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3rd Field Artillery Regiment (United States)

3rd Field Artillery Regiment
3FARegtCOA.png
Coat of arms
Active1812
CountryUnited States
Branch United States Army
TypeUSA - Army Field Artillery Insignia.svgField artillery
RoleUSARS parent regiment
Sizeregiment
Motto(s)"Celeritas et Accuratio" (Speed and Accuracy)
Branch colorScarlet
Insignia
Distinctive unit insignia3 FA Rgt DUI.png
U.S. Field Artillery Regiments
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The 3rd Field Artillery Regiment is a field artillery regiment of the United States Army, first formed in 1812, although regimental units trace their lineages as far back as 1794. Based on the service of these antecedents, the regiment claims battle honors for the War of 1812, the Seminole campaign, the Mexican War, the Civil War, the Spanish–American War, and the Philippine Insurrection. The regiment served with the 6th Division during World War I, with the 5th Division, 6th Division and 2d Cavalry Division between the world wars, and with the 9th Armored Division during and after World War II. Since 1961, the regiment has been a parent regiment under the Combat Arms Regimental System and the U.S. Army Regimental System, with regimental elements serving with the 1st, 6th, and 8th Infantry Divisions; 2nd and 3rd Armored Divisions; 1st Cavalry Division; 194th Armored Brigade; and various field artillery brigades and groups. Two regimental battalions are currently active: the 2nd Battalion in the 1st Armored Division and the 5th Battalion in the 17th Field Artillery Brigade

History

Although the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment was only constituted in 1907, its constituent elements trace their history to various numbered companies of artillery dating back to 1794. Under a myriad of designations, these separate batteries fought in Canada during the War of 1812, against the Seminoles during the Indian Wars, in numerous campaigns during the Mexican War and Civil War, and in both Cuba and Puerto Rico during the Spanish–American War.[1]

The regiment's antecedents fought in the War of 1812, the Battle of Sharpsburg, the Battle of Gettysburg, the battle of Cold Harbor, the battle of the Wilderness, and the Battle of Petersburg.

The 3rd Field Artillery was assigned 17 November 1917 to the 6th Division, and fought in World War I. It was relieved 24 March 1923 from assignment to the 6th Division and assigned to the 5th Division; relieved 1 January 1930 from assignment to the 5th Division and assigned to the 6th Division.

The 3rd Field Artillery was relieved 25 September 1939 from assignment to the 6th Division and assigned to the 2d Cavalry Division. The personnel of the 3rd Field Artillery would serve in an armored field artillery battalion as part of the 9th Armored Division.

The 9th Armored Division landed in Normandy late in September 1944, and first went into the line, 23 October 1944, on patrol duty in a quiet sector along the Luxembourg-German frontier. When the Germans launched their winter offensive on 16 December 1944, the 9th, with no real combat experience, suddenly found itself engaged in heavy fighting. The Division saw its severest action at St. Vith, Echternach, and Bastogne, its units fighting in widely separated areas. Its stand at Bastogne held off the Germans long enough to enable the 101st Airborne Division to dig in for a defense of the city. After a rest period in January 1945, the Division prepared to drive across the Roer River. The offensive was launched on 28 February 1945 and the 9th crossed the Roer to Rheinbach, sending patrols into Remagen. On 7 March 1945, elements of the 9th Armored found that the Ludendorff Bridge was still standing. When German demolition charges failed to bring the bridge down, they crossed it, disarming and removing the remaining charges, which could have exploded at any time. The Division exploited the bridgehead, moving south and east across the Lahn River toward Limburg, where thousands of Allied prisoners were liberated from Stalag XIIA. The Division drove on to Frankfurt and then turned to assist in the closing of the Ruhr Pocket. In April it continued east, encircling Leipzig and securing a line along the Mulde River. The Division was shifting south to Czechoslovakia when the war in Europe ended on 9 May 1945.[2] All units of CCB/9 AIB of the 9th Armored Division were awarded the Presidential Unit Citation for their actions in taking and defending the Ludendorff Bridge during the Battle of Remagen in World War II.

The regiment then fought in Operation Desert Storm, Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation Inherent Resolve.

Further Service by Regimental Elements

1st Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment was part of the 2nd Armored Division 1st Tiger Brigade from Ft. Hood Texas. 1-3 FA Battalion deployed to Operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Prior to the commencement of the main ground offensive, Bravo Battery provided fire support in the form of Artillery Raids to the 2nd Marine Light Armored Infantry whose mission was to scout out possible alternate breach points, identify and locate Iraqi Artillery for counter battery attack, and to draw attention away from the main forces approach points. 144 Marines along with 2 155mm SP howitzer guns from Bravo 1-3 held off increasingly mounting Iraqi forces from 10:15 am on Feb 21st through 4:00am Feb 24th, using LAV-25's, LAV-TOW's and on call Artillery support. From 29 January to 1 February the Battalion would participate in the Battle of Khafji. Bravo Battery along with A Battery and C Battery 1-3 FA also participated and engaged Iraqi forces leading to the end of hostilities. The 1-3 FA Battalion had a hand in destroying or capturing 181 enemy tanks, 148 APCs, 40 artillery pieces, 27 AA emplacements, and 263 Iraqi soldiers dead with an additional 4,051 captured.[4] The Battalion earned The Naval Unit Commendation for Valor for its outstanding performance in combat against the Iraqi army. Upon return to Ft Hood the battalion was inactivated.
Elements of Battery C, 4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment's Reconnaissance Team drive past a burning Iraqi tank. Vehicles from 4-3 FA follow closely behind during the Battle of Norfolk during the 1st Gulf War, February 1991.
Battery C, 4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment, 2nd Armored Division(FWD) moves into position to conduct fire missions during the Battle of Norfolk, February 1991.
4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment conducts artillery strikes on Iraqi positions during the 1st Gulf War. 4-3 FA was the primary fire support battalion for Task Force 1-41 during the 1st Gulf War, February 1991.
A M109A2 self-propelled howitzer, belonging to 4-3 FA Battalion, prepares to move into position to engage Iraqi forces, February 1991. 4-3 FA Battalion conducted numerous fire missions and artillery raids during the 1st Gulf War.
A M109A2 howitzer belonging to Battery C, 4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment, 2nd Armored Division(FWD) during the Gulf War, February 1991.
4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment was part of the 2nd Armored Division (Forward), stationed in Garlstedt, Germany. During the 1st Gulf War 4-3 FA Battalion was chosen to be the main fire support element of Task Force 1-41 Infantry.[10] It was equipped with M-109A2 self-propelled howitzers. 4-3 FA and the rest of the 2nd Armored Division(Forward) were attached to the U.S. 1st Infantry Division during the war.[11] On 15 February 1991 4-3 FA fired on a trailer and a few trucks in the Iraqi sector that was observing American forces.[12] On 16 February 1991 several groups of Iraqi vehicles appeared to be performing reconnaissance on Task Force 1-41 and were driven away by fire from 4-3 FA.[13] That same day an Iraqi platoon, including six vehicles, was reported as being to the northeast of Task Force 1-41 Infantry. They were engaged with artillery fire from 4-3 FA.[14] Later that evening another group of Iraqi vehicles was spotted moving towards the center of the Task Force. The vehicles appeared to be Iraqi Soviet made BTRs and tanks. For the next hour Task Force 1-41 Infantry would fight several small battles with Iraqi reconnaissance units. Task Force 1-41 Infantry fired TOW missiles at the Iraqi formation destroying one tank. The rest of the formation was destroyed or driven away by artillery fire from 4-3 FA.[15] On 17 February 1991 4-3 FA fired on an Iraqi mortar position.[16] 4-3 FA conducted a significant number of fire missions and artillery raids at the breach of initial Iraqi defenses.[17] Over 14,000 artillery rounds were fired during these particular missions.[18] These missions destroyed the vast majority of Iraq's artillery assets and inflicted heavy casualties on Iraqi infantry units. Iraq lost close to 22 artillery battalions during the initial stages of this barrage.[19] This would include the destruction of approximately 396 Iraqi artillery pieces.[19] One Iraqi unit that was totally destroyed during the preparation was the Iraqi 48th Infantry Division Artillery Group.[20] The group's commander stated his unit lost 83 of its 100 guns to the artillery preparation.[20] 4-3 FA participated in the Battle of 73 Easting and the Battle of Norfolk.[21] The Battle of Norfolk has been recognized by some sources as the second largest tank battle in American history and the largest tank battle of the 1st Gulf War.[22] During the early stages of the battle 4-3 FA participated in fire missions against Iraqi targets a dozen miles to the east.[23] At the Battle of Norfolk 4-3 FA had a hand in the destruction of 60 Iraqi tanks and 35 Infantry fighting vehicles just west of the IPSA pipeline.[24] 4-3 FA continued to provide fire support for the 2nd Armored Division(Fwd) as the division fought a series of short, sharp battles with Iraqi tank platoons as it moved across the Wadi Al-Batin into Kuwait.[25] 4-3 FA engaged up to eight Iraqi divisions and inflicted well over 5,000 casualties on the Iraqi Army and Iraq's elite Republican Guard. 4-3 FA fired close to 7,000 rounds during these particular missions. Battery C, 4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment was ambushed by the Republican Guard during the Battle of Norfolk, however, Battery C managed to escape without suffering any losses.[25] Some of the other units assigned to Task Force 1-41 Infantry were not so fortunate. Multiple M1A1 Abrams tanks and Bradley IFVs were either destroyed or badly damaged during the ambush.[26][27] In the fog of war there were also friendly fire incidents.[26] The Republican Guard tank unit that was responsible for the ambush was destroyed by a Task Force 1-41 tank platoon assigned to protect 4-3 FA.[25] Battery C's Advance Party/Reconnaissance Team was also ambushed while scouting for howitzer emplacement positions.[25][28] The Battery C Advance Party/Reconnaissance Team managed to hold off the much larger Iraqi Republican Guard unit until Task Force 3-66 Armor arrived on the scene which resulted in the defeat of the Republican Guard unit and several Iraqi soldiers becoming prisoners of war.[29] On 27 February 1991 4-3 FA participated in a joint British and American artillery fire mission which destroyed what was left of Iraqi artillery and infantry forces at Objective Tungsten.[30] 4-3 FA played a significant role in the destruction of four Iraqi tank and mechanized brigades during the 1st Gulf War.[31] 4-3 FA Fire Support Element earned a Valorous Unit Award for its performance during combat operations.[32] The unit was inactivated on 15 May 1992.[33]
  • The 5th Battalion, 3rd Field Artillery Regiment served as a missile battalion from 1960–63, inactivating at Oakdale, Pennsylvania. The battalion was reactivated and assigned to the 6th Infantry Division at Fort Campbell, Kentucky, for a brief period in 1967-68. The battalion was reactivated again in 1983 in Germany, serving with the 42nd Field Artillery Brigade there. In 1992, the battalion was reassigned to Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and joined the 17th Field Artillery Brigade. The battalion deployed multiple times to Operation Iraqi Freedom, and moved with the 17th Field Artillery Brigade to Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington, where it is currently stationed.

Heraldry

Distinctive unit insignia

3 FA Rgt DUI.png

  • Description

The distinctive unit insignia is an adaptation of the shield and crest of the coat of arms. The insignia is 1 1/4 inches (3.18 cm) in height.

  • Symbolism

The shield is scarlet for Artillery. The Civil War is represented by the chevron and four stars, one for each battery in that war. The lion's face, dragon and fleur-de-lis allude to the War of 1812. China Relief Expedition and World War I, respectively. The rising sun indicates the regiment dates back nearly to the dawn of this country's history (Battery "D" was organized in 1802), and the Aztec banner is for the Mexican War.

  • Background

The distinctive unit insignia was approved on 11 August 1922. It was redesignated for the 3d Field Artillery Battalion on 25 March 1941. It was redesignated for the 3d Armored Field Artillery Battalion on 7 December 1943. The insignia was cancelled on 19 October 1959. The insignia was restored and authorized for the 3d Field Artillery Regiment effective 1 September 1971.

Coat of arms

3FARegtCOA.png

  • Blazon
    • Shield: Gules, on a chevronel Argent four mullets Azure, in chief a lion's face and an imperial Chinese dragon affronté both Or, langued of the third, in base a golden fleur-de-lis.
    • Crest: On a wreath of colors Argent and Gules a demi-sun Or charged with an Aztec banner Vert garnished Argent.
  • Symbolism
    • Shield: The shield is scarlet for Artillery. The Civil War is represented by the chevron and four stars, one for each battery in that war. The lion's face, dragon and fleur-de-lis allude to the War of 1812, China Relief Expedition and World War I, respectively.
    • Crest: The rising sun indicates the regiment dates back nearly to the dawn of this country's history (Battery "D" was organized in 1802), and the Aztec banner is for the Mexican War.
  • Background: The coat of arms was originally approved for the 3d Field Artillery on 16 April 1921. It was amended to change the description and symbolism on 7 July 1921. It was redesignated for the 3d Field Artillery Battalion on 25 March 1941. It was redesignated for the 3d Armored Field Artillery Battalion on 7 December 1943. It was cancelled on 19 October 1959. The coat of arms was restored and authorized for the 3d Field Artillery Regiment effective 1 September 1971. The coat of arms was amended to correct the description of the shield on 30 October 2001.

Lineage & Honors

Lineage

  • Constituted 25 January 1907 in the Regular Army as the 3d Field artillery.
  • Organized 31 May 1907 from new and existing units with Headquarters at Fort Sam Houston, Texas.
  • Assigned 17 November 1917 to the 6th Division.
(2d Battalion inactivated 1 August 1922 at Camp George G. Meade, Maryland.)
  • Inactivated (less 1st and 2d Battalions) 14 September 1922 at Camp Knox, Kentucky.
(2d Battalion activated 22 September 1922 at Fort Sheridan, Illinois; inactivated 14 December 1922 at Fort Sheridan, Illinois.)
  • Relieved 24 March 1923 from assignment to the 6th division and assigned to the 5th division.
(2d Battalion consolidated 7 September 1927 with the 1st Battalion, 14th Field artillery [active] [see Annex], and consolidated unit designated as the 2d Battalion, 3d Field artillery.)
  • Activated (less 1st and 2d Battalions) 24 October 1927 at Fort Mcintosh, Texas.
  • Relieved 1 January 1930 from assignment to the 5th division and assigned to the 6th division.
  • Inactivated (less 1st and 2d Battalions) 1 May 1930 at Fort Sheridan, Illinois.
(1st Battalion inactivated 3 December 1934 at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana.)
  • Relieved 25 September 1939 from assignment to the 6th division and assigned to the 2d Cavalry division.
(1st Battalion activated 1 October 1939 at Fort Riley, Kansas; 2d Battalion inactivated 1 June 1940 at Fort Sheridan, Illinois)
  • Reorganized and redesignated 1 January 1941 as the 3d Field artillery Battalion.
  • Reorganized and redesignated 14 July 1942 as the 3d Armored Field Artillery Battalion; concurrently, relieved from assignment to the 2d Cavalry Division and assigned to the 9th Armored Division.
  • Relieved 6 July 1945 from assignment to the 9th Armored Division.
  • Inactivated 20 October 1946 in Germany.
  • Assigned 20 October 1950 to the 2d Armored Division.
  • Activated 10 November 1950 at Fort Hood, Texas.
  • Inactivated 1 July 1957 in Germany and relieved from assignment to the 2d Armored Division.
  • Consolidated 15 December 1961 with Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 3d Artillery Group; the 18th Antiaircraft Artillery Missile Battalion; and the 3d and 43d Antiaircraft Artillery Battalions (all organized in 1821 as the 3d Regiment of Artillery) to form the 3d Artillery, a parent regiment under the Combat Arms Regimental System.
  • 3d Artillery (less former Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 3d Artillery Group; 18th Antiaircraft Artillery Missile Battalion; and 3d and 43d Antiaircraft Artillery Battalions) reorganized and redesignated 1 September 1971 as the 3d Field artillery (former elements concurrently reorganized and redesignated as the 3d Air Defense Artillery—hereafter separate lineage).
  • 3d Field Artillery withdrawn 1 October 1983 from the Combat Arms Regimental System and reorganized under the United States Army Regimental System.[1]
  • Redesignated 1 October 2005 as the 3d Field Artillery Regiment

Current Status of Regimental Elements

  • 1st Battalion, 3rd Field Artillery Regiment - inactive since 15 January 1996 [3]
  • 2nd Battalion, 3rd Field Artillery Regiment - active, assigned to the 1st Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division, and stationed at Fort Bliss, Texas [1]
  • 3rd Battalion, 3rd Field Artillery Regiment - inactive since 15 September 1990 [8]
  • 4th Battalion, 3rd Field Artillery Regiment - inactive since 15 May 1992 [9]
  • 5th Battalion, 3rd Field Artillery Regiment - active, assigned to the 17th Field Artillery Brigade and stationed at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington [2]
  • 6th Battalion, 3rd Field Artillery Regiment - inactive since 1 June 1965 [34]
  • 8th Battalion, 3rd Field Artillery Regiment - inactive since 1 September 1971 [35]

Campaign Participation Credit

  • War of 1812: Canada
  • Indian Wars: Seminoles
  • Mexican War: Vera Cruz; Cerro Gordo; Contreras; Churubusco; Molino del Rey; Chapultepec; Puebla 1847
  • Civil War: Peninsula; Antietam; Fredericksburg; Chancellorsville; Gettysburg; Wilderness; Spotsylvania; Cold Harbor; Petersburg; Shenandoah; Maryland 1863; Virginia 1863
  • War with Spain: Santiago; Puerto Rico
  • Philippine Insurrection: Streamer without inscription
  • World War I: Streamer without inscription
  • World War II: Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe
  • Southwest Asia: Defense of Saudi Arabia; Liberation and Defense of Kuwait; Cease-Fire[1]

Decorations

  • U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force Presidential Unit Citation ribbon.svg Presidential Unit Citation (Army), Streamer embroidered LUXEMBOURG (Combat Command A, 9th Armored Division, cited; DA GO 9, 2005)
  • Valorous Unit Award ribbon.svg Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered IRAQ (2d Battalion, 3d Field artillery, cited; DA GO 14, 1997)
  • U.S. Navy Unit Commendation ribbon.svg Navy Unit Commendation, Streamer embroidered SAUDI ARABIA–KUWAIT (1st Battalion, 3d Field Artillery, cited; DA GO 34, 1992)
  • Army Superior Unit Award ribbon.svg Army Superior Unit award, Streamer embroidered 1995–1996 (2d Battalion, 3d Field Artillery, cited; DA GO 25, 2001)[1]

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d McKenney, Janice E. (2010). "3d Field Artillery". Field Artillery Part 1. (CMH Pub 60-11-1(Part 1)). Army Lineage Series. United States Army Center of Military History: Washington. 278. Web. Accessed 19 October 2015 <[www.history.army.mil]>. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  2. ^ "9th Armored Division". U.S. ARMY CENTER OF MILITARY HISTORY. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  3. ^ a b McKenney, Janice E. (2010). "1st Battalion, 3d Field Artillery". Field Artillery Part 1. (CMH Pub 60-11-1(Part 1)). Army Lineage Series. United States Army Center of Military History: Washington. 278. Web. Accessed 19 October 2015 <[www.history.army.mil]>. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  4. ^ "Hell on Wheels" by Steven Smith
  5. ^ McKenney, Janice E. (2010). "2d Battalion, 3d Field Artillery". Field Artillery Part 1. (CMH Pub 60-11-1(Part 1)). Army Lineage Series. United States Army Center of Military History: Washington. 281. Web. Accessed 19 October 2015 <[www.history.army.mil]>. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  6. ^ "History of the 2nd Battalion, 3rd Field Artillery Regiment "Gunners"." n.d. Web. Accessed 12 December 2017.<[www.bliss.army.mil]>.
  7. ^ "2nd Battalion, 3rd Field Artillery Regiment "Gunners"." n.d. Web. Accessed 12 December 2017. <[www.globalsecurity.org]>.
  8. ^ a b McKenney, Janice E. (2010). "3d Battalion, 3d Field Artillery". Field Artillery Part 1. (CMH Pub 60-11-1(Part 1)). Army Lineage Series. United States Army Center of Military History: Washington. 283. Web. Accessed 19 October 2015 <[www.history.army.mil]>. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  9. ^ a b McKenney, Janice E. (2010). "1st Battalion, 3d Field Artillery". Field Artillery Part 1. (CMH Pub 60-11-1(Part 1)). Army Lineage Series. United States Army Center of Military History: Washington. 285. Web. Accessed 19 October 2015 <[www.history.army.mil]>. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  10. ^ Hillman 1993, p. 4.
  11. ^ Dinackus P.4–10
  12. ^ The Road to Safwan: The 1st Squadron, 4th Cavalry in the 1991 Persian Gulf War by Bourque P.96
  13. ^ The Road to Safwan: The 1st Squadron, 4th Cavalry in the 1991 Persian Gulf War by Bourque P.98
  14. ^ The Road to Safwan: The 1st Squadron, 4th Cavalry in the 1991 Persian Gulf War by Bourque P.99
  15. ^ The Road to Safwan: The 1st Squadron, 4th Cavalry in the 1991 Persian Gulf War by Bourque P. 99
  16. ^ Bourque P.159
  17. ^ Jayhawk! The 7th Corps in the Persian Gulf War by Bourque P.164
  18. ^ Bourque, p.164
  19. ^ a b Bourque P.161
  20. ^ a b [armyhistory.org]
  21. ^ Hillman p.24
  22. ^ [www.wearethemighty.com]
  23. ^ Bourque P.332
  24. ^ Zaloga (2009), p. 64
  25. ^ a b c d Bourque P.375
  26. ^ a b Rostker Tab H
  27. ^ Bourque, p.336
  28. ^ FM 6-50 Chapter 2
  29. ^ Fontenot P.294
  30. ^ Bourque P.319
  31. ^ Bourque P.337
  32. ^ VUA citation
  33. ^ [history.army.mil]
  34. ^ McKenney, Janice E. (2010). "6th Battalion, 3d Field Artillery". Field Artillery Part 1. (CMH Pub 60-11-1(Part 1)). Army Lineage Series. United States Army Center of Military History: Washington. 291. Web. Accessed 19 October 2015 <[www.history.army.mil]>. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  35. ^ McKenney, Janice E. (2010). "8th Battalion, 3d Field Artillery". Field Artillery Part 1. (CMH Pub 60-11-1(Part 1)). Army Lineage Series. United States Army Center of Military History: Washington. 293. Web. Accessed 19 October 2015 <[www.history.army.mil]>. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

Works consulted

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Army Institute of Heraldry document "3rd Field Artillery Regiment".

  • [www.tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil]
  • Road to Safwan The 1st Squadron, 4th Cavalry in the 1991 Persian Gulf War by Stephen A. Bourque and John W. Burdan III
  • JAYHAWK:The 7th Corps in the Persian Gulf War by Stephen A. Bourque
  • 1st Infantry Division "Big Red One" by Ian Westwell
  • M1 Abrams vs T-72 Ural:Operation Desert Storm 1991 by Steven J. Zaloga
  • 2nd Armored Division "Hell on Wheels" by Steven Smith
  • "Desert Storm/Shield Valorous Unit Award Citations". US Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  • [www.globalsecurity.org]
  • The First Infantry Division and the U.S. Army Transformed: Road to Victory in Desert Storm, 1970-1991 by Gregory Fontenot

External links