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702 Alauda

702 Alauda
702 Alauda as seen an hour after occulting TYC 1920-00620-1[1]
Discovery [2][3]
Discovered byJ. Helffrich
Discovery siteHeidelberg Obs.
Discovery date26 July 2007
MPC designation(702) Alauda
Pronunciation/əˈlɔːdə/ ə-LAW-də
Named after
Alauda (genus of Birds)[4]
1910 KQ
main-belt · (outer)[5]
Orbital characteristics[2]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc106.89 yr (39,040 days)
Aphelion3.2533 AU
Perihelion3.1372 AU
3.1953 AU
5.71 yr (2,086 days)
0° 10m 21.36s / day
Known satellites1 (Pichi üñëm)[7][8]
Physical characteristics
Dimensions163.98±57.99 km[9]
172.29±55.38 km[10]
175 km[11]
190.58±2.65 km[12]
190.980±1.973 km[13]
194.73±3.2 km[14]
201.961±4.642 km[15]
202±20 km[16]
Mass1018 kg[17]
Mean density
(1.57 ± 0.5) g/cm³[17]
8.3531 h (0.34805 d)[5]
C (Tholen)[2]
11.42 to 13.57[18]

702 Alauda (/əˈlɔːdə/ ə-LAW-də), provisional designation 1910 KQ, is a carbonaceous asteroid and binary system from the outer asteroid belt, approximately 190 kilometers in diameter.[2] It is the parent body of the Alauda family. Discovered in 1910 by German astronomer Joseph Helffrich at Heidelberg Observatory, it was named after the lark (alauda).[3][4] Its small moon, named Pichi üñëm, was discovered in 2007.[8][19]


Alauda's satellite Pichi üñëm, provisionally known as S/2007 (702) 1, was discovered from observations using adaptive-optics imaging with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) 8-m Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Cerro Paranal, Chile.[8] It is about 3.5 km in diameter (assuming it has the same albedo as the primary) and orbits Alauda in a nearly circular orbit at a distance of 1226.5±24 km. Pichi üñëm takes 4.91 days to complete one orbit.[17][19][20] It was named Pichi üñëm, meaning "little bird" in the Mapuche language of Chile, the country from which the moon was discovered.[21]

Orbital characteristics

Alauda has been identified as the largest member of the Alauda family, a dynamical family of bright carbonaceous asteroids with more than a thousand known members.[22]:23 Other members of this family include: 581 Tauntonia, 1101 Clematis, 1838 Ursa, 3139 Shantou, 3325 TARDIS, 4368 Pillmore, 5360 Rozhdestvenskij, 5815 Shinsengumi, and many others.[23] Alauda's moon may be a result of the collision that created the asteroid family.[8]

Physical characteristics

The discovery and tracking of Alauda's moon enabled Alauda's mass to be determined. The discoverers of the moon, Patricio Rojo and Jean-Luc Margot, estimated Alauda's mass to be (6.057 ± 0.36)×1018 kg and its density to be (1.57 ± 0.5) g/cm³.[17]


Alauda has been observed to occult stars on several occasions, providing important information on its size and shape. It produced occultations on 2001-07-12 and 2004-04-21.[24] It may have occulted an apparent magnitude 9.5 star in the constellation of Gemini on 2009-10-17 at 08:18 UT.[1] This event should have been visible from Uruguay, Argentina, and Chile.[1]


  1. ^ a b c Steve Preston. "(702) Alauda / TYC 1920-00620-1 event on 2009 Oct 17, 08:18 UT". Asteroid Occultation Updates. Retrieved 5 October 2009.[permanent dead link]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 702 Alauda (1910 KQ)" (2017-06-05 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  3. ^ a b "702 Alauda (1910 KQ)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  4. ^ a b Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(702) Alauda". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (702) Alauda. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 68. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_703. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  5. ^ a b "LCDB Data for (702) Alauda". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  6. ^ "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  7. ^ Johnston, Robert (21 September 2014). "(702) Alauda". Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d Margot, Jean-Luc; Rojo, P. (October 2007). "Discovery of a Satellite to Asteroid Family Member (702) Alauda". American Astronomical Society. 39: 440. Bibcode:2007DPS....39.1608M. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  9. ^ Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  10. ^ Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  11. ^ Marchis, F.; Kaasalainen, M.; Hom, E. F. Y.; Berthier, J.; Enriquez, J.; Hestroffer, D.; et al. (November 2006). "Shape, size and multiplicity of main-belt asteroids. I. Keck Adaptive Optics survey". Icarus. 185 (1): 39–63. Bibcode:2006Icar..185...39M. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2006.06.001. PMC 2600456. PMID 19081813. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  12. ^ Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  13. ^ Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  14. ^ Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System: IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  15. ^ Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90.
  16. ^ Alí-Lagoa, V.; de León, J.; Licandro, J.; Delbó, M.; Campins, H.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; et al. (June 2013). "Physical properties of B-type asteroids from WISE data". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 554: 16. arXiv:1303.5487. Bibcode:2013A&A...554A..71A. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201220680. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  17. ^ a b c d Rojo, P.; Margot, J. L. (February 2011). "Mass and Density of the B-type Asteroid (702) Alauda". The Astrophysical Journal. 727 (2): 5. arXiv:1011.6577. Bibcode:2011ApJ...727...69R. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/727/2/69.
  18. ^ Magnitudes generated with JPL Horizons for the year 1950 through 2100
  19. ^ a b P. Rojo and J.L. Margot (2 August 2007). "Electronic Telegram No. 1016: S/2007 (702) 1". IAU Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  20. ^ "Asteroid and Dwarf Planet News". Retrieved 6 October 2009.
  21. ^ "New Names of Minor Planets" (PDF). (2.19 MB)
  22. ^ Nesvorný, D.; Broz, M.; Carruba, V. (December 2014). Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families. Asteroids IV. pp. 297–321. arXiv:1502.01628. doi:10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch016. ISBN 9780816532131.
  23. ^ "Opposition dates and magnitudes for 702 family members (2004–2008)". Italian organization of minor planet observers. Archived from the original on 16 May 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2009.
  24. ^ David Dunham. "Observed asteroidal occultation list". Retrieved 27 January 2011.

External links