Al-Dhahabi (Full name: Shams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn ʿUthmān ibn Qāymāẓ ibn ʿAbdallāh al-Turkumānī al-Fāriqī al-Dimashqī al-Shāfiʿī, Arabic: محمد بن احمد بن عثمان بن قيم ، أبو عبد الله شمس الدين الذهبي), known also as Ibn al-Dhahabī (5 October 1274 – 3 February 1348), a Shafi‘iMuhaddith and historian of Islam.
Al-Dhahabi was born in Damascus on 5 October 1274. His family was of Turkmen descent, originally lived in Mayyafariqin, northeast of Diyar bakr. At some point, they moved to Damascus. He sometimes identified himself as Ibn al-Dhahabi (son of the goldsmith) in reference to his father's profession. He began his study of hadith at age eighteen, travelling from Damascus to Baalbek, Homs, Hama, Aleppo, Nabulus, Cairo, Alexandria, Jerusalem, Hijaz, and elsewhere, after which he returned to Damascus, where he taught and authored many works and achieved wide renown as a perspicuous critic and expert examiner of the hadith, encyclopedic historian and biographer, and foremost authority in the canonical readings of the Qur'an. He studied under more than 100 women. His most important teacher at Baalbek included a woman, Zaynab bint ʿUmar b. al-Kindī.
He lost his sight two years before he died, leaving three children: his eldest daughter Amat al-`Aziz and his two sons `Abd Allah and Abu Hurayra `Abd al-Rahman. The latter taught the hadith masters Ibn Nasir-ud-din al-Damishqi and Ibn Hajar, to whom he transmitted several works authored or narrated by his father.
Ibn al-Zahiri, Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Abd Allah al-Halabi
Sharaf-ud-din Abd al-Mu'min ibn Khalaf al-Dimyati, the foremost Egyptian authority on hadith in his time
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Daqiq al-'Id, whom he identified in his youth as Abu al-Fath al-Qushayri, later as Ibn Wahb.
Jamal-ud-din Abu al-Ma`ali Muhammad ibn `Ali al-Ansari al-Zamalkani al-Damishqi al-Shafi`i (d. 727), whom he called "Qadi al-Qudat, the Paragon of Islam, the standard-bearer of the Sunna, my shaykh".
Ahmad ibn Ishaq ibn Muhammad al-Abarquhi al-Misri (d. 701), from which al-Dhahabi received the Suhrawardi Sufi path.
His famous students
Hafiz Imad-ud-din Ismāeel ibn Umar ibn Katheer,
Hafiz Zain-ud-din Abdur Rahmān ibn Hasan as-Salaami,
Shams-ud-din Abul Mahaasin Muhammad ibn Ali al-Damishqi,
Taaj-ud-din Abu Nasr Abdul Wahaab ibn Ali al-Subki,
Salah-ud-din Khaleel ibn Abeek al-Safadi
Dhahabi authored nearly a hundred works, some of them of considerable size. His work regarding the practice of prophetic medicine was straightforward in its presentation, but also categorized by the author as alternative medicine. Much of it consisted of an integration of medicine as understood from the revelations of the Muslim prophet Muhammad and the practices of Pre-Islamic Arabia with Ancient Greek medicine, quoting heavily from the ideas and terminologies of Hippocrates and Ibn Sina.
^Emilie Savage-Smith, "Medicine." Taken from Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Volume 3: Technology, Alchemy and Life Sciences, pg. 928. Ed. Roshdi Rashed. London: Routledge, 1996. ISBN0415124123