique » (GRECE, 1973).
  • Konrad Lorenz et l'Éthologie moderne (Nouvelle École, 1975).
  • Vu de droite. Anthologie critique des idées contemporaines (Copernic, 1977). (grand prix de l'essai de l'Académie française 1978)
  • Les Bretons (Les Cahiers de la Bretagne réelle, n°396 bis, 1978).
  • Les Idées à l'endroit (Libres-Hallier, 1978).
  • Le Guide pratique des prénoms (« Robert de Herte » et [sic] Alain de Benoist), coll. « Hors-série d'“Enfants-Magazine” » (Publications Groupe Média, 1979).
  • Comment peut-on être païen ? (Albin Michel, 1981).
  • Les Traditions d'Europe (Paris: Labyrinthe, 1982).
  • Orientations pour des années décisives (Labyrinthe, 1982).
  • Fêter Noël. Légendes et Traditions (Atlas-Edena, 1982).
  • Démocratie : le problème (Labyrinthe, 1985)
  • (in collaboration with Andre Béjin & Julien Freund) Racismes, Antiracismes (Paris: Librairie des Méridiens, 1986)
  • (with Thomas Molnar) L'éclipse du sacré: discours et résponses (Paris: Table ronde, 1986)
  • Europe, Tiers monde, même combat (Robert Laffont, 1986).
  • Le Grain de sable. Jalons pour une fin de siècle (Labyrinthe, 1994).
  • Nationalisme : Phénoménologie et Critique (GRECE, 1994).
  • Démocratie représentative et Démocratie participative (GRECE, 1994).
  • Nietzsche et la Révolution conservatrice (GRECE, 1994).
  • L'Empire intérieur (Fata Morgana, 1995).
  • La Ligne de mire. Discours aux citoyens européens, t. 1 : 1972–1987 (Labyrinthe, 1995).
  • Famille et Société. Origine, Histoire, Actualité (Labyrinthe, 1996).
  • La Ligne de mire. Discours aux citoyens européens, t. 2 : 1988–1995 (Labyrinthe, 1996).
  • Céline et l'Allemagne, 1933–1945. Une mise au point (Le Bulletin célinien, 1996).
  • Horizon 2000. Trois entretiens avec Alain de Benoist (GRECE, 1996).
  • La Légende de Clovis (Cercle Ernest Renan, 1996).
  • Indo-Européens : à la recherche du foyer d'origine (Nouvelle École, 1997).
  • Ernst Jünger. Une bio-bibliographie (Guy Trédaniel, 1997).
  • Communisme et Nazisme. 25 réflexions sur le totalitarisme au XXe siècle (Labyrinthe, 1998).
  • L'Écume et les Galets. 1991–1999 : dix ans d'actualité vue d'ailleurs (Labyrinthe, 2000).
  • Jésus sous l'œil critique des historiens (Cercle Ernest Renan, 2000).
  • Bibliographie d'Henri Béraud (Association rétaise des Amis d'Henri Béraud, 2000).
  • Dernière Année. Notes pour conclure le siècle (L'Âge d'Homme, 2001).
  • Jésus et ses Frères (Cercle Ernest Renan, 2001).
  • Louis Rougier. Sa vie, son œuvre (Cercle Ernest Renan, 2002).
  • Charles Maurras et l'Action française. Une bibliographie, BCM, 2002
  • Qu'est-ce qu'un militant ? (sous le pseudonyme de Fabrice Laroche, réédition d'un article paru en 1963) (Ars Magna, 2003).
  • Critiques-Théoriques (L'Âge d'Homme, 2003).
  • Au-delà des droits de l'homme. Pour défendre les libertés (éditions Krisis, 2004).
  • Bibliographie générale des droites françaises. 1, Arthur de Gobineau, Gustave Le Bon, Édouard Drumont, Maurice Barrès, Pierre Drieu La Rochelle, Henry de Montherlant, Thierry Maulnier, Julien Freund (Éditions Dualpha, coll. « Patrimoine des lettres », Coulommiers, 2004), 609 p.
  • Bibliographie générale des droites françaises. 2, Georges Sorel, Charles Maurras, Georges Valois, Abel Bonnard, Henri Béraud, Louis Rougier, Lucien Rebatet, Robert Brasillach (Éditions Dualpha, coll. « Patrimoine des lettres », Coulommiers, 2004), 472 p.
  • Bibliographie générale des droites françaises. 3, Louis de Bonald, Alexis de Tocqueville, Georges Vacher de Lapouge, Léon Daudet, Jacques Bainville, René Benjamin, Henri Massis, Georges Bernanos, Maurice Bardèche, Jean Cau (Éditions Dualpha, coll. « Patrimoine des lettres », Coulommiers, 2005), 648 p.
  • Bibliographie générale des droites françaises. 4, Joseph de Maistre, Ernest Renan, Jules Soury, Charles Péguy, Alphonse de Chateaubriant, Jacques Benoist-Méchin, Gustave Thibon, Saint-Loup (Marc Augier), Louis Pauwels (Éditions Dualpha, coll. « Patrimoine des lettres », Coulommiers, 2005), 736 p.
  • Jésus et ses Frères, et autres écrits sur le christianisme, le paganisme et la religion (éditions Les Amis d'Alain de Benoist, 2006).
  • C'est-à-dire. Entretiens-Témoignages-Explications (2 volumes) (éditions Les Amis d'Alain de Benoist, 2006).
  • Nous et les autres. Problématique de l'identité (éditions Krisis, 2006).
  • Carl Schmitt actuel (éditions Krisis, 2007).
  • Demain, la décroissance ! Penser l'écologie jusqu'au bout (Edite, 2007).
  • Dictionnaire des prénoms : d'hier et d'aujourd'hui, d'ici et d'ailleurs (Jean Picollec, 2009).
  • Mémoire vive / Entretiens avec François Bousquet (Éditions de Fallois, Collection « Littérature », 2 mai 2012).
  • Edouard Berth ou le socialisme héroïque. Sorel, Maurras, Lenine (Pardès, 2013).
  • Les Démons du Bien, Du nouvel ordre moral à l'idéologie du genre (Pierre-Guillaume de Roux, 2013).

References

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  3. ^ Bar-On, Tamir (7 December 2011), Backes, Uwe; Moreau, Patrick (eds.), "Intellectual Right - Wing Extremism – Alain de Benoist's Mazeway Resynthesis since 2000", The Extreme Right in Europe (1 ed.), Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, p. 335, doi:10.13109/9783666369223.333, ISBN 9783525369227, De Benoist’s continued anti-egalitarianism, rejection of the Rights of Man and representative democracy, as well as valorization of pagan elite rule [...]
  4. ^ Trouble on the right; recent gains by the extreme-right leader Jean-Marie Le Pen have left conservatives and moderates confused about whether to imitate or attack him; France The Atlantic February 1985
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  22. ^ a b c Shields, James (7 May 2007). The Extreme Right in France: From Pétain to Le Pen. Routledge. p. 121. ISBN 9781134861118.
  23. ^ Alain de Benoist: "The legal segregation removed (and it will be removed everywhere, we must not be under any illusions) is immediately replaced by a de facto segregation over which the legal, and therefore peaceful, means have no more influence." (Europe-Action, octobre 1965 (34), pp. 9-12)
  24. ^ a b Alain de Benoist: "Race is the only real unit encompassing individual variations. The objective study of history shows that only the European race (white race, caucasian) has continued to progress since its appearance on the rising path of the evolution of the living, unlike races stagnant in their development, therefore in virtual regression [...] The European race does not have absolute superiority. It is only the most capable of progressing in the direction of evolution [...] Racial factors being statistically hereditary, each race has its own psychology. All psychology generates value." (Qu'est-ce que le nationalisme?, 1966, pp. 8-9)
  25. ^ a b Taguieff, Pierre-André (1993). "Origines et métamorphoses de la Nouvelle Droite". Vingtième Siècle. Revue d'histoire (40): 4–6. doi:10.2307/3770354. ISSN 0294-1759. JSTOR 3770354.
  26. ^ Camus, Jean-Yves; Lebourg, Nicolas (20 March 2017). Far-Right Politics in Europe. Harvard University Press. pp. 132–33. ISBN 9780674971530.
  27. ^ Spektorowski, Alberto (1 February 2003). "The New Right: Ethno-regionalism, ethno-pluralism and the emergence of a neo-fascist 'Third Way'". Journal of Political Ideologies. 8 (1): 116. doi:10.1080/13569310306084. ISSN 1356-9317.
  28. ^ Griffin, Roger (2000). "Between Metapolitics and Apoliteia: the Nouvelle Droite's Strategy for Conserving the Fascist Vision in the 'Interregnum'". Modern & Contemporary France. 8 (1): p. 35
  29. ^ Rioux, Jean-Pierre; Sirinelli, Jean-François (1991). La Guerre d'Algérie et les intellectuels français (in French). Editions Complexe. p. 76. ISBN 9782870273777.
  30. ^ Taguieff, Pierre André (1994). Sur la Nouvelle Droite: jalons d'une analyse critique (in French). Descartes et Cie. p. 300. ISBN 9782910301026.
  31. ^ a b Bar-On, Tamir (1 June 2001). "The Ambiguities of the Nouvelle Droite, 1968-1999". The European Legacy. 6 (3): 339. doi:10.1080/10848770120051349. ISSN 1084-8770.
  32. ^ Bar-On, Tamir (1 June 2001). "The Ambiguities of the Nouvelle Droite, 1968-1999". The European Legacy. 6 (3): 333–334. doi:10.1080/10848770120051349. ISSN 1084-8770.
  33. ^ Ratier, Emmanuel (1 January 1992). Encyclopédie politique française (in French). Faits et documents. p. 73. ISBN 9782909769004.
  34. ^ Charpier, Frédéric (31 January 2014). Génération Occident (in French). Le Seuil. p. 313. ISBN 9782021157512.
  35. ^ Johnson, Douglas (1995). "The New Right in France". In: Luciano Cheles, Ronnie Ferguson, and Michalina Vaughan (eds.) The Far Right in Western and Eastern Europe (second ed.). London and New York: Longman Group. pp. 238–239
  36. ^ Duranton-Crabol, Anne-Marie (1988). Visages de la Nouvelle droite: le GRECE et son histoire (in French). Presses de la Fondation nationale des sciences politiques. p. 124. ISBN 9782724605617.
  37. ^ Bar-On, Tamir (1 June 2001). "The Ambiguities of the Nouvelle Droite, 1968-1999". The European Legacy. 6 (3): 343. doi:10.1080/10848770120051349. ISSN 1084-8770.
  38. ^ Deland, Mats; Minkenberg, Michael; Mays, Christin (2014). In the Tracks of Breivik: Far Right Networks in Northern and Eastern Europe. LIT Verlag Münster. pp. 93–94. ISBN 9783643905420.
  39. ^ Gresson, Aaron; Kincheloe, Joe L.; Steinberg, Shirley R. (eds.). Measured Lies: The Bell Curve Examined (1st St. Martin's Griffin ed.). St. Martin's Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-312-17228-2.
  40. ^ François, Stéphane. « The gods looked down : la musique « industrielle » et le paganisme », Sociétés, vol. no 88, no. 2, 2005, pp. 109-124. (Read online)
  41. ^ "Publication". The Unz Review. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  42. ^ González Cuevas, Pedro Carlos. "Las "otras" derechas en la España actual. Teólogos, "racionalistas" y neoderechistas". Bulletin d'Histoire Contemporaine de l'Espagne. Aix-en-Provence: Publications de l’université de Provence (44): 276–277. ISSN 0987-4135.
  43. ^ Sanromán, Diego L. (2006). "Contra la muerte del espíritu: últimos avatares de una nouvelle droite a la española" (PDF). Nómadas. Critical Journal of Social and Juridical Sciences. 13 (1). ISSN 1578-6730.
  44. ^ Publications, Europa (2003). International Who's Who of Authors and Writers 2004. Psychology Press. p. 49. ISBN 9781857431797.
  45. ^ a b Sedgwick, Mark (8 January 2019). Key Thinkers of the Radical Right: Behind the New Threat to Liberal Democracy. Oxford University Press. p. 73. ISBN 9780190877613. Since the early 1990s, the French New Right has been influential beyond France, especially in Italy, Germany, and Belgium, and has inspired Alexander Dugin in Russia. Part of the American radical Right and “Alt Right” also claims to have been inspired by de Benoist’s writings. Although this is questionable, de Benoist and Dominique Venner are also seen as the forefathers of the “identitarian” movement in Europe.
  46. ^ Teitelbaum, Benjamin R. (2017). Lions of the North: Sounds of the New Nordic Radical Nationalism. Oxford University Press. p. 46. ISBN 9780190212599.
  47. ^ Alain de Benoist: "What makes a population move towards greater quality is that valuable men, the elites, can in turn procreate and transmit, according to the laws of heredity, their exceptional abilities and gifts." (Avec ou sans Dieu ?, 1970, p. 88)
  48. ^ François, Stéphane (9 March 2015). "Polémique Valls-Onfray : Les néodroitiers ont contribué à structurer le FN, sans en devenir la matrice". Libération (in French). Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  49. ^ Bar-On, Tamir (2014). "A Response to Alain de Benoist". Journal for the Study of Radicalism. 8 (2): 123–168. doi:10.14321/jstudradi.8.2.0123. ISSN 1930-1189. JSTOR 10.14321/jstudradi.8.2.0123.
  50. ^ Taguieff, Pierre-André (1993). "Origines et métamorphoses de la Nouvelle Droite". Vingtième Siècle. Revue d'histoire (40): 3–22. doi:10.2307/3770354. ISSN 0294-1759. JSTOR 3770354.
  51. ^ a b c d e f g Sedgwick, Mark (8 January 2019). Key Thinkers of the Radical Right: Behind the New Threat to Liberal Democracy. Oxford University Press. pp. 75–76. ISBN 9780190877613.
  52. ^ France;Ideas and bombs The Economist 23 August 1980
  53. ^ Camus, Jean-Yves; Lebourg, Nicolas (20 March 2017). Far-Right Politics in Europe. Harvard University Press. p. 124. ISBN 9780674971530.
  54. ^ Sharon Waxman, ″Europe's Left And Right Are Too Divided To Even Talk About It″, Chicago Tribune, 13 December 1993. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
  55. ^ a b c Sedgwick, Mark (8 January 2019). Key Thinkers of the Radical Right: Behind the New Threat to Liberal Democracy. Oxford University Press. p. 78. ISBN 9780190877613.
  56. ^ Sedgwick, Mark (8 January 2019). Key Thinkers of the Radical Right: Behind the New Threat to Liberal Democracy. Oxford University Press. p. 76. ISBN 9780190877613.
  57. ^ De Benoist, Alain (2014). "Alain de Benoist Answers Tamir Bar-On". Journal for the Study of Radicalism. 8 (1): 141–168. doi:10.14321/jstudradi.8.1.0141. JSTOR 10.14321/jstudradi.8.1.0141.
  58. ^ "European Son : An Interview with Alain de Benoist" (PDF). Retrieved 22 October 2015.
  59. ^ "La passion russe de l'extrême droite". Libération.fr (in French). 8 April 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  60. ^ De Benoist, Alain (1982). Orientations pour des années décisives. Paris: Labyrinthe. p. 76. Certains ne se résignent pas à la pensée d’avoir un jour à porter la casquette de l’Armée rouge. De fait, c’est une perspective affreuse. Nous ne pouvons pas, pour autant, supporter l’idée d’avoir un jour à passer ce qui nous reste à vivre en mangeant des hamburgers du côté de Brooklyn.
  61. ^ Rone Tempest, "French Revive a Pastime: Fretting About U.S. 'Imperialism' : Reaction: Talk of 'secret agendas' surfaces on the left and the right. Some chafe at their country's secondary role in the Gulf. Others worry about diminished European influence," Los Angeles Times, 15 February 1991.
  62. ^ Under cover story The Guardian (London) 14 August 1987.
  63. ^ The disharmonic convergence: the far left and the far right as strange bedfellows,s Whole Earth Review 22 June 1988
  64. ^ Intolerance, American-Style;Given This Country's History Of Religious Animosities, Thomas Fleming Writes Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Pennsylvania) 21 December 1997
  65. ^ ″The Marcuse factor″, Modern Age, 22 March 2005.
  66. ^ ″Posthistoire: Has History Come to an End?″, CLIO, 1 January 1994.
  67. ^ Hellman, John (2002). Communitarian Third Way: Alexandre Marc and Ordre Nouveau, 1930-2000. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 196.
  68. ^ Sheehan, Thomas (Spring 1981). "Myth and Violence: The Fascism of Julius Evola and Alain de Benoist". Social Research. 48 (1): 45–73. Pages 66–67: To summarize: De Benoist's fascism is at odds with Evola's metaphysics but agrees with his social and political philosophy.... [F]or de Benoist, the organic State is an ideal that men can set for themselves and perhaps, with force, establish.
  69. ^ Griffin, Roger (2000). "Between metapolitics and apoliteia: the Nouvelle Droite's strategy for conserving the fascist vision in the 'interregnum'". Modern & Contemporary France. 8 (1): 35–53. doi:10.1080/096394800113349.
  70. ^ Sunic, Tomislav (Winter 1995). "Marx, Moses, and the Pagans in the Secular City". CLIO. 24 (2): 169–188. In the age that is heavily laced with the Biblical message, many modern pagan thinkers, for their criticism of biblical monotheism, have been attacked and stigmatized either as unrepentant atheists or as spiritual standard-bearers of fascism. Particularly Nietzsche, Heidegger, and more recently Alain de Benoist came under attack for allegedly espousing the philosophy which, for their contemporary detractors, recalled the earlier national socialist attempts to "dechristianize" and "repaganize" Germany. See notably the works by Alfred Rosenberg, Der Mythus des 20. Jahrhunderts(München: Hoheneichen Verlag, 1933). Also worth noting is the name of Wilhelm Hauer, Deutscher Gottschau (Stuttgart: Karl Gutbrod, 1934), who significantly popularized Indo-European mythology among national socialists: on pages 240–54 Hauer discusses the difference between Judeo-Christian Semitic beliefs and European paganism.
  71. ^ Backes, Uwe; Moreau, Patrick (2011). The Extreme Right in Europe: Current Trends and Perspectives. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. p. 335.
  72. ^ de Halleux, André (1992). "Démètre Théraios (éd.), Quelle religion pour l'Europe ? Un débat sur l'identité religieuse des peuples européens. 1990". Revue Théologique de Louvain. 23 (2): 255–256.
  73. ^ "Alain de Benoist - Who's Who". www.whoswho.fr (in French). Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  74. ^ "Pierre-André Taguieff, L'Héritage nazi. Des Nouvelles Droites européennes à la littérature niant le génocide". phdn.org. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  75. ^ "Alain de Benoist". France Culture (in French). Retrieved 31 July 2019. Il a la plus grande bibliothèque privée de France qui compte plus de cent cinquante mille ouvrages.
  76. ^ Causeur.fr; Boughezala, Daoud (6 May 2012). "Alain de Benoist : un intellectuel aux antipodes". Causeur (in French). Retrieved 31 July 2019.

Sources

Further reading

  • Jonathan Marcus, The National Front and French Politics, New York: New York University Press, 1995, pp. 22–4, 151.

External links