This page uses content from Wikipedia and is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Action role-playing game

Part of a series on
Role-playing video games
Role-playing video game icon.svg
Subgenres
Topics
Lists

Action role-playing video games (abbreviated action RPG or ARPG) are a subgenre of role-playing video games. The games emphasize real-time combat (where the player has direct control over characters) over turn-based or menu-based combat. These games often use action game combat systems similar to hack and slash or shooter games.

Action role-playing games may also incorporate action-adventure games, which include a mission system and RPG mechanics, or massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) with real-time combat systems.

Early action role-playing games and hack and slash

Allgame claimed that the following games released prior to 1984 were action RPGs: Temple of Apshai (1979)[1] and its sequel Gateway to Apshai (1983),[2] Beneath the Pyramids for the Apple II (1980),[3] Bokosuka Wars (1983),[4] and Sword of Fargoal (1983).[5] Jeremy Parish of USgamer claimed that Adventure (1980) was an action RPG.[6] Bill Loguidice and Matt Barton claimed that the Intellivision games Advanced Dungeons & Dragons (1982) and Treasure of Tarmin (1983) were action RPGs.[7] Shaun Musgrave of TouchArcade notes that Adventure lacked RPG mechanics such as experience points and permanent character growth, and argues that Gateway to Apshai is "the earliest game I'd feel comfortable calling an action-RPG" but notes that "it doesn't fit neatly into our modern genre classifications," though came closer than Bokosuka Wars released the same year.[8]

Jeremy Parish of 1UP.com argues that Japanese developers created a new brand of action role-playing game; these new Japanese games combined the role-playing genre with arcade-style action and action-adventure elements.[9] Shaun Musgrave of TouchArcade also traces the genre's roots to Japan, noting that the "Western game industry of the time had a tendency to treat action games and RPGs as separate things for separate demographics".[8] Bill Loguidice and Matt Barton largely credit The Legend of Zelda for the surge of action-oriented CRPGs released in the late 1980s,[10] and argue that "the rise of action CRPGs" was "a mostly successful effort to bring" Zelda's "style of gaming to the PC."[11]:212

Jeremy Parish argues that action RPGs were popularized in Japan by The Tower of Druaga.[9] It was released for arcades in June 1984, and was intended as a "fantasy version of Pac-Man, with puzzles to solve, monsters to battle, and hidden treasure to find."[8] Its success in Japan inspired the development of Dragon Slayer (1984)[9] and Hydlide (1984).[8] Dragon Slayer, Hydlide and Courageous Perseus (1984) "vie for position as genre precedent" according to John Szczepaniak, and there was an ongoing rivalry developing between the Dragon Slayer and Hydlide series over the years.[12] The Tower of Druaga, Dragon Slayer and Hydlide were influential in Japan, where they influenced later action RPGs such as Ys, as well as The Legend of Zelda.[13]:38[14]

Falcom's Dragon Slayer, created by Yoshio Kiya,[14] is "the very first action-RPG ever made" according to GameSetWatch.[15] Originally released for the PC-8801 computer in September 1984,[16] it abandoned the command-based battles of earlier role-playing games in favor of real-time hack-and-slash combat that required direct input from the player, alongside puzzle-solving elements.[14] In contrast to earlier turn-based roguelikes, Dragon Slayer was a dungeon-crawl role-playing game using real-time, action-oriented combat,[15] combined with traditional role-playing mechanics.[9] Dragon Slayer's overhead action role-playing formula was used in many later games.[17]

Screenshot of the original NEC PC-8801 version of Hydlide (1984), an action role-playing game

T&E Soft's Hydlide, released in December 1984,[18] was created by Tokihiro Naito, who was influenced by The Tower of Druaga.[13]:42–49 It was the first action RPG with an overworld.[8] The game was immensely popular in Japan, selling 2 million copies across all platforms.[19] According to John Szczepaniak, it "cannot be overstated how influential Hydlide was on the ARPGs which followed it".[12] The same year, Courageous Perseus was also one of the earliest action RPGs.[20]

Dragon Slayer II: Xanadu, released in 1985 (billed as a "new type of real-time role-playing game"), was an action role-playing game including many character stats and a large quest.[15] It also incorporated a side-scrolling view during exploration and an overhead view during battle,[17] and an early "Karma" morality system where the character's Karma meter will rise if he commits sin (killing "good" enemies), which in turn causes the temples to refuse to level him up.[15] Xanadu Scenario II, released in 1986, was an expansion pack, created to expand the content of Dragon Slayer II: Xanadu.[17] Hydlide II: Shine of Darkness (1985) also featured a morality system.[8] Eurogamer cites Fairlight (1985) as an early action RPG.[21]

Late 1980s

The Legend of Zelda (1986), while often not considered a role-playing game, was an important influence on the action RPG genre

An important influence on the action RPG genre was the 1986 action-adventure, The Legend of Zelda, which served as the template for many future action RPGs.[22] In contrast to previous action RPGs, such as Dragon Slayer and Hydlide, which required the player to bump into enemies in order to attack them, The Legend of Zelda featured an attack button that animates a sword swing or projectile attack on the screen.[14][23] It was also an early example of open-world, nonlinear gameplay, and introduced new features such as battery backup saving. These elements have been used in many action RPGs since.[24] The game was largely responsible for the surge of action-oriented RPGs released since the late 1980s, in Japan as well as in America, where it was often cited as an influence on action-oriented computer RPGs.[11]:182, 212[25] When it was released in North America, The Legend of Zelda was seen as a new kind of RPG with action-adventure elements, with Roe R. Adams (who worked on the Wizardry series) stating in 1990 that although "it still had many action-adventure features, it was definitely a CRPG" (computer role-playing game).[26] The popularity of the Legend of Zelda series prompted the creation of many new real-time action combat RPGs, and a decline in games featuring stat-heavy, turn-based combat.[27]:317 Despite its action-adventure genre, due to its similarities to previous action RPGs and its impact on the genre,[11]:216, 385 there continues to be much debate regarding whether or not The Legend of Zelda should be considered an action RPG.[11]:209–210

In 1987, Zelda II: The Adventure of Link implemented an RPG-esque system, including experience points and levels with action game elements.[28] Unlike its predecessor, Zelda II fits the definition of an action RPG.[8]

Another Metroidvania-style action RPG released that year was System Sacom's Sharp X1 computer game Euphory, which was possibly the only Metroidvania-style multiplayer action RPG produced, allowing two-player cooperative gameplay.[29] The fifth Dragon Slayer title, Sorcerian, was also released that year. It was a party-based action RPG, with the player controlling a party of four characters at the same time in a side-scrolling view. The game also featured character creation, highly customizable characters, class-based puzzles, and a new scenario system, allowing players to choose from 15 scenarios, or quests, to play through in the order of their choice. It was also an episodic video game, with expansion disks later released offering more scenarios.[14] Falcom also released the first installment of its Ys series in 1987. While not very popular in the West, the long-running Ys series has performed strongly in the Japanese market, with many sequels, remakes and ports in the decades that followed its release. Besides Falcom's own Dragon Slayer series, Ys was also influenced by Hydlide, from which it borrowed certain mechanics such as health-regeneration.[30]

The Faery Tale Adventure offered one of the largest worlds at the time, with over 17,000 computer screens without loading times.[31]

In 1988, Telenet Japan's Exile series debuted, and was controversial due to its plot, which revolves around a time-traveling Crusades-era Syrian assassin who assassinates various religious/historical figures as well as 20th century political leaders,[32] The gameplay of Exile included both overhead exploration and side-scrolling combat, and featured a heart monitor to represent the player's Attack Power and Armor Class statistics. Another controversial aspect of the game involved taking drugs (instead of potions) that increase/decrease attributes, but with side effects such as heart-rate increase/decrease or death.[32] Origin Systems, the developer of the Ultima series, also released an action RPG in 1988, titled Times of Lore, which was inspired by various NES titles, particularly The Legend of Zelda.[11]:182, 212 Times of Lore inspired several later titles by Origin Systems, such as the 1990 games Bad Blood (another action RPG based on the same engine)[11]:183 and Ultima VI: The False Prophet, based on the same interface.[33][not in citation given]

Also in 1989, the enhanced remake Ys I & II was one of the first video games to use CD-ROM, which was utilized to provide enhanced graphics, animated cut scenes,[34][35] a Red Book CD soundtrack,[36][35] and voice acting.[34][36] Its English localization was also one of the first to use voice dubbing. The game received the Game of the Year award from OMNI Magazine in 1990, as well as other prizes.[34] Another 1989 release, Activision's Prophecy: The Fall of Trinadon, attempted to introduce "Nintendo-style" action combat to North American computer role-playing games.[37]

1990s

In 1991, Square released Seiken Densetsu: Final Fantasy Gaiden, also known as Final Fantasy Adventure or Mystic Quest in the West, for the Game Boy. Like Crystalis, the action in Seiken Densetsu bore a strong resemblance to that of Legend of Zelda, but added more RPG elements. It was one of the first action RPGs to allow players to kill townspeople, though later Mana games removed this feature.[38] Arcus Odyssey by Wolf Team (now Namco Tales Studio) was an action RPG that featured an isometric perspective and co-operative multiplayer gameplay.[39]

Secret of Mana (1993), an action RPG that was acclaimed for its cooperative multiplayer

In 1993, the second Seiken Densetsu game, Secret of Mana, received considerable acclaim,[40] for its innovative pausable real-time action battle system,[41] and its innovative cooperative multiplayer gameplay,[40] where the second or third players could drop in and out of the game at any time, rather than players having to join the game at the same time.[42] The game has remained influential through to the present day, with its ring menu system still used in modern games and its cooperative multiplayer mentioned as an influence on games such as Dungeon Siege III (2011).[42]

Most other such games, however, used a side-scrolling perspective typical of beat 'em ups, such as the Princess Crown series, including Odin Sphere and Muramasa: The Demon Blade.[citation needed]

LandStalker's 1997 spiritual successor Alundra[43] is considered "one of the finest examples of action/RPG gaming," combining platforming elements and challenging puzzles with an innovative storyline revolving around entering people's dreams and dealing with mature themes.[44]

Other subgenres

First-person dungeon crawl

The majority of first-person computer games up until the late 1980s were turn-based, though a few had attempted to incorporate real-time elements,[citation needed] such as Dungeons of Daggorath and the 1985 game Alternate Reality: The City. The Bard's Tale, released in 1985, attempted to generate random encounters when the player was away from the keyboard to give the impression that monsters were constantly moving.[citation needed] In late 1987, FTL Games released Dungeon Master, a dungeon crawler that had a real-time game world and some real-time combat elements (akin to Active Time Battle), requiring players to quickly issue orders to the characters, setting the standard for first-person computer RPGs for several years.[11]:234–236 Other first-person RPGs in the style of Dungeon Master include SSI's Eye of the Beholder (1990) and Raven Software's Black Crypt (1992).

The 1989 title Dragon Wars was a first-person computer RPG influenced by console titles such as The Legend of Zelda.[25]

In 1992, Blue Sky Productions released Ultima Underworld: The Stygian Abyss, a technologically advanced game due to its 3D first-person ray casting graphics combined with real-time action and deep role-playing experience.[original research?] One of the game's developers, Warren Spector, would go on to help develop more games combining first-person action and RPG gameplay, such as System Shock and Deus Ex.

Other first-person RPGs in the style of Ultima Underworld include Shadowcaster by Raven Software and id Software in 1993 (created with an early version of the Doom engine), The Elder Scrolls series and Fallout 3 by Bethesda, Vampire: The Masquerade – Bloodlines by Troika Games, Baroque by Sting Entertainment and Hellgate: London by Flagship Studios, which was formed from Blizzard North executives and developers responsible for the Diablo franchise, which also supports third-person view.[citation needed] FromSoftware's King's Field series of dungeon-crawler action RPGs used a fully 3D polygonal first-person perspective from 1994 to 2001, though the series' 2009 spiritual successor Demon's Souls had adopted a third-person view instead.[citation needed]

In 2012, game developer Almost Human released Legend of Grimrock, and the sequel Legend of Grimrock II in 2014. Both games are throwbacks to the older dungeon crawler games, but with modern 3D graphics and real-time combat.[citation needed] A sequel to the long-running franchise Might and Magic was also released in 2014, Might & Magic X: Legacy, maintaining the older tradition of turn-based combat.[citation needed]

Point and click

Video showing basic point and click action RPG gameplay.

Action RPGs were far more common on consoles than computers, due to gamepads being better suited to real-time action than the keyboard and mouse.[27]:43 Though there were attempts at creating action-oriented computer RPGs during the late 1980s and early 1990s, very few saw any success.[27]:43 Times of Lore was one of the more successful attempts in the American computer market,[27]:43 where there was a generally negative attitude towards combining genres in this way and more of an emphasis on preserving the purity of the RPG genre.[9] For example, a 1991 issue of Computer Gaming World criticized several computer role-playing games for using "arcade" or "Nintendo-style" action combat, including Ys, Sorcerian, Times of Lore, and Prophecy.[37]

Diablo (1996) set the template for point and click action RPG gameplay.

The 1988 Origin Systems title Times of Lore was an action RPG with an icon-based point-and-click interface.[45] The game's design and interface was inspired by console titles, particularly The Legend of Zelda, which influenced the game's accessible interface, real-time gameplay, and constant-scale open world (rather than an unscaled overworld).[25] In turn, these console-influenced elements and the point-and-click interface were adopted by later Origin Systems titles, including Bad Blood,[11]:183[25] Ultima VI,[45][25] and Ultima VII.[27]:347 Times of Lore was a precursor to Diablo and Baldur's Gate: Dark Alliance.[46]

The 1994 title Ultima VIII used mouse controls and attempted to add precision jumping sequences reminiscent of a Mario platform game, though reactions to the game's mouse-based combat were mixed. It was not until 1996 that a stagnant PC RPG market was revitalized by Blizzard's Diablo, an action RPG that used a point-and-click interface and offered gamers a free online service to play with others that maintained the same rules and gameplay.[27]:43

Diablo's effect on the market was significant, inspiring many imitators. Its impact was such that the term "action RPG" has come to be more commonly used for Diablo-style games rather than Zelda-style games, with The Legend of Zelda itself recategorized as an action-adventure.[9] Diablo's style of combat eventually went on to be used by many massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) developed in the years after Diablo's release.[citation needed] For many years afterwards, games that closely mimicked the Diablo formula were referred to as "Diablo clones".[citation needed] The definition of a Diablo clone is even vaguer than that of an action RPG, but typically such games have each player controlling a single character and have a strong focus on combat, with plot and character interaction kept to a minimum. Non-player characters (NPCs) are often limited in scope.[citation needed] For example, an NPC could be either a merchant who buys and sells items, or a service provider who upgrades the player's skills, resources, or abilities. Diablo clones are also considered to have few or no puzzles to solve because many problems instead have an action-based solution (such as breaking a wooden door open with an axe rather than having to find its key).

Blizzard later released a sequel, Diablo II in 2000, which became popular in America, Europe, and Asia. Diablo II's effect on the gaming industry led to an even larger number of "clones" than its predecessor, inspiring games for almost a decade.[citation needed] Diablo III was released on May 15, 2012. Some of the aforementioned Diablo "clones" are: the Sacred series, Titan Quest, Dungeon Siege series, Darkstone: Evil Reigns, Loki: Heroes of Mythology, Legend: Hand of God, Fate, Torchlight, Path of Exile, The Incredible Adventures of Van Helsing, Marvel Heroes 2015, and Grim Dawn.[citation needed]

Role-playing shooter

In 1987, Shiryou Sensen: War of the Dead, used shooter-based combat and gave limited ammunition for each weapon, forcing the player to search for ammo and often run away from monsters in order to conserve ammo.[47]

Sigma Star Saga (2005) is a shoot 'em up RPG.[48]

Targeting individual body parts can be found in Bethesda's Fallout 3 (2008).[citation needed]

Shooter-based action RPGs include the Deus Ex series (2000 onwards) by Ion Storm, Bungie's Destiny (2014), Irem's Steambot Chronicles (2005),[49] Square Enix's third-person shooter RPG Dirge of Cerberus: Final Fantasy VII (2006), which introduced an over-the-shoulder perspective similar to Resident Evil 4,[50] and the MMO vehicular combat game Auto Assault (2006) by NetDevil and NCsoft.[51] Other action RPGs featured both hack and slash and shooting elements, with the use of both guns (or in some cases, bow and arrow or aerial combat) and melee weapons, including Cavia's flight-based Drakengard series (2003 to 2005),[52] and Level-5's Rogue Galaxy (2005).[53]

Other RPS games include the Mass Effect series (2007 onwards), Fallout 3 (2008), White Gold: War in Paradise (2008), and Borderlands (2009).[54] Borderlands developer Gearbox software has dubbed it as a "role-playing shooter" due to the heavy RPG elements within the game, such as quest-based gameplay and also its character traits and leveling system.[55] Half-Minute Hero (2009) is an RPG shooter featuring self-referential humour and a 30-second time limit for each level and boss encounter.[56] Other recent action role-playing games with shooter elements include the 2010 titles Alpha Protocol by Obsidian Entertainment and The 3rd Birthday, the third game in the Parasite Eve series, features a unique blend of action RPG, real-time tactical RPG, survival horror and third-person tactical shooter elements.[57][58]

More recent shooter-based RPGs include Imageepoch's post-apocapytic Black Rock Shooter (2011), which employs both first-person and third-person shooter elements,[59][60] and Square Enix's Final Fantasy XV (2016), which features both hack and slash and third-person shooter elements.[61]

Choices and consequences

In 1988, Ys II introduced the ability to transform into a monster, which allows the player to both scare human non-player characters, prompting unique dialogues, as well as interact with monsters. This is a recurring feature in the series, offering the player insight into the enemies to an extent that very few other games allow to this day.[62]

Some of Quintet's action RPGs allowed players to shape the world through town-building simulation elements, such as Soul Blazer in 1992 and Terranigma in 1995.[63] That same year, Square's Seiken Densetsu 3 allowed a number of different possible storyline paths and endings depending on which combination of characters the player selected. The game also introduced a class-change system incorporating light-dark alignments.[64][65]

In 1997, Quintet's game The Granstream Saga, while having a mostly linear plot, offered a difficult moral choice towards the end of the game regarding which of two characters to save, with each choice leading to a different ending.[66] In 1999, Square's Legend of Mana,[67] the most open-ended game in the Mana series,[68] allowed the player to build the game world however they choose, complete any quests and subplots in any order of their choice, and select which storyline paths to follow,[67][69] departing from most other action RPGs of the time.[70]

Many other games allow the player to make game-altering choices in dialogues and events, while still maintaining their respective action elements, whether they be in the first person or the third person.[citation needed] Such games include Chrono Trigger (1995), Orphen: Scion of Sorcery (2000), Gothic (2001), Gothic II (2002), Tales of Symphonia (2003), Vampire: The Masquerade – Bloodlines (2004), Radiata Stories (2005), Steambot Chronicles (2005), Gothic 3 (2006), The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion (2006), Odin Sphere (2007), Fallout 3 (2008), White Gold: War in Paradise (2008), Infinite Space (2009), Alpha Protocol (2010), Dragon's Dogma (2012), and the Way of the Samurai, Drakengard, Fable, Yakuza, Devil Summoner, Mass Effect and The Witcher video games.[citation needed]

Criticism

Jordane Thiboust of Beenox criticized the term "action role-playing game", stating that it does not represent what core experience the game offers to the player. He claimed that "[action role-playing game] is not a real subgenre" but "the current marketing slang for [...] '[role-playing video games] that are cool to play with a pad'", so that as more and more role-playing games are marketed as "action role-playing games", the label becomes increasingly useless. He also pointed out the danger of creating false consumer expectations, as "action role-playing game" largely describes the type of combat to expect in a game, however says nothing about the overall player experience (narrative, sandbox, or dungeon crawl) it has to offer.[71]

References

  1. ^ Temple of Apshai at AllGame
  2. ^ Gateway to Apshai at AllGame
  3. ^ Beneath the Pyramids at AllGame
  4. ^ Bokosuka Wars at AllGame
  5. ^ Sword of Fargoal at AllGame
  6. ^ Jeremy Parish (2014). "Montezuma's Revenge, an Atari Quest to Make Adventure Proud". USGamer. Retrieved 2017-10-18. By borrowing from Atari's action RPG, Utopia created a platformer classic. 
  7. ^ Barton, Matt; Loguidice, Bill (2008). "A History of Gaming Platforms: Mattel Intellivision". Gamasutra. Retrieved 2017-10-18. Mattel's lineup included the classic action role-playing games Advanced Dungeons & Dragons Cartridge (1982) and Advanced Dungeons & Dragons Treasure of Tarmin Cartridge (1983). 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Musgrave, Shaun (2017-07-13). "RPG Reload Glossary: The Origins of Action-RPGs". TouchArcade. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f Jeremy Parish (2012). "What Happened to the Action RPG?". 1UP. Archived from the original on 2015-01-12. Retrieved 2015-01-14. 
  10. ^ Barton, Matt (2008). Dungeons & Desktops: The History of Computer Role-Playing Games. Wellesley, Massachusetts: A K Peters. p. 182. ISBN 1568814119. It's no doubt that the unparalleled success of the NES and The Legend of Zelda is partially, if not mostly, responsible for the surge of action-oriented CRPGs we find in the late 1980s. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h Barton, Matt (2008). Dungeons & Desktops: The History of Computer Role-Playing Games. Wellesley, Massachusetts: A K Peters. ISBN 1568814119. 
  12. ^ a b Szczepaniak, John (2015). The Untold History of Japanese Game Developers Volume 2. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. p. 38. ISBN 9781518818745. It cannot be overstated how influential Hydlide was on the ARPGs which followed it, nor how popular it was on both computers and the Famicom in Japan. But it is imperative you compare Hydlide only to games released that same year, to fully appreciate the merit in its ideas. There were two other similar titles in 1984, Courageous Perseus and Dragon Slayer, and all three vie for position as genre precedent - amusingly, a friendly rivalry even developed with Dragon Slayer's creator Yoshio Kiya, of Falcom, as over the years T&E Software and Falcom competed against each other. 
  13. ^ a b Szczepaniak, John (2015). The Untold History of Japanese Game Developers Volume 2. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN 9781518818745. 
  14. ^ a b c d e Kalata, Kurt. "Dragon Slayer". Hardcore Gaming 101. Archived from the original on 2011-08-05. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  15. ^ a b c d "Falcom Classics". GameSetWatch. July 12, 2006. Retrieved 2011-05-18. 
  16. ^ Falcom Chronicle, Nihon Falcom
  17. ^ a b c Kalata, Kurt. "Xanadu". Hardcore Gaming 101. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-07. 
  18. ^ "Hydlide (PC88)". Famitsu. Retrieved 2015-01-14. 
  19. ^ "History of Japanese Video Games". Kinephanos. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  20. ^ Szczepaniak, John (2015). The Untold History of Japanese Game Developers Volume 2. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN 9781518818745. Courageous Perseus is one of the earliest if not the first Action-RPG 
  21. ^ Mason, Graeme (July 24, 2016). "The classic 8-bit isometric games that tried to break the mould". Eurogamer. Retrieved 2017-10-18. [T]here were potions and food to collect as well, making Fairlight an early entry in the action RPG genre seen so commonly today. 
  22. ^ "GameSpy's 30 Most Influential People in Gaming". GameSpy. Archived from the original on 2 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-01. 
  23. ^ Kalata, Kurt; Greene, Robert. "Hydlide". Hardcore Gaming 101. 
  24. ^ "15 Most Influential Games of All Time: The Legend of Zelda". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2010-05-15. Retrieved 2010-01-24. 
  25. ^ a b c d e Computer Gaming World, issue 68 (February 1990), pages 34 & 38
  26. ^ Adams, Roe R. (November 1990), "Westward Ho! (Toward Japan, That Is): An Overview of the Evolution of CRPGs on Dedicated Game Machines", Computer Gaming World (76), pp. 83–84 [83], When The Legend of Zelda burst upon the scene in fall of 1988, it hit like a nova. Although it still had many action-adventure features, it was definitely a CRPG. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f Loguidice, Bill; Barton, Matt (2009). Vintage Games: An Insider Look at the History of Grand Theft Auto, Super Mario, and the Most Influential Games of All Time. Boston: Focal Press. ISBN 0240811461. 
  28. ^ Comedy (2006-02-25). "Zelda II: The 20-Year-Late Review". WIRED. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  29. ^ John Szczepaniak. "Retro Japanese Computers: Gaming's Final Frontier". Hardcore Gaming 101. p. 4. Retrieved 2011-03-18.  (Reprinted from Retro Gamer, Issue 67, 2009)
  30. ^ Szczepaniak, John (7 July 2011). "Falcom: Legacy of Ys". GamesTM (111): 152–159 [153]. Retrieved 2011-09-07. 
  31. ^ Horowitz, Ken (8 January 2009). "Genre Spotlight: RPG Round-Up". Sega-16. Retrieved 19 October 2017. It was hailed at the time as having the largest in-game world of any RPG (almost 17,000 screens)... 
  32. ^ a b Szczepaniak, John (2009-04-11). "Exile / XZR". Hardcore Gaming 101. Retrieved 2009-08-10. 
  33. ^ "Chris Roberts Video Game Credits and Biography". MobyGames. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  34. ^ a b c Szczepaniak, John (7 July 2011). "Falcom: Legacy of Ys". GamesTM (111): 152–159 [156]. Retrieved 2011-09-08. 
  35. ^ a b Szczepaniak, John (July 8, 2011). "History of Ys interviews". Hardcore Gaming 101. Retrieved 6 September 2011. )
  36. ^ a b Szczepaniak, John (7 July 2011). "Falcom: Legacy of Ys". GamesTM (111): 152–159 [155]. Retrieved 2011-09-08. 
  37. ^ a b Scorpia (October 1991). "C*R*P*G*S / Computer Role-Playing Game Survey". Computer Gaming World. p. 16. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  38. ^ Andrew Vestal (1998-11-02). "Other Game Boy RPGs". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2011-07-11. Retrieved 2009-11-18. 
  39. ^ Buchanan, Levi (2008-06-17). "Top 10 Renovation Games". IGN.com. Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  40. ^ a b Dutton, Fred (2010-12-17). "Secret of Mana hits App Store this month •". Eurogamer.net. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  41. ^ "Secret of Mana". RPGFan. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  42. ^ a b May 8, 2011 (2011-05-08). "Obsidian: We Wish New Vegas 'Wasn't Glitchy'". NowGamer. Archived from the original on 2011-01-02. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  43. ^ Webber (2 March 1998). "Alundra". RPGFan. Retrieved 20 January 2015. 
  44. ^ Zimmerman, Conrad (2009-03-20). "An RPG Draws Near! Alundra". Destructoid. Retrieved 30 January 2012. 
  45. ^ a b "The Official Book Of Ultima". Archive.org. 2010-07-21. Retrieved 2017-02-20. 
  46. ^ "Lemon – Commodore 64, C64 Games, Reviews & Music!". Lemon64.com. Retrieved 2017-03-06. 
  47. ^ Szczepaniak, John (2011-01-15). "War of the Dead". Hardcore Gaming 101. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  48. ^ Thomas, Lucas M. (2005-08-18). "Game Time: 'Sigma Star Saga'". Evansville Courier & Press. p. D11. Archived from the original on 2009-06-25. Retrieved 2008-06-25. 
  49. ^ Spencer (2006-05-23). "Steambot Chronicles". Siliconera. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  50. ^ "Dirge of Cerberus: Final Fantasy VII". Siliconera. Retrieved 2011-03-29. 
  51. ^ Kaiser, Joe (July 8, 2005). "Unsung Inventors". Next-Gen.biz. Archived from the original on 2005-10-28. Retrieved 2010-04-02. 
  52. ^ "Drakengard Preview for PS2 from". 1UP.com. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  53. ^ Yang, Louise (2007-01-26). "Rogue Galaxy: charming and cel shaded". Siliconera. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  54. ^ "A Visual Guide To The Role-Playing Game". Kotaku.com. 2010-05-25. Retrieved 2010-10-25. 
  55. ^ "Inside Mac Games Review: Borderlands: Game Of The Year Edition". Insidemacgames.com. 2011-01-31. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  56. ^ Keith Stuart (4 March 2011). "2D Forever: the fall and rise of hardcore Japanese game design". The Guardian. Retrieved 2011-03-23. 
  57. ^ Patrick Kolan (March 25, 2011). "The 3rd Birthday Review: Manhattan just can't catch a break these days". IGN. Retrieved 2011-04-01. 
  58. ^ David Wolinsky (April 7, 2011). "The 3rd Birthday review: New year's Eve". Joystiq. Archived from the original on 4 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-09. 
  59. ^ Tom Goldman (2010-11-24). "Imageepoch Unveils New Wave of JRPGs". The Escapist. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  60. ^ Spencer (2010-11-23). "Black Rock Shooter: The Game In Development For PSP [Update: Trailer". Siliconera. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  61. ^ "Final Fantasy Versus XIII trailer leaks out – GamerTell". GamerTell. 2011-01-18. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  62. ^ Szczepaniak, John (7 July 2011). "Falcom: Legacy of Ys". GamesTM (111): 152–159 [154]. Retrieved 2011-09-08. 
  63. ^ by David DeRienzo – February 27, 2007 (2007-02-27). "Quintet Heaven and Earth Trilogy". Hardcore Gaming 101. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  64. ^ "Seiken Densetsu 3". RPGFan. 1995-09-30. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  65. ^ "Reviews: Seiken Densetsu 3". 1UP.com. 2004-05-09. Archived from the original on 2015-11-18. Retrieved 2007-06-15. 
  66. ^ "Granstream Saga – Review". Rpgamer.com. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  67. ^ a b "]Legend of Mana". RPGFan. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  68. ^ "Sword of Mana". RPGFan. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  69. ^ "Legend of Mana". RPGFan. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  70. ^ Andrew Vestal (June 7, 2000). "Legend of Mana (review)". GameSpot.com. Archived from the original on December 12, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-14. 
  71. ^ Thiboust, Jordane (24 January 2013). "Focusing Creativity: RPG Genres". Gamasutra. p. 3. Retrieved 29 December 2013.