31 is the third Mersenne prime (25 − 1) and the eighth Mersenne prime exponent, as well as the fourth primorial prime, and together with twenty-nine, another primorial prime, it comprises a twin prime. As a Mersenne prime, 31 is related to the perfect number 496, since 496 = 2(5 − 1)(25 − 1). 31 is also the 4th lucky prime and the 11th supersingular prime.
For the Steiner tree problem, 31 is the number of possible Steiner topologies for Steiner trees with 4 terminals.
31 is a repdigit in base 5 (111), and base 2 (11111).
The numbers 31, 331, 3331, 33331, 333331, 3333331, and 33333331 are all prime. For a time it was thought that every number of the form 3w1 would be prime. However, the next nine numbers of the sequence are composite; their factorisations are:
The recurrence of the factor 31 in the last number above can be used to prove that no sequence of the type RwE or ERw can consist only of primes because every prime in the sequence will periodically divide further numbers. Here, 31 divides every fifteenth number in 3w1 (and 331 every 110th).
Thirty-one is also:
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