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8K resolution

Comparison chart
Example 8k footage from the International Space Station (select "WebM source" from the menu to view).

8K resolution refers to an image or display resolution with a width of approximately 8000 pixels. 8K UHD (7680 × 4320) is the highest resolution defined in the Rec. 2020 (UHDTV) standard.[1]

8K displays are said to produce images with such detailed colors that they evoke stronger sensory experiences. This phenomenon has been likened to hyperrealistic art.[2] A study revealed that most consumers can't tell the difference between 4K and 8K video.[3] 8K resolution can also be used for the purpose of creating enhanced lower resolution videos through a combination of cropping techniques and/or with downsampling[4] techniques used in video and film editing. Resolutions such as 8K allow filmmakers to shoot in a high resolution with a wide lens or at a further distance, in the case of potentially dangerous subjects (such as in wildlife documentaries), by being able to zoom and crop digitally in post-production. The technique involves taking a portion of the original 8K image and cropping it to match a smaller resolution such as the current industry standard for high-definition televisions (4K, 1080p, and 720p).[5]

8K display resolution is the successor to 4K resolution. TV manufacturers pushed to make 4K a new standard by 2017.[6] The feasibility of a fast transition to this new standard is questionable in view of the absence of broadcasting resources.[7] It is predicted[by whom?] that 8K-ready devices will still only account for 3% of UHD TVs by 2023 with global sales of 11 million units a year.[8] However, TV manufacturers remain optimistic as the 4K market grew much faster than expected, with actual sales exceeding projections nearly six-fold in 2016.[9]

In 2013, a transmission network's capability to carry HDTV resolution was limited by internet speeds and relied on satellite broadcast to transmit the high data rates. The demand is expected to drive the adoption of video compression standards and to place significant pressure on physical communication networks in the near future.[10]

As of 2018, few cameras had the capability to shoot video in 8K, with NHK being one of the only companies to have created a small broadcasting camera with an 8K image sensor.[4] By 2018 Red Digital Cinema camera company had delivered three 8K cameras in both a Full Frame sensor and Super 35 sensor.[11] Until major content sources are available, 8K is speculated to become a mainstream consumer display resolution around 2023 as mentioned in UHD forum Phase-B recommendations.[citation needed] Despite this, filmmakers are pushing demand for 8K cameras due to their ability to capture better 4K footage.

History

Astro Design 8K camera being displayed at the 2013 NAB Show
NHK and Hitachi demonstrating their 8K camera at the 2013 NAB Show

Japan's public broadcaster NHK was the first to start research and development of 4320p resolution in 1995. The format was standardized by SMPTE in October 2007, Interface standardized by SMPTE in August 2010 and Recommended as the international standard for television by lTU-R in 2012. Followed by public displays at electronics shows and screenings of 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi and public viewings in February 2014 and the FIFA World Cup in Brazil in June 2014 using HEVC with partners AstroDesign and Ikegami Electronics.[12][13][14]

On January 6, 2015, the MHL Consortium announced the release of the superMHL specification which will support 8K resolution at 120 fps, 48-bit video, the Rec. 2020 color space, high dynamic range support, a 32-pin reversible superMHL connector, and power charging of up to 40 watts.[15][16][17]

On March 1, 2016, The Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) unveiled DisplayPort 1.4, a new format that lets the use of 8K resolution (7680×4320) at 60 Hz with HDRR and 32 audio channels through USB-C.[18]

On January 4, 2017, the HDMI Forum announced HDMI 2.1 featuring support for 8k video with HDR, will be "released early in Q2 2017".[19]

8K Association Formed at CES 2019 to Help Develop 8K Ecosystem[20]

First cameras

On April 6, 2013, Astrodesign Inc. announced the AH-4800, capable of recording 8K resolution. In April 2015 it was announced by Red that their newly unveiled Red Weapon VV is also capable of recording 8K footage. In October 2016 they announced two additional 8K cameras, Red Weapon 8K S35 and Red Epic-W 8K S35.[21] The Red Weapon Dragon VV has been discontinued as of October 7, 2017, when Red unveiled the Red Weapon Monstro VV, their fourth camera capable of shooting 8K, with additional improvements in dynamic range and noise reduction, among other features.

Productions

In 2007, the original 65 mm negative of the 1992 film Baraka was re-scanned at 8K with a film scanner built specifically for the job at FotoKem Laboratories, and used to remaster the 2008 Blu-ray release. Chicago Sun-Times critic Roger Ebert described the Blu-ray release as "the finest video disc I have ever viewed or ever imagined."[22] A similar 8K scan/4K intermediate digital restoration of Lawrence of Arabia was made for Blu-ray and theatrical re-release during 2012 by Sony Pictures to celebrate the film's 50th anniversary.[23][24] According to Grover Crisp, executive VP of restoration at Sony Pictures, the new 8K scan has such high resolution that when examined, showed a series of fine concentric lines in a pattern "reminiscent of a fingerprint" near the top of the frame. This was caused by the film emulsion melting and cracking in the desert heat during production. Sony had to hire a third party to minimise or eliminate the rippling artifacts in the new restored version.[23]

On May 17, 2013, the Franklin Institute premiered To Space and Back, an 8K×8K, 60 fps, 3D video running approximately 25 minutes. During its first run at the Fels Planetarium it was played at 4K, 60 fps.[25]

In November 2013, NHK screened the experimental-drama short film "The Chorus" at Tokyo Film Festival which was filmed in 8K and 22.2 sound format.[26]

On May 1, 2015, an 8K abstract computer animation was screened at the Filmatic Festival at the University of California, San Diego. The work was created as an assignment in the VIS 40/ICAM 40 Introduction to Computing in the Arts class taught at UCSD by Associate Teaching Professor Brett Stalbaum during the winter quarter of 2015, with each student producing 300 8192×4800 pixel frames. The work's music soundtrack was composed by Mark Matamoros.[27][28]

On January 6, 2016, director James Gunn stated that the 2017 film Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 would be the first (feature) film to be shot in 8K, using the Red Weapon 8K VV.[29]

Broadcasting

Japanese public broadcaster NHK began research and development on 8K in 1995, having spent over $1 billion on R & D since then.[30] Codenamed Super Hi-Vision (named after its old Hi-Vision analog HDTV system), NHK also was simultaneously working on the development of 22.2 channel surround sound audio. The world's first 8K television was unveiled by Sharp at the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in 2012.[31] Experimental transmissions of the resolution were tested with the 2012 Summer Olympics, and at the Cannes Film Festival showcasing Beauties À La Carte, a 27-minute short showcased publicly on a 220" screen, with a three-year roadmap that entails the launch of 8K test broadcasting in 2016, with plans to roll out full 8K services by 2018, and in time for the 2020 Summer Olympics.[32] On December 1, 2018, NHK launched BS8K, a broadcast channel transmitting at 8K resolution.[33][34][35]

Gaming

Sony announced that the PlayStation 5 will support 8K graphics.[36] Microsoft then announced Xbox Series X with 8K graphic support set to release in fall 2020.[37]

Editing

8K video can be edited by all major NLEs such as Avid Media Composer, Adobe Premiere Pro, Lightworks, Vegas Pro, Final Cut Pro X, Edius and DaVinci Resolve.

Resolutions

Comparison of 8K resolutions
Resolution Display aspect ratio Megapixels
7680 × 2160 3.55:1 (32:9) 16.59
7680 × 3200 2.40:1 (24:10) 24.58
7680 × 3240 2.370:1 (64:27) 24.88
7680 × 4320 1.77:1 (16:9) 33.18
8192 × 4320 ≈1.90∶1 (256∶135) 35.39
8192 × 4608 1.77:1 (16:9) 37.75
8192 × 5120 1.60:1 (16:10) 41.94
8192 × 8192 1.00:1 (1:1) 67.11

7680 × 4320

This is the resolution of the UHDTV2 format defined in SMPTE ST 2036-1,[38][39] as well as the 8K UHDTV format defined in ITU-R BT.2020.[40] It was also chosen by the DVB project as the resolution for their 8K broadcasting standard, UHD-2.[41]

7680 × 4320 has 33.2 million pixels and a 16∶9 aspect ratio. It is double the resolution of 4K UHD in each dimension (four times as many total pixels), and four times the resolution of 1080p in each dimension (sixteen times as many total pixels).

8K fulldome

This chart shows the proportional scale differences from 1080p (1920×1080 pixels) to 8K×8K fulldome video.

8K fulldome is a resolution of 8192×8192 (67.1 megapixels) and is the resolution of top-end modern projection for hemispherical fulldome theatres often seen in planetaria.[citation needed]

Devices

TVs and monitors

  • Sharp's 85" 8K LCD TV, 7680×4320 resolution—International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) 2012
  • Panasonic's 145" 8K Plasma Display, 7680×4320 resolution—Internationale Funkausstellung Berlin (IFA) 2012
  • LG's 98" 8K LCD TV, 7680×4320 resolution—Internationale Funkausstellung Berlin (IFA) 2014
  • Panasonic's 55" 8K 120 Hz LCD, 7680×4320 resolution—International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) 2015
  • Samsung's 110" 8K 3D LCD TV, 7680×4320 resolution—International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) 2015
  • Canon 30" 8K reference display—September 2015
  • BOE 98" 8K TV at CEATEC 2015[42]
  • LG's 98-inch UH9800 with ColorPrime Plus technology—International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) 2016[43]
  • Samsung 98-inch SUHD 8K curved TV—International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) 2016[44]
  • Hisense 98-inch ULED 8K TV—International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) 2016[45]
  • Changhong 98-inch 98ZHQ2R "8K Super UHD", 7680x4320 resolution—International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) 2016[46]
  • Sharp's prototype 27-inch 8K 120 Hz IGZO desktop monitor with HDR (CEATEC 2016)
  • Philips 328P8K 8K UHD desktop Monitor (ces 2017)
  • Dell UltraSharp 32 Ultra HD 8K Monitor (UP3218K) (CES 2017)[47][48]
  • Samsung Q9S 85-inch QLED TV—International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) 2018
  • LG 88 inch 8K OLED TV—International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) 2018
  • Samsung Q900 R – 65, 75, 82, 85 inches 8K QLED TV models at CES 2019[49]
  • Sony ZG9 85 inch & 100 inch 8K Ultra HD Bravia TV International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) 2019
  • BOE 8K 13.3 inch Narrow Bezel Laptop Display at CITE 2018[50]
  • Digital Projection INSIGHT Laser 8K at Integrated Systems Europe 2018[51]
  • TCL 75 inch 8K QLED TV – FIBA Basketball World Cup 2019 Edition displayed at IFA 2018[52]
  • Hisense U9E – 75 inch 8K QLED at IFA global press conference 2019[53]

8K VR Headset

  • Pimax Vision 8K X, made up of two 3840×2160p screens @ 90 Hz, started Croudfunding on October 2017, with product release now rescheduled to 2020

Cameras

  • Sony CineAlta F65, Unveiled on September 7, 2011.
  • Astrodesign AH-4800, 1.7-inch CMOS camera capable of recording in 8K resolution. Unveiled by on April 6, 2013.
  • RED Weapon Vista Vision 35MM 8K (8192×4320) at 60 fps in full-sensor mode, or up to 75 fps in a scope (2.40:1) frame format. The camera has a 40.96 x 21.6mm sensor based on the previous generation Dragon sensor. Unveiled at NAB 2015, released end of 2015.
  • RED DSMC2 Helium with an S35MM 8K 29.9 × 15.77mm (Diagonal: 33.80 mm) 35.4 Megapixel CMOS sensor—up to 60 fps at 8K Full Format (8192 × 4320) & 75 fps at 8K 2.4:1 (8192 x 3456) with a dynamic range of 16.5+ stops; limited release July 2016, general release October 2016.
  • RED Epic-W with an S35MM 8K 29.9 × 15.77mm 35.4 Megapixel CMOS Helium sensor—up to 30 fps at 8K Full Format (8192 × 4320) with a dynamic range of 16.5+ stops; release date: October 2016.
  • RED DSMC2 Monstro 8K VV[54] 40.96 mm x 21.60 mm (Diagonal: 46.31 mm) 35.4 Megapixel CMOS "wider than full frame" Monstro sensor—up to 60 fps at 8K Full Format (8192 × 4320) & 75 fps at 8K 2.4:1 (8192 x 3456) with a dynamic range of 17+ stops; release date: October 2017.
  • Ikegami S35MM SHK-810 8K broadcast camera. Unveiled at NAB 2015.
  • Hitachi S35MM SK-UHD8060 broadcast camera Unveiled at NAB 2015.
  • Hitachi S35MM SK-UHD8000 broadcast camera. Production version of the SK-UHD8060.
  • Canon Cinema EOS System S35MM 8K camera. Unveiled September, 2015.
  • Panavision DXL 35MM 8K 60fps and HDR Digital Cinematography Camera (Vista Vision Sensor). May 2016
  • Sharp S35MM 8C-B60A 8K Professional broadcast Camcorder[55] Nov 2017
  • Cinemartin Fran 8K VV Global Shutter, announced on 8 May 2018, starting sales in fall 2018. Company went to bankruptcy on 1 April 2019 and camera is no longer available. It never reached production stage, only prototype.[56]

Phones with 8K camera

  • Nubia Red Magic 3, shoots 8K @ 15 fps, is the first 8K video capable phone, went on sale from May 2019.
  • Samsung Galaxy S20, S20 Plus, & S20 Ultra, shoots 8k @ 24fps, went on sale from February 2020
  • Xiaomi Mi 10 & Mi 10 Pro shoots 8k @ 24fps, went on sale from February 2020

8K VR camera

  • QooCam 8K, first affordable 8K 360° VR camera, with built-in video stitching.

Fulldome

  • Definiti 8K theaters, 8192×8192 resolution (apu)

See also

References

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  2. ^ Cho, Mu-Hyun (June 19, 2019). "8K and the quest to express the 'real'". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
  3. ^ 8K vs 4K TVs: Double-blind study by Warner Bros. et al reveals most consumers can’t tell the difference
  4. ^ a b Marine, Joe. "NHK Has Finally Shrunk Their 8K Resolution Camera, but How Close Are We to Shooting in 8K?". No Film School. Retrieved April 3, 2014.
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  29. ^ Gunn, James (January 6, 2016). "Very excited to announce Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 will be the first film to shoot using the RED Weapon 8k".
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  39. ^ SMPTE ST 2036-1:2014, Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE), October 13, 2014
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  56. ^ [www.newsshooter.com]

External links