|Shri-prithvi-vallabha, Maharajadhiraja, Parameshvara|
|Reign||c. 643 – c. 645|
|Dynasty||Chalukyas of Vatapi|
Adityavarman (r. c. 643–645 CE) was a king of the Chalukya dynasty of Vatapi in southern India. He was a son of Pulakeshin II, who was defeated and probably killed when the Pallavas invaded and captured the Chalukya capital Vatapi. The immediate history of the dynasty after Pulakeshin's death is not clear, but inscriptions of Adityavarman and his son suggest that Adityavarman ruled a weakened Chalukya kingdom for a short period, before his younger brother Vikramaditya I defeated the Pallavas and restored the Chalukya power.
Adityavarman was one of the sons of the Chalukya emperor Pulakeshin II. In 642–643 CE, the Pallavas, who were the southern neighbours of the Chalukyas, invaded and captured the Chalukya capital Vatapi. Pulakeshin was probably killed in this conflict.
The history of the Chalukya dynasty over the next decade, when Pulakeshin's other son Vikramaditya I ascended the throne in c. 655, is not clear. It cannot be said with certainty if the Chalukya empire was divided among the various sons of Pulakeshin, or if his successor(s) ruled from other headquarter(s) while the Pallavas occupied Vatapi. Despite this uncertainty, Adityavarman's existence and his rule as the Chalukya king is attested by his Kurnool (Karnul) grant inscription, his son's Nelakunda grant inscription, Someshvara III's Vikramankabhyudaya, and Sarvajnatma's Samkshepa-Shariraka.
The Kurnool inscription does not mention Adityavarman's order of birth among Pulakeshin's sons, and does not mention Vikramaditya.
The 1009 CE Kantheru grant inscription of the later Chalukyas of Kalyani, who claimed descent from the Chalukyas of Badami, names Adityavarman as a son of Nedamari and a grandson of Pulakeshin II. However, this late account contains several inaccuracies, and cannot be considered as reliable.
The Kurnool inscription boasts that he possessed the "supreme rule over the whole circuit of earth which had been overcome by the strength of his arm and prowess".
The Kurnool grant inscription is dated to Adityavarman's first regnal year: historian D. P. Dikshit assumes that he may have ruled during c. 643–645 CE, spending most of his time trying to regain the former Chalukya territory from the Pallavas and other enemies. Historian D. C. Sircar theorized that Vikramaditya I and Adityavarman ruled different parts of the Pulakeshin's former empire simultaneously.
Historian D. P. Dikshit disputes this identification based on the following arguments: