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530s

Millennium: 1st millennium
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The 530s decade ran from January 1, 530, to December 31, 539.

Events

530

By place

Byzantine Empire
Persia
Africa
  • King Hilderic is deposed by his cousin Gelimer after a 7-year reign. He restores Arianism as the official religion of the Vandal Kingdom, and puts his uncle along with supporters in prison.
  • Justinian I sends an embassy to Carthage to negotiate with Hilderic. He replies: “Nothing is more desirable than that a monarch should mind his own business.”
China

By topic

Art
Religion

531

By place

Byzantine Empire
Europe
Persia
  • King Kavadh I, age 82, dies after a 43-year reign. Khosrau I, his favourite son, is proclaimed successor over his elder brothers.
Asia
Unidentified

532

By place

Byzantine Empire
Europe
Asia

By topic

Arts and sciences
  • First year in which the Anno Domini calendar is used for numbering the years.
Religion

533

By place

Byzantine Empire
  • Spring – Vandalic War: Anti-Vandal revolt in Tripolitania and Sardinia; Gelimer, king of the Vandals, dispatches the bulk of the Vandal fleet (120 ships and 5,000 men) under his brother Tzazo to Sardinia. Byzantine forces from Cyrenaica occupy Leptis Magna and Tripolis.
  • Summer – Emperor Justinian I holds a war council in Constantinople. His advisers warn him against launching an expedition to North Africa, because of the supply-lines (1,000 miles into Vandal waters) and the huge drain on the imperial treasury. Justinian appoints Belisarius to command the Byzantine army.
  • June 21 – A Byzantine expeditionary fleet under Belisarius sails in 500 transports, escorted by 92 war vessels (dromons), manned by 20,000 seamen from Constantinople, to attack the Vandals in Africa, via Greece and Sicily. The fleet carries 10,000 infantry, about half Byzantine and half foederati, and 5,000 cavalry, consisting of 3,000 Byzantine horseman, 1,000 foreign allies (Huns and Heruli) and 1,500 of Belisarius' retainers (bucellarii).[3] On the flagship Belisarius is accompanied by his military secretary Procopius and his wife Antonina.
  • September – Belisarius arrives at Sicily, which he uses as a staging area, with the permission of the Ostrogoth queen Amalasuntha, daughter of Theodoric the Great and regent of Italy. The Ostrogoths help him with supplies and the fleet is prepared for the final attack.
  • September 9 – The Byzantine army lands at Caput Vada (modern Tunisia). Belisarius marches his army northwards, towards Carthage (over 140 miles), following the coast, accompanied by the fleet and shadowed by Gelimer. During the march, the Vandal towns fall without a fight.[4]
  • September 13Battle of Ad Decimum: Gelimer attempts to ambush the Byzantines in a defile at the "10th milestone" from Carthage; due to inadequate coordination and the alertness of Belisarius, the attack is repulsed and the Vandals are scattered into the desert. Belisarius enters the capital and orders his soldiers not to kill or enslave the population. The fleet is stationed in the Lake of Tunis.
  • December 15Battle of Tricamarum: Gelimer assembles an army of about 50,000 men at Bulla Regia (Numidia), and advances towards Carthage. Belisarius moves out to meet the Vandals; he leads the Byzantine cavalry (5,000 men) into battle. Without waiting for his infantry to come up, he charges, despite odds of almost 10-to-1, and throws Gelimer in confusion. Belisarius captures the Vandal camp by storm. Tzazo is killed in an all-cavalry fight, and Gelimer is forced to seek refuge in the mountains of Tunis with the Berbers.
  • December 16 – The Digesta or Pandectae, a collection of jurist writings and other sources, is completed (see Corpus Juris Civilis).
Europe

By topic

Religion

534

By place

Byzantine Empire
  • January 1Decimus Theodorius Paulinus is appointed consul (the last to hold this office in the West).
  • March – King Gelimer surrenders to Belisarius, after spending a winter in the mountains of Numidia. He and large numbers of captured Vandals are transported to Constantinople. The Vandal Kingdom ends, and the African provinces return to the Byzantine Empire.
  • April – Belisarius leaves a small force in Africa under the Byzantine general Solomon, to continue the subjugation of the province. He is appointed governor (Exarch) and pacifies with success the Moorish tribes. Malta becomes a Byzantine province (until 870).
  • Summer – Belisarius arrives in Constantinople and is permitted by Emperor Justinian I to celebrate a triumph, the first non-imperial triumph for over 500 years. In the procession are paraded the spoils of the Temple of Jerusalem and the Vandal treasure.
  • Justinian I commemorates the victory against the Vandals by stamping medals in his honor with the inscription "Gloria Romanorum" (approximate date).
  • November 16 – A second and final revision of the Codex Justinianus is published.
Europe

535

By place

Byzantine Empire
Europe
Africa
Asia

By topic

Religion
Meteorology

536

By place

Byzantine Empire
Europe
Africa
  • March – Belisarius sails to Carthage with 1,000 men, to suppress a mutiny against Solomon. Meanwhile the capital is besieged by 9,000 rebels, including many Vandals, under Stotzas. Belisarius defeats the mutineers and hurries back to Sicily.
Asia

By topic

Religion
Meteorology

537

By place

Byzantine Empire
  • March 2Siege of Rome: The Ostrogoth army (45,000 men) under King Vitiges begins the siege of the capital. Belisarius conducts a delaying action outside the Flaminian Gate; he and a detachment of his bucellarii are almost cut off.[14]
  • Vitiges sets up seven camps, overlooking the main gates and access routes to the city, in order to starve it out. He blocks the Roman aqueducts that are supplying Rome with water, necessary both for drinking and for operating the corn mills.[15]
  • March 21 – Vitiges attempts to assault the northern and eastern city walls with four siege towers, but is repulsed at the Praenestine Gate, known as the Vivarium, by the defenders under the Byzantine generals Bessas and Peranius.[16]
  • April – The Goths capture the Portus Claudii at Ostia; the harbor is left unguarded by the Romans. Belisarius is forced to unload his supplies at Antium (modern Anzio); he sends urgent messages for reinforcements to Constantinople.[17]
  • April 9 – Belisarius receives his promised reinforcements: 1,600 cavalry, mostly of Hunnic or Slavic origin and expert bowmen. He starts, despite shortages, raids against the Gothic camps and Vitiges is forced into a stalemate.[18]
  • June – In Rome, famine brings the city to despair; Belisarius sends his secretary Procopius to Naples for more reinforcements and supplies. Vitiges arranges a three-month armistice for Gothic envoys to travel to Constantinople.[19]
  • November – Belisarius brings his long-awaited reinforcements, namely 3,000 Isaurians and 1,800 cavalry embarked in Ostia, along with a supply convoy, safely to Rome. The Goths are forced to abandon the Portus Claudii.[20]
  • December – Belisarius sends John "the Sanguinary" with a force of 2,000 men towards Picenum, to plunder the east coast of Italy. He arrives at Ariminum (Rimini), where he is welcomed by the local Roman population.[21]
  • December 27 – The construction of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (begun in 532) is completed.
Britain
Africa
Asia
  • Eastern Wei sends an advance guard of three army columns through the Tong Pass, to attack Western Wei. The Western army under Yu-Wen Tai defeats one of the columns while the others retreat. Yu-Wen follows up, but runs into the main Eastern army (200,000 men). The Westerners are pushed back through the pass, and the Eastern army emerges from the mountains. Unexpectedly they are charged in the flank by 10,000 Western cavalry, and 6,000 Easterners are killed and 70,000 captured.[23]
  • John Cottistis starts a short-lived rebellion against Justinian I. He is declared emperor at Dara, but is killed four days later by conspiring soldiers.[24]
America

By topic

Construction
  • The Aqua Virgo aqueduct is destroyed by the Goths; they try to use the underground channel as a secret route to invade Rome.[25]
Religion
Society

538

By place

Byzantine Empire
Britain
Asia

By topic

Religion
  • As a result of persecutions by the Byzantine Empire, Monophysite Christians establish the Coptic Church in Alexandria (approximate date).
  • The Third Council of Orléans takes place and prohibits rural labor on Sunday.
  • The first time since Emperor Justinian's decree of 533 that John became the Bishop of Rome, Chief Bishop of all the churches, the supremacy of the Bishop of Rome over the Church could actually be implemented by Vigilius.
Society

539

By place

Byzantine Empire
Europe
Asia

By topic

Society

Significant people

Births

Deaths

Notes

  1. ^ Famine is described as "U536.3, Failure of bread" in the Annals of Ulster.[13]
  2. ^ Famine is described as "AI537.1, Failure of bread" in the Annals of Inisfallen.[26]
  3. ^ Famine is described as "T538.1, Failure of bread" in the Annals of Tigernach.[30]
  4. ^ Famine is described as "U539.1, Failure of bread" in the Annals of Ulster.[32]

References

  1. ^ Isidore of Seville, History of the Goths, chapter 40. Translation by Guido Donini and Gorden B. Ford, Isidore of Seville's History of the Goths, Vandals, and Suevi, second revised edition (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1970), p. 19.
  2. ^ Connor, Steve (2014-07-07). "Our explosive past is written in the Antarctic ice". i. London. p. 17.
  3. ^ Procopius, BV, Vol. I, XI. 7–16
  4. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, p. 130–131
  5. ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries", p. 215
  6. ^ Jordanes, Vol. LIX, p. 51 and Herwig Wolfram (1998), p. 338
  7. ^ Rome at War (p. 55). Michael Whitby, 2002. ISBN 1-84176-359-4
  8. ^ Breviarium S. Liberati, ap. Mansi, Concilia, Vol. IX, p. 695
  9. ^ Bury, 1958 & p. 143–144
  10. ^ Bury (1923), Ch. XVIII, p. 180
  11. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XVIII, p. 174
  12. ^ Procopius, De Bello Gothico I.VII
  13. ^ Bambury, Beechinor 2000, pp. U536.3.
  14. ^ Bury (1923), Ch. XIX, p. 182–183
  15. ^ Bury (1923), Ch. XIX, p. 185
  16. ^ Procopius, De Bello Gothico I.XXIII
  17. ^ Procopius, De Bello Gothico I.XXVII
  18. ^ Bury (1923), Ch. XIX, p. 188
  19. ^ Procopius, De Bello Gothico II.VI
  20. ^ Procopius, De Bello Gothico II.V
  21. ^ Procopius, De Bello Gothico, II.VII
  22. ^ Bury, 1958 & p. 144–145
  23. ^ Imperial Chinese Armies (p. 42). C.J. Peers, 1995. ISBN 978-1-85532-514-2
  24. ^ Martindale et al.
  25. ^ Procopius, De Bello Gothico II.IX
  26. ^ Mac Airt & 2000-2008, pp. AI537.1.
  27. ^ Procopius, De Bello Gothico II
  28. ^ Procopius, De Bello Gothico I.XIII
  29. ^ Martindale et al.
  30. ^ Mac Niocaill 2010, pp. T538.1.
  31. ^ The Making of the Slavs (p. 190–226). Florin Curta, 2001. ISBN 978-0-511-49629-5
  32. ^ Bambury, Beechinor 2000, pp. U539.1.