Al-Dhahabi (Full name: Shams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn ʿUthmān ibn Qāymāẓ ibn ʿAbdallāh al-Turkumānī al-Fāriqī al-Dimashqī al-Shāfiʿī, Arabic: محمد بن احمد بن عثمان بن قيم ، أبو عبد الله شمس الدين الذهبي), known also as Ibn al-Dhahabī (5 October 1274 – 3 February 1348), a Shafi‘i Muhaddith and historian of Islam.
Al-Dhahabi was born in Damascus on 5 October 1274. His family was of Turkmen descent, originally lived in Mayyafariqin, northeast of Diyar bakr. At some point, they moved to Damascus. He sometimes identified himself as Ibn al-Dhahabi (son of the goldsmith) in reference to his father's profession. He began his study of hadith at age eighteen, travelling from Damascus to Baalbek, Homs, Hama, Aleppo, Nabulus, Cairo, Alexandria, Jerusalem, Hijaz, and elsewhere, after which he returned to Damascus, where he taught and authored many works and achieved wide renown as a perspicuous critic and expert examiner of the hadith, encyclopedic historian and biographer, and foremost authority in the canonical readings of the Qur'an. He studied under more than 100 women. His most important teacher at Baalbek included a woman, Zaynab bint ʿUmar b. al-Kindī.
He lost his sight two years before he died, leaving three children: his eldest daughter Amat al-`Aziz and his two sons `Abd Allah and Abu Hurayra `Abd al-Rahman. The latter taught the hadith masters Ibn Nasir-ud-din al-Damishqi and Ibn Hajar, to whom he transmitted several works authored or narrated by his father.
Among al-Dhahabi's most notable teachers in hadith, fiqh and aqida:
- Abd al-Khaliq bin ʿUlwān
- Zaynab bint ʿUmar bin al-Kindī
- Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali ibn Mas‘ud ibn Nafis al-Musali
- Ibn Taymiyyah Taqi ad-Din Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah
- Ibn al-Zahiri, Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Abd Allah al-Halabi
- Sharaf-ud-din Abd al-Mu'min ibn Khalaf al-Dimyati, the foremost Egyptian authority on hadith in his time
- Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Daqiq al-'Id, whom he identified in his youth as Abu al-Fath al-Qushayri, later as Ibn Wahb.
- Jamal-ud-din Abu al-Ma`ali Muhammad ibn `Ali al-Ansari al-Zamalkani al-Damishqi al-Shafi`i (d. 727), whom he called "Qadi al-Qudat, the Paragon of Islam, the standard-bearer of the Sunna, my shaykh".
- Ahmad ibn Ishaq ibn Muhammad al-Abarquhi al-Misri (d. 701), from which al-Dhahabi received the Suhrawardi Sufi path.
His famous students
- Hafiz Imad-ud-din Ismāeel ibn Umar ibn Katheer,
- Hafiz Zain-ud-din Abdur Rahmān ibn Hasan as-Salaami,
- Shams-ud-din Abul Mahaasin Muhammad ibn Ali al-Damishqi,
- Taaj-ud-din Abu Nasr Abdul Wahaab ibn Ali al-Subki,
- Salah-ud-din Khaleel ibn Abeek al-Safadi
Dhahabi authored nearly a hundred works, some of them of considerable size. His work regarding the practice of prophetic medicine was straightforward in its presentation, but also categorized by the author as alternative medicine. Much of it consisted of an integration of medicine as understood from the revelations of the Muslim prophet Muhammad and the practices of Pre-Islamic Arabia with Ancient Greek medicine, quoting heavily from the ideas and terminologies of Hippocrates and Ibn Sina.
List of popular works
- Tarikh al-Islam al-kabir. (Major History of Islam); Ibn Hajar received it from Abu Hurayra ibn al-Dhahabi.
- Siyar a`lam al-nubala'. (The Lives of Noble Figures), 23 volumes, a unique encyclopedia of biographical history.
- Tadhhib Tahdhib al-Kamal, an abridgement of al-Mizzi's abridgement of al-Maqdisee's Al-Kamal fi Asma' al-Rijal, a compendium of historical biographies for hadith narrators cited in the Six major Hadith collections.
- Al-Kashif fi Ma`rifa Man Lahu Riwaya fi al-Kutub al-Sitta, an abridgment of the Tadhhib.
- Al-Mujarrad fi Asma' Rijal al-Kutub al-Sitta, an abridgment of the Kashif.
- Mukhtasar Kitab al-Wahm wa al-Iham li Ibn al-Qattan.
- Mukhtasar Sunan al-Bayhaqi, an abridgement of Bayhaqi's Sunan al-Kubara.
- Mukhtasar al-Mustadrak li al-Hakim, an abridgement of Hakim's Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain.
- Al-Amsar Dhawat al-Athar (Cities Rich in Historical Relics), which begins with the description of Madina al-Munawwara.
- Al-Tajrid fi Asma' al-Sahaba, a dictionary of the Companions.
- Tadhkirat al-huffaz. (The Memorial of the Hadith Masters), a chronological history of the biography of hadith masters. Ibn Hajar received it from Abu Hurayra ibn al-Dhahabi.
- Tabaqat al-Qurra (Biography-Layers of the Qur'anic Scholars).
- Al-Mu`in fi Tabaqat al-Muhaddithin, a compendium of hadith scholars (Muhaddithin).
- Duwal al-Islam (The Islamic Nations), a condensed history with emphasis on political figures and events.
- Al-Kaba'ir (The Major Sins)
- Manaaqib Al-imam Abu Hanifa wa saahibayhi Abu Yusuf wa Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan (The Honoured status of Imam Abu Hanifa and his two companions, Abu Yusuf and Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan)
- ^ a b Halverson, Jeffry R. (2010). Theology and Creed in Sunni Islam. Pelgrave Macmillan. p. 43. ISBN 9781137473578.
- ^ Spevack, Aaron (2014). The Archetypal Sunni Scholar: Law, Theology, and Mysticism in the Synthesis of Al-Bajuri. State University of New York Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-1-4384-5370-5.
- ^ Hoberman, Barry (September–October 1982). "The Battle of Talas", Saudi Aramco World, p. 26-31. Indiana University.
- ^ Bori, Caterina (2016). "al- Dhahabī". In Fleet, Kate; Krämer, Gudrun; Matringe, Denis; Nawas, John; Rowson, Everett. Encyclopaedia of Islam (3rd ed.). Brill Publishers. p. 73. ISBN 9789004305748.
- ^ The Female Teachers of the Historian of Islam: al-Ḏh̲ahabī (PDF)
- ^ " al-Ḏh̲ahabī." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill Online , 2012. Reference. Princeton University Library. 09 June 2012
- ^ al-Sakhawi, al-Daw' al-Lami` (8:103).
- ^ Cf. al-`Uluw (Abu al-Fath) and al-Muqiza (Ibn Wahb).
- ^ Siyar A`lam al-Nubala [SAN] (17:118–119 #6084, 16:300–302 #5655).
- ^ Emilie Savage-Smith, "Medicine." Taken from Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Volume 3: Technology, Alchemy and Life Sciences, pg. 928. Ed. Roshdi Rashed. London: Routledge, 1996. ISBN 0415124123
- ^ Ibn Hajar, al-Mu`jam (p. 400 #1773)
- ^ Ibn Hajar, al-Mu`jam (p. 400 #1774).