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Clinical data
Other names4,4'-DMAR
ATC code
  • none
Legal status
Legal status
  • DE: Anlage II (Authorized trade only, not prescriptible)
  • UK: Class A
  • Illegal in Czech Republic and Sweden
CAS Number
PubChem CID
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass190.246 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

4,4'-Dimethylaminorex (abbreviated as 4,4'-DMAR), sometimes referred to by the street name "Serotoni", is a psychostimulant and entactogen designer drug related to aminorex, 4-methylaminorex, and pemoline.[1] It was first detected in the Netherlands in December 2012,[2] and has been sold as a designer drug around Europe since mid-2013.

4,4'-DMAR had been linked to at least 31 deaths in Hungary, Poland, and the UK by February 2014, mostly when consumed in combination with other drugs.[3] Nineteen deaths linked to 4,4'-DMAR were reported in Northern Ireland in the same time period.[4]

4,4'-DMAR acts as a potent and balanced serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent (SNDRA), with EC50 values for serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine release of 18.5 nM, 26.9 nM, and 8.6 nM, respectively.[1]


The UK Home Office expressed intent to ban 4,4'-DMAR following advice from the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs[5] and subsequently it became a class A drug on 11 March 2015.[6]

4,4'-DMAR is an Anlage II controlled substance in Germany as of May 2015.[7]

Sweden's public health agency suggested to classify 4,4'-DMAR as hazardous substance on November 10, 2014.[8]

4,4'-DMAR is also banned in the Czech Republic.[9]


  1. ^ a b Brandt, Simon D.; Baumann, Michael H.; Partilla, John S.; Kavanagh, Pierce V.; Power, John D.; Talbot, Brian; Twamley, Brendan; Mahony, Olivia; O'Brien, John; Elliott, Simon P.; Archer, Roland P.; Patrick, Julian; Singh, Kuldip; Dempster, Nicola M.; Cosbey, Simon H. (2014). "Characterization of a novel and potentially lethal designer drug(±)-cis-para-methyl-4-methylaminorex (4,4'-DMAR, or 'Serotoni')". Drug Testing and Analysis. 6 (7–8): 684–695. doi:10.1002/dta.1668. ISSN 1942-7603. PMC 4128571. PMID 24841869.
  2. ^ EMCDDA 2012 Annual report on the state of the drugs problem in Europe
  3. ^ "Risk Assessment Report of a new psychoactive substance: 4-methyl-5-(4-methylphenyl)-4,5-dihydrooxazol-2-amine (4,4′-dimethylaminorex, 4,4′-DMAR)" (PDF). European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). November 2014.
  4. ^ Unregulated stimulant drug blamed for 19 deaths, Belfast inquest told. The Guardian, Thursday 5 June 2014
  5. ^ "Letter to ACMD regarding advice on MT-45 and 4,4'-DMAR". UK Home Office. 26 November 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  6. ^ "Circular 003/2015: a change to the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971: control of MT-45 and 4,4'-DMAR". UK Home Office. 20 February 2015. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
  7. ^ "Gesetz über den Verkehr mit Betäubungsmitteln (Betäubungsmittelgesetz - BtMG) Anlage II (zu § 1 Abs. 1) (verkehrsfähige, aber nicht verschreibungsfähige Betäubungsmittel)" (in German). Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  8. ^ "Cannabinoider föreslås bli klassade som hälsofarlig vara" (in Swedish). Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  9. ^ "Látky, o které byl doplněn seznam č. 4 psychotropních látek (příloha č. 4 k nařízení vlády č. 463/2013 Sb.)" (PDF) (in Czech). Ministerstvo zdravotnictví.