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24 Caprices for Solo Violin (Paganini)

Niccolò Paganini

The 24 Caprices for Solo Violin were written in groups (six, six and twelve) by Niccolò Paganini between 1802 and 1817. They are also designated as M.S. 25 in Maria Rosa Moretti's and Anna Sorrento's Catalogo tematico delle musiche di Niccolò Paganini which was published in 1982. The Caprices are in the form of études, with each number exploring different skills (double stopped trills, extremely fast switching of positions and strings, etc.)

Ricordi first published them in 1820, where they were grouped and numbered from 1 to 24 as Op. 1, together with 12 Sonatas for Violin and Guitar (Opp. 2 and 3) and 6 Guitar Quartets (Opp. 4 and 5). When Paganini released his Caprices, he dedicated them "alli artisti" (to the artists) rather than to a specific person. A sort of dedication can be recognized in Paganini's own score, where he annotated between 1832 and 1840 the following 'dedicatee' for each Caprice (possibly ready for a new printed edition): 1: Henri Vieuxtemps; 2: Giuseppe Austri; 3: Ernesto Camillo Sivori; 4: Ole Bornemann Bull; 5: Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst; 6: Karol Józef Lipiński; 7: Franz Liszt; 8: Delphin Alard; 9: Herrmann; 10: Théodor Haumann [sv]; 11: Sigismond Thalberg; 12: Dhuler; 13: Charles Philippe Lafont; 14: Jacques Pierre Rode; 15: Louis Spohr; 16: Rodolphe Kreutzer; 17: Alexandre Artôt; 18: Antoine Bohrer; 19: Andreas Jakob Romberg; 20: Carlo Gignami; 21: Antonio Bazzini; 22: Luigi Alliani; 23: [no name]; 24: Nicolò Paganini, sepolto pur troppo (to my self, regrettably buried).

Ferdinand David's first edition was published by Breitkopf & Härtel in 1854. David, as editor, also issued an edition of Caprices with piano accompaniments by Robert Schumann. Another edition by David was issued in two books of 12 caprices each "mit hinzugefügter Begleitung des Pianoforte von Ferdinand David" (with additional piano accompaniment by Ferdinand David) and published by Breitkopf & Härtel (c. 1860).[1]

Unlike many earlier and later sets of 24 pieces, there was no intention to write these caprices in 24 different keys.

Details

No. Key Movements Notes
1 E major Andante Nicknamed "The Arpeggio", this composition matches chordal playing with ricochet across all 4 strings. The piece opens in E major and then quickly transitions into an E minor development section, where descending scales in thirds are introduced.
2 B minor Moderato The second caprice focuses on detache with many string crossings across non-adjacent strings.
3 E minor Sostenuto/Presto/Sostenuto Caprice No. 3 is a slurred legato exercise with octave trills in the introduction and conclusion.
4 C minor Maestoso Caprice No. 4 in is an exercise featuring passages with many multiple stops in thirds.
5 A minor Agitato Caprice No. 5 focuses on fast ricochet bowings. It begins and ends with a section of ascending arpeggios followed by descending scales.
6 G minor Lento Nicknamed "The Trill", the sixth caprice exploits the use of left-hand tremolo on the violin by quickly alternating between different notes in the chord in one of the voices. A melody is played in one line with a tremolo occurring on another.
7 A minor Posato This caprice focuses on slurred staccato passages, featuring many long slurred scales and arpeggios.
8 E-flat major Maestoso Caprice No. 8 focuses on sustaining a lower note while playing a higher melody at the same time, meanwhile incorporating many trills and double stops.
9 E major Allegretto Nicknamed "La Chasse" or "The Hunt", the violin's A and E strings imitate the flutes ("Sulla tastiera imitando il Flauto"), while the G and D strings imitate the horns ("imitando il Corno sulla D e G corda"). Primarily a study in double stops, with ricochet occurring in the middle section.
10 G minor Vivace This caprice is primarily a study in up-bow staccato, with staccato notes punctuated by chords, trills and distant string crossings.
11 C major Andante/Presto/Andante The eleventh caprice starts and ends with sections that require multiple voices, containing a passage that consists of many dotted notes rapidly jumping up and down the scale.
12 A-flat major Allegro This caprice consists of a slurred pattern of a melody on an upper string alternating with a drone note on a bottom string, forcing the violinist to stretch great distances while keeping a finger on the drone string.
13 B-flat major Allegro Nicknamed "The Devil's Laughter", Caprice No. 13 starts out with scale like double-stopped passages at a moderate speed. The second part consists of high speed runs that exercise left hand flexibility and position shifting, and right hand high speed string changing and detache bowing. The piece then repeats back to the beginning and ends right before reaching the second part for the second time.
14 E-flat major Moderato The 14th caprice displays the violin's ability to voice chords. It contains many triple and quadruple stops. Stylistically, the piece imitates brass fanfares.
15 E minor Posato Caprice 15 starts with a short passage of high parallel octaves, continuing on to ascending arpeggios, descending scales, and broken thirds.
16 G minor Presto Main article: Caprice No. 16 (Paganini)
17 E-flat major Sostenuto/Andante The "A" section contains numerous thirty-second note runs on the A and E strings that converse back and forth with double stops on the lower two strings. The middle section is famous for the incredibly difficult octave passage.
18 C major Corrente/Allegro The introduction to caprice 18 demonstrates playing on the G string in very high positions. This is followed by a rapid display of scales in thirds.
19 E-flat major Lento/Allegro assai Here are many octaves at the beginning; then there are string crossings between G and A strings; this is followed by quick changes of position on the G string.
20 D major Allegretto Caprice 20 is famous for the use of the D string as a drone, backdropping a lyrical melody on the A and E strings, imitating a bagpipe. This is followed by a rapid sixteenth note passage with trills and flying staccato.
21 A major Amoroso/Presto Caprice 21 begins with a very expressive, aria-like melody played in double-stopped sixths. This is followed by a section of rapid up-bow staccato.
22 F major Marcato Caprice 22 explores many types of double and triple stops with louré bowing, then implementing various elements of slurred staccato, slurred tremolos and strings crossings.
23 E-flat major Posato/Minore/Posato Caprice No. 23 begins with a melody in octaves in E. The middle, contrasting section is a formidable exercise in string crossings: it requires the violinist to play patterns of three sixteenth notes on the G string and then cross quickly to play one on the E string, and then back to the G string, all at a quick tempo.
24 A minor Tema: Quasi presto/variazioni I–XI/Finale The theme from Caprice No. 24 is well known, and has been used as the basis for many pieces by a wide variety of composers. This caprice uses a wide range of advanced techniques such as tremendously fast scales and arpeggios, double and triple stops, left hand pizzicato, parallel octaves and tenths, rapid shifting, and string crossings.

Scores

  • Critical edition by Franco Gulli [it] (Ed. Curci, 1982)[2]
  • Critical edition by Renato de Barbieri [it] (Urtext, 1990)[3]

Complete set recordings

In 1940, to celebrate the centenary of Paganini's death, the complete set in the arrangement for violin and piano by Ferdinand David was recorded by the 20-year-old Austrian violinist Ossy Renardy (pseudonym of Oskar Reiss), with Walter Robert on piano (78 rpm's, RCA Victor; CD reprint by Biddulph).[4] This was the world premiere recording of any version of the 24 Caprices.[5] Renardy had played the solo violin version of the 24 in his Carnegie Hall debut the previous October. In 1953, shortly before his untimely death, Renardy recorded the 24 again (on Paganini's Guarnieri del Gesù violin, 'Il Cannone'), in the same arrangement by David, with Eugene Helmer accompanying (2LPs, Remington R-99-146 & R-99-152).[6][7]

In 1947, Ruggiero Ricci[8] made the first complete recording of the 24 Caprices in their original version (Decca).[9] Ricci later made further recordings, as stated below:

  • 1947 | 2LPs | Decca LK.4025 Nos.1–12; LXT.2588 Nos.13–24 -mono-; 1950 reprint | 2LPs | London Decca LL.264 Nos.1–12; LL.252 Nos.13–24 mono (London, July 1947)
  • 1959 | LP | Decca LXT.5569 -mono- / SXL.2194 -stereo- (Victoria Hall, Geneva, 1–9 April 1959)
  • 1973 | LP | Vox Turnabout TV-S 34528 | + premiere recording of Caprice d'adieu in E major, MS 68 (USA, 1973)
  • 1978 | 2LP | Price-Less C–93042 (CD reprint: Price-Less D12179) | "Golden Jubilee" – recorded direct-to-disc[10] at Soundstage Recording Studio, Toronto, Canada | + Caprice d'adieu in E major, MS 68 + Duo merveille in C major, MS 6 (Toronto, 1978)
  • 1988 | CD | Radio Vaticana 061–003 / Biddulph LAW 016 | performed on Paganini's Guarneri del Gesù "Il Cannone" (Genova, 16–20 April 1988)
  • 1998 | CD | Dynamic CDS244 | 80th Birthday Concert, live in Szeged Synagogue, Hungary | version for violin and orchestra by Laszlo Meszlény (Nos.1–23) and Chris Nicholls (No.24), based on the piano accompaniment composed by Robert Schumann (Hungary, 17 May 1998)
  • 1982 | LaserDisc-NTSC | One Eleven, Ltd. URS-V-91610 | 69 mins. | BBC Scotland, Live television performance (p)1991
  • 1987 | VHS-NTSC | Shar Products Company RR–1 (Michigan University, 10 January 1987) | unedited performance

Other violinists have since recorded the complete set, including:

  • Accardo, Salvatore (1st rec: RCA Italia, 1970 / 2nd rec: DGG, 1977 / 3rd rec: Foné, 2002)
  • Barbieri, Renato de [it] (Fonit Cetra Italia, 1981) – from the original Paganini's manuscript
  • Barton-Pine, Rachel (Avie, 2017)
  • Becker-Bender, Tanja (Hyperion, 2007)
  • Benvenuti, Alessio (Ludwig Classica, 1997) – private issue with no catalogue number
  • Bologni, Alberto (Italian issue – Sheva Collection, 2010)
  • Boulier, Christophe (French issue – DVD Promusica, 2004) – this video DVD contains extensive bonus material including a presentation of the caprices with technical explanations and demonstrations
  • Bradley, Desmond (EMI Classics For Pleasure, 1967)
  • Chumachenco, Nicolas (Edelweiss, 1982)
  • Francesca Dego [it] (Italian issue – DGG, 2012)
  • Ehnes, James (1st rec: Telarc, 1995 / 2nd rec: Onyx, 2009) – unedited performance, each caprice recorded in a single take
  • Epstein, Joshua (Agora Musica, 1996)
  • Erlih, Devy (Adès, 1967 / CD reprint, 1987 (selection of 19 from the 24 Caprices: Nos. 2, 3, 8, 22 & 23 are not included)
  • Fedotov, Maxim (Russian and Japanese issue – Triton, 1996)
  • Fischer, Julia (Decca Classics, 2008/09)
  • Garrett, David (DGG, 1996) – w. Bruno Canino, playing the Robert Schumann piano accompaniment for Nos. 1–23
  • Gitlis, Ivry (Philips, 1976) – released in 2007
  • Gringolts, Ilya (Orchid Classics, 2012)
  • Hadelich, Augustin (Warner Classics, 2017/8)
  • Herajnová, Jana (Czech issue – Nibiru, 1996)
  • Huang, Mengla (Chinese issue – DGG, 2011)
  • Justus, Adrian (Japanese issue – Office Amici, 2012) – 2CD+DVD, Live recording
  • Kaler, Ilya (Naxos, 1992)
  • Kamio, Mayuko (Japanese issue – BMG/RCA Victor Red Seal, 2009) – CD+DVD features an interview with Kamio
  • Kavakos, Leonidas (Dynamic, 1989/90)
  • Kawaciuk, Ivan (Supraphon, 1956/58)
  • Kinga, Augustin (RovenRecords, 2016)
  • Kino, Masayuki (Japanese issue – Sound & Music Creation, 2003)
  • Koelman, Rudolf (Wiediscon, 1996 / CD reprint: Hänssler, 2003) – 1996 live recording
  • Kováč, Tibor (Gramola, 1999)
  • Kubo, Yoko (Japanese issue – Regulus, 2007/08)
  • Li, Chuanyun (Chinese issues – Poloarts, 1993 / CD reprint: Poloarts, 2007)
  • Madoyan, Nikolay (2003) – 'live' recording, 4 November 2003 at San Donato Church Genoa, Italy
  • Majeske, Daniel (2LP Advent 5019-2, 1976) – Recorded September 1975 at St. Paul Episcopal Church, Cleveland Ohio | Violin: Stradivarius "Marquis de Rivière"
  • Malikian, Ara (Warner Classics Apex, 2002) – Warner claim this to be the first complete recording made of the caprices, following the repetition marks included in the autograph score. Total playing time: 100'25
  • Markov, Alexander (DVD Warner Music Vision + CD Erato, 1989) – 'live' recording, 3 May 1989. DVD Film directed by Bruno Monsaingeon
  • Midori (Sony Classical, 1988)
  • Milanova, Vanya (Simax, 1985)
  • Milenković, Stefan (Dynamic, 2002/03) – 2-CD set with 'the complete music for solo violin'
  • Mintz, Shlomo (DGG, 1981)
  • Noferini, Roberto (Tactus/Naxos, 2014) – played on gut strings
  • Paetsch, Michaela (Teldec, 1987)
  • Papavrami, Tedi (Aeon, 1997 + 2001) – 2-CD set with two different recordings: 1997 studio version + 19 April 2001, 'live' in Tokyo
  • Pasquier, Régis (Auvidis Valois, 1991)
  • Perlman, Itzhak (EMI, 1972)
  • Pikaizen, Viktor Alexandrovich (Melodiya, 1967)
  • Poulet, Gérard Georges (French issue – LP Deesse DDLX 178, 1979)
  • Quarta, Massimo (Italian issue – Paragon, 2003 / reprint: Chandos, 2003)
  • Rabin, Michael (Capitol, 1958)
  • Rogliano, Marco (Tactus, 2000)
  • Shunsuke Sato (Japanese issue – Universal Classics, 2009) – performed on pure gut strings
  • Schmid, Benjamin (MDG, 1994/95) – w. Lisa Smirnova, playing the Robert Schumann piano accompaniment for Nos. 1–23
  • Senju, Mariko (JVC Classics, 1996)
  • Shimizu, Takashi (Japanese issue – Platz, 1990)
  • Simovic, Roman (under exclusive licence to LSO Live Ltd © London Symphony Orchestra Ltd, 2018)
  • Spivakovsky, Tossy (Omega Classics, 1966) – w. Lester Taylor, playing the Robert Schumann piano accompaniment for Nos. 1–23
  • Stadler, Sergei (Melodiya, 1983)
  • Tchakerian, Sonig [it] (Arts Music, 2002)
  • Tian-Wa, Yang (Hugo Classical, 2000) – recorded by Tian-Wa at age thirteen, making her the youngest violinist, to record this work
  • Tokunaga, Tsugio (Japanese issue – CD Fontec, 2006)
  • Turban, Ingolf (Claves, 1993/94) – w. Giovanni Bria, playing the Robert Schumann piano accompaniment for Nos. 1–23
  • Vasile, Cornelia (Electrecord, 1969 / reprint: DGG Début, 1970 (reprint contains only Nos. 5, 7, 11, 13, 19, 22, 23, 24 coupled with Ysaye Sonata Op.27 No.2)
  • Waechter, Robert (Ready Made Music -CDbaby-, 2016)
  • Wawrowski, Janusz (Accord, 2006/07)
  • Zalai, Antal (Budapest, 4–13 August 2015)
  • Zehetmair, Thomas (1st rec: Teldec, 1992 / 2nd rec: ECM Records, 2007)
  • Zhislin, Grigori (Dante Productions LYSC 002, 1997)
  • Zimmermann, Frank Peter (EMI, 1984/85) – plays the first twelve Caprices on a Stradivari of 1706 and the remainder on a Stradivari of 1684
  • Zukofsky, Paul (Vanguard Classics, 1970) – so-called 'authentic' performance based on the original manuscript

Arrangements

Violin and piano

  • version of No. 24 by Composer himself, for violin and piano (or guitar) published separately as Variazioni di bravura
  • piano accompaniments for Nos. 1–23 by Robert Schumann (1855)
  • arrangement of Nos. 1–24 by Ferdinand David for violin and piano (c. 1860)
  • version of the 24 caprices "avec accompagnement de pianoforte" by John Liptrot Hatton (1870)
  • piano accompaniment (concertante role) for Nos. 1–24 by Russian violinist Vasily Bezekirsky (1898)
  • arrangement of No. 13 by Jenő Hubay (c. 1925)
  • arrangement of Nos. 13, 20 and 24 by Fritz Kreisler (1911)
  • arrangement of Nos. 17 and 24 by Leopold Auer (1922)
  • arrangement of No. 6 by George Enescu[11]
  • arrangement of No. 9 "La chasse" by Jacques Thibaud
  • arrangement of No. 9 and 23 by Florizel von Reuter
  • arrangement of No. 9 by Albert Spalding (1918)
  • arrangement of Nos. 17 (1926), 9, 13, 19 (1941) and 24 (1918) by Adolf Busch
  • arrangement (recomposition with new variations) of No. 24 by Mischa Elman
  • arrangement of Nos. 13, 22, 14 (Vol. I), Nos. 21, 15, 9 (Vol. II) and Nos. 20, 24 (Vol. III) by Mario Pilati (1935)[12]
  • arrangement of Nos. 13, 17, 24 by Zino Francescatti (1950s)[13]
  • re-composition of No. 20 as Concert Caprice by Max Rostal (1955)
  • arrangement of Nos. 13, 20 and 24 by Waclaw Niemczyk (1965)
  • arrangement of No. 24 by Eduard Tubin

Violin and orchestra

  • orchestral accompaniments for Nos. 1–23 by Laszlo Meszlény, based on the piano accompaniments by Robert Schumann
  • orchestral accompaniment for No. 24 by Chris Nicholls, based on the original guitar accompaniment by Paganini

Violin and string orchestra

Violin with a second violin

  • edition of Nos. 1–24 incorporating accompaniments for a second violin by Alberto Bachmann (1921)

Viola solo

Viola and piano

Cello solo

  • arrangement of Nos. 1–24 by Luigi Silva (1952)
  • arrangement of Nos. 9, 14, 17 by Yo-Yo Ma (1981/82)
  • arrangement of Nos. 1–24 by Tamás Mérei (1999)

Cello and piano

Flute solo

  • arrangement of Nos. 1–24 by Jules Herman (1980s)
  • arrangement of Nos. 1–24 by Patrick Gallois (1990/91)
  • arrangement of Nos. 1–24 by Julian Cawdrey (1996/97)

Saxophone solo

  • arrangement for alto saxophone (Nos. 1, 5–11, 13, 16, 20, 21, 23–24) by Raaf Hekkema (2004/05)
  • arrangement for soprano saxophone (Nos. 2–4, 12, 14, 15, 17–19, 22) by Raaf Hekkema (2004/05)

Bassoon solo

  • arrangement for bassoon solo (Nos. 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 19, 23 & 24) by Kristian Oma Rønnes, published by Emerson Edition Ltd (2016)

Guitar solo

String quartet

  • arrangement of Nos. 1–24 by William Zinn (2008/09)

Chamber orchestra

Clarinet and jazz band

Complete set recordings of arrangements

  • Berman, Pavel (Classica HD, 2013) – Orchestra dei Talenti Musicali – live, Biella, Teatro Sociale, 2013 (version with String Orchestra by Giedrius Kuprevičius)
  • Boyd, Bonita (flute) (Fleur De Son Classics, 2000) – arranged by Jules Herman for flute
  • Cawdrey, Julian (flute) (Pavane Records, 1997) – arranged by Julian Cawdrey for flute
  • Drahos, Béla (flute) (Hungarian issue – Radioton, 1996) – arranged by Jules Herman for flute. Première recording of the 24 Caprices performed on the flute
  • Fisk, Eliot (guitar) (Nimbus Records, 1991) – arranged by Eliot Fisk for guitar
  • Gallois, Patrick (flute) (DGG, 1991) – arranged by Patrick Gallois for flute
  • Hekkema, Raaf (saxophone) (MDG, 2005) – arranged by Raaf Hekkema for alto saxophone (Nos. 1, 5 – 11, 13, 16, 20, 21, 23 & 24) & soprano saxophone (Nos. 2 – 4, 12, 14, 15, 17 – 19 & 22)
  • Kato, Motoaki (flute) (Japanese issue – Livenotes, 1997) – arranged for flute
  • Mérei, Tamás (cello) (Hungaroton Classic, 1999) – arranged by Tamás Mérei for cello
  • Seres, Dora (flute) (CD Hungaroton) – arranged for flute
  • Slapin, Scott (viola) (Eroica Classical Recordings, 2008) – arranged for viola
  • Vardi, Emanuel (viola) ( Epic SC 6049, 1965) – arranged for viola. Recorded on a 17" Dodd viola in Vardi's home studio
  • Wihan String Quartet (Nimbus Alliance, 2009)[18] – arranged by William Zinn for string quartet (Wihan SQ: Leos Cepicky and Jan Schulmeister, violins / Jiri Zigmund, viola / Ales Kasprik, cello)

Original works, based on Paganini's Caprices

Especially for compositions in the form of "Variations" see the related article: Caprice No. 24 (Paganini)#Variations on the theme.

Violin solo

  • 9 variaciones sobre el capricho núm. 24 de Paganini by Manuel Quiroga (1928)
  • 12 variaciones sobre el capricho núm. 24 de Paganini by Manuel Quiroga (1942)
  • Paganiniana, Variations for violin solo (Tema: Caprice 24; Var. I: Caprice 3; Var. II: Le Streghe; Var. III: Caprice 6; Var. IV: Caprice 14; Var. V: Caprice 21) by Nathan Milstein (1954)[19]
  • 50 Caprice Variations (on Caprice No. 24) by George Rochberg (1970)

Violin and piano

  • Paganini Variations on the 24th caprice by Eugène Ysaÿe (posthumous ed. 1960)
  • Trois caprices de Paganini Op. 40 (re-composition of Nos. 20, 21 and 24) by Karol Szymanowski (1918; rev.1926)
  • Trois caprices de Paganini Op. 97 (re-composition of Nos. 10, 13 and 22) by Darius Milhaud (1927)

Violin and orchestra

  • Capriccio dei Capricci (da Paganini, 2 Studi per orchestra di virtuosi), Op. 50, by Franco Mannino (1967)

Piano solo

  • Etudes after Paganini Caprices, Op. 3 (on Caprices Nos. 5, 9, 11, 13, 19, 16) by Robert Schumann (1832)[20]
  • 6 Concert Etudes after Paganini Caprices, Op. 10 (on Caprices Nos. 14, 6, 10, 4, 2, 3) by Robert Schumann (1833)[21]
  • Études d'exécution transcendante d'après Paganini, S. 140 (on Caprices Nos. 5+6, 17, 1, 9, 24) by Franz Liszt (1838/40)[22]
  • Grandes études de Paganini, S. 141 (on Caprices Nos. 6, 17, 1, 9, 24) by Franz Liszt (1851)[23]
  • Variations on a Theme by Paganini, Op. 35 (Book I & II)] (on Caprice No. 24) by Johannes Brahms (1862/63)[24]
  • Sonatina Canonica in E major (on Caprices Nos. 20, 19, 11, 14) by Luigi Dallapiccola (1942/43) -dedicated to Pietro Scarpini-

Two pianos

Piano and orchestra

Orchestra

  • re-composition of various Paganini's works as Paganiniana, Op. 65: I. Allegro agitato (on Caprices Nos. 5, 12 and fragments from Nos. 16, 19) by Alfredo Casella (1942)
  • Paganini Variations, Op. 26 (on Caprice No. 24) by Boris Blacher (1947)

References

Notes

  1. ^ "Paganini: 24 Capricci per il Violino solo, "dedicati agli Artisti" Op. 1 – Robin Stowell". Archived from the original on 2015-10-02. Retrieved 2015-03-12.
  2. ^ Paganini 24 Capricci, Rev. F.Gulli – Ed. Curci Milano (1982)
  3. ^ Paganini 24 Caprices, Rev. R. De Barbieri – G. Henle Verlag (1990)
  4. ^ 78rpm's RCA Victor: matrix 16276/8 (Album M-672) Paganini Caprices Nos. 1 to 12 (6 sides) + matrix 17636/8 (Album M-738) Paganini Caprices Nos. 13 to 24 (5 sides)
  5. ^ CD Symposium 1311, review by Jonathan Woolf on "Music Web International"
  6. ^ Ossy Renardy on "the Remington site"
  7. ^ Ossy Renardy on "Maestronet – forum", by Alan Sanders, 2003
  8. ^ Ruggiero Ricci plays Paganini Caprice No. 24 on YouTube
  9. ^ "LXT 2588 + LK 4025 – Paganini – 24 Caprices – Ruggiero Ricci". Archived from the original on 2015-04-16. Retrieved 2015-04-16.
  10. ^ This process records the original sound direct to master discs without using a magnetic tape. Thus the full dynamic range and the original sound are fully preserved.
  11. ^ Yehudi Menuhin and George Enescu play Paganini Caprice No. 6 (arr. Enescu) on YouTube
  12. ^ Zino Francescatti plays Paganini/Pilati "8 Caprices" on YouTube
  13. ^ Zino Francescatti plays Paganini/Francescatti Caprice No. 17 on YouTube
  14. ^ Caprice No. 13 with Orchestra, live recording by J. Heifetz on YouTube
  15. ^ Caprice No. 24 with Orchestra, live recording by J. Heifetz on YouTube
  16. ^ Sergey Krilov plays Edison Denisov "5 Paganini Caprices" on YouTube
  17. ^ Benny Goodman – Paganini, Caprice 24 on YouTube, 78rpm Columbia CO 31390 (rec: 2 October 1941)
  18. ^ 24 Caprices arranged for String Quartet
  19. ^ Paganiniana, Variations for violin solo by Nathan Milstein
  20. ^ Etudes after Paganini Caprices, Op. 3 (Schumann, Robert): Scores at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP)
  21. ^ 6 Concert Etudes after Paganini Caprices, Op. 10 (Schumann, Robert): Scores at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP)
  22. ^ Études d'exécution transcendante d'après Paganini, S. 140 (Liszt, Franz): Scores at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP)
  23. ^ Grandes études de Paganini, S. 141 (Liszt, Franz): Scores at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP)
  24. ^ Variations on a Theme by Paganini, Op. 35 (Brahms, Johannes): Scores at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP)

Sources

  • Stratton, Stephen (1907). Nicolo Paganini: His Life and Work. London: E. Shore & Co. ISBN 0-559-80636-1.
  • Philippe Borer, The Twenty-Four Caprices of Niccolò Paganini. Their significance for the history of violin playing and the music of the Romantic era, Stiftung Zentralstelle der Studentenschaft der Universität Zürich, Zurich, 1997
  • Konstantin Georgiyevich Mostras, 24 каприса для скрипки соло Н. Паганини: методические комментарии [=24 Caprices for solo violin solo by N. Paganini: methodical commentaries] Moscow, Musghiz, 1959 [165 p.]

External links