Balam is a member of the Flora family, a very large group of stony asteroids in the inner main-belt. It orbits the Sun in the inner main-belt at a distance of 2.0–2.5 AU once every 3 years and 4 months (1,222 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.11 and an inclination of 5° with respect to the ecliptic.
Being such a small primary body in the inner main belt with a separation of over 100 primary radii, S/2002 (3749) 1 is the most loosely bound binary known. Balam has a Hill sphere with a radius of about 1,500 kilometers.
In March 2008, Franck Marchis discovered another companion, provisionally designated S/2008 (3749) 1, making Balam a trinary asteroid. The inner satellite has a derived diameter of 1.66 kilometer, based on diameter-ratio of 0.42±0.03 with its primary.
Balam also forms an asteroid pair with (312497) 2009 BR60. Asteroid pairs are on highly similar heliocentric orbits. At some point in the past, the pair of asteroids became gravitationally unbound due to rotational fission induced by the YORP-effect or from a collisional breakup of the parent body. After the discovery of Balam's two satellites by Bill Merline (inner moon) and Franck Marchis (outer moon) in 2002 and 2008, respectively, Czech physicist David Vokrouhlický identified the unbound secondary in 2009. Based on backward orbit integrations, it is thought that Balam and 2009 BR60 form a secured asteroid pair that became separated approximately 400,000 years ago.
^ abcPravec-2012web, rotation period of 2.80478±0.00005 with an amplitude in brightness variation of 0.1 magnitude. Summary figures for (3749) Balam at Lightcurve Database
^Franck Marchis (Principal Investigator, SETI Institute, UC Berkeley). "Franck Marchis Web Page". Department of Astronomy (University of California at Berkeley). Archived from the original on 10 November 2007. Retrieved 27 October 2009.