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|Administrative divisions of Myanmar|
|Location||Republic of the Union of Myanmar|
|Number||7 regions, 7 states, 1 Union Territory, 6 self-administered zones (as of 2015)|
|Populations||286,627 (Kayah State) - 7,360,703 (Yangon Region)|
|Areas||7,054 km2 (2,724 sq mi) (Naypyidaw Union Territory) - 155,801 km2 (60,155 sq mi) (Shan State)|
|Government||Government of Myanmar|
Ward and Village-tract
Myanmar is divided into twenty-one administrative subdivisions, which include:
|Type||Burmese name||No. of div.|
|Region||တိုင်းဒေသကြီး||IPA: [táɪɴ dèθa̰ dʑí]||7|
|Union Territory||ပြည်တောင်စုနယ်မြေ||IPA: [pjìdàʊɴzṵnɛ̀mjè]||1|
|Self-Administered Zone||ကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရဒေသ||IPA: [kòbàɪɴ ʔoʊʔtɕʰoʊʔ kʰwɪ̰ɴja̰ dèθa̰]||5|
|Self-Administered Division||ကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရ တိုင်း||IPA: [kòbàɪɴ ʔoʊʔtɕʰoʊʔ kʰwɪ̰ɴja̰ táɪɴ]||1|
The regions were called divisions prior to August 2010, and five of them are named after their capital city, the exceptions being Ayeyarwady Region and Tanintharyi Region. The regions can be described as ethnically predominantly Burman (Bamar), while the states, the zones and Wa Division are dominated by ethnic minorities.
States and regions are divided into districts (ခရိုင်; kha yaing or khayaing, IPA: [kʰəjàɪɴ]). These districts consist of townships (မြို့နယ်; myo-ne, IPA: [mjo̰nɛ̀]) that include towns (မြို့; myo, IPA: [mjo̰]), wards (ရပ်ကွက်; yatkwet, IPA: [jaʔ kwɛʔ])) and village-tracts (ကျေးရွာအုပ်စု; kyayywa oksu, IPA: [tɕé jwà ʔoʊʔ sṵ]). Village-tracts are groups of adjacent villages (ကျေးရွာ; kyayywa, IPA: [tɕé jwà]).
|Flag||Name||Burmese||Capital||ISO||Region||Population (2014)||Area (km²)||Type|
|Naypyidaw Union Territory||နေပြည်တော် ပြည်ထောင်စုနယ်မြေ||Naypyidaw||MM-18||Central||1,160,242||7,054||Union Territory|
|Danu Self-Administered Zone||ဓနုကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရဒေသ||Pindaya||East||Self-Administered Zone|
|Kokang Self-Administered Zone||ကိုးကန့်ကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရဒေသ||Laukkai||East||Self-Administered Zone|
|Naga Self-Administered Zone||နာဂကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရဒေသ||Lahe||North||Self-Administered Zone|
|Pa'O Self-Administered Zone||ပအိုဝ့်ကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရဒေသ||Hopong||East||Self-Administered Zone|
|Pa Laung Self-Administered Zone||ပလောင်းကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရဒေသ||Namhsan||East||Self-Administered Zone|
|Wa Self-Administered Division||ဝကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရတိုင်း||Hopang||East||Self-Administered Division|
The administrative structure of the states, regions and self-administering bodies is outlined in the new constitution adopted in 2008.
Each state or region has a Regional Government or a State Government consisting of a Chief Minister, other Ministers and an Advocate General. Legislative authority would reside with the State Hluttaw or Regional Hluttaw made up of elected civilian members and representatives of the Armed Forces. Both divisions are considered equivalent, the only distinction being that states have large ethnic minority populations and regions are mostly populated by the national majority Burmans.
The constitution states that Naypyidaw shall be a Union Territory under the direct administration of the President. Day-to-day functions would be carried out on the President's behalf by the Naypyidaw Council led by a Chairperson. The Chairperson and members of the Naypyidaw Council are appointed by the President and shall include civilians and representatives of the Armed Forces.
Self-Administered Zones and Self-Administered Divisions are administered by a Leading Body. The Leading Body consists of at least ten members and includes State or Regional Hluttaw members elected from the Zones or Divisions and other members nominated by the Armed Forces. The Leading Body has both executive and legislative powers. A Chairperson is head of each Leading Body.
Within Shan State:
In 1900, Burma was a province of British India, and was divided into two subdivisions: Lower Burma, whose capital was Rangoon with four divisions (Arakan, Irrawaddy, Pegu, Tenasserim), and Upper Burma, whose capital was Mandalay with six divisions (Meiktila, Minbu, Sagaing, North Federated Shan States and South Federated Shan States).
On 10 October 1922, the Karenni States of Bawlake, Kantarawaddy, and Kyebogyi became a part of the Federated Shan States. In 1940, Minbu division's name was changed to Magwe, and Meiktila Divisions became part of Mandalay District.
Upon independence, on 4 January 1948, the Chin Hills area was split from Arakan Division to form Chin Special Division, and Kachin State was formed by carving out the Myitkyina and Bhamo districts of Mandalay Division. Karen State was also created from Amherst, Thaton, and Toungoo Districts of Tenasserim Division. Karenni State was separated from the Federated Shan States, and Shan State was formed by merging the Federated Shan States and the Wa States.
In 1952, Karenni State was renamed Kayah State. In 1964, Rangoon Division was separated from Pegu Division, whose capital shifted to Pegu. In addition, Karen State was renamed Kawthule State.
In 1972, the Hanthawaddy and Hmawbi districts were moved under Rangoon Division's juridstiction.
In 1974, after Ne Win introduced a constitution, Chin Special Division became a state, and its capital moved from Falam to Hakha. Kawthule State's name was reverted to Karen State, and Mon State was separated from Tenasserim Division. Mon State's capital became Moulmein, and Tenasserim Division's became Tavoy. In addition, Rakhine Division was granted statehood.
The 2008 Constitution stipulates the renaming of the 7 "divisions" (တိုင်း in Burmese) as "regions" (တိုင်းဒေသကြီး in Burmese). It also stipulates the creation of Union territories, which include the capital of Nay Pyi Taw and ethnic self-administered zones (ကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရဒေသ in Burmese) and self-administered divisions (ကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရတိုင်း in Burmese). These self-administered regions include the following:
On 20 August 2010, the renaming of the 7 divisions and the naming of the 6 self-administered zones was announced by Burmese state media.