This page uses content from Wikipedia and is licensed under CC BY-SA.

2018 missile strikes against Syria

2018 missile strikes against Syria
Part of US attacks against Syria, the American-led intervention in the Syrian Civil War and the foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War
US DoD April 2018 attack on Syria.jpg
A map of the attack sites, according to the US Department of Defense
Location  Syria
Planned by  United States
 France
 United Kingdom
Commanded by Donald Trump
Emmanuel Macron
Theresa May
Objective Degrade Syria's facilities for production of chemical weapons and deter their use[1][2][3]
Date 14 April 2018
Executed by (supporting role)
Casualties 6 soldiers and 3 civilians injured (Syrian government claim)[4]

On 14 April 2018, beginning at 04:00 Syrian time (UTC+3),[5] the United States, France, and the United Kingdom carried out a series of military strikes involving aircraft and ship-based missiles against multiple government sites in Syria.[6][7] They said it was in response to the Douma chemical attack against civilians on 7 April, which they attributed to the Syrian government.[8][9] The Syrian government denied involvement in the Douma attacks[9] and called the airstrikes a violation of international law.[8]

Background

A Syrian government offensive to recapture the rebel-held Eastern Ghouta suburb began in February 2018. The offensive was condemned by Western media for its reportedly brutal humanitarian consequences.[10][11][12] By the beginning of April, Douma was one of the last rebel enclaves remaining in the region, with rebel group Jaysh al-Islam in control of the city.[13] Russian and Syrian state media reported a deal between the rebel group and Russia to hand over Douma to government control.[14][15] Other news agencies reported members of the rebel group claiming a deal had not been brokered and that Jaysh al-Islam would not surrender Douma.[16][17] What followed was a suspected chemical attack carried out in the Syrian city of Douma on 7 April 2018, with at least 70 people reported killed.[18] One pro-opposition source said that a thousand people suffered from the effects.[18] The Jaysh al-Islam rebel group, which controlled Douma at the time,[19] reported that Syrian Army helicopters had dropped barrel bombs; this was also reported by several medical,[20] monitoring, and activist groups, including the White Helmets (Syria Civil Defence).[21][22][23][24][25] The bombs were suspected to be filled with chemical munitions such as chlorine gas and sarin.[26][27] The World Health Organization said it received reports from partner agencies that some 500 people arrived at health facilities showing "signs and symptoms consistent with exposure to toxic chemicals."[28] On 6 July 2018, the OPCW produced an interim report stating that chlorine residues had been found at the two attack sites, although no organophosphorous nerve agents or their degradation products were detected.[29][30][31]

As with previous incidents, France, the United Kingdom, the United States, and other nations accused the Syrian government of being responsible for the use of chemical weapons. Russia and Iran, the Syrian government's main allies, denied chemical weapons had been used, claiming it was a false flag operation.[32][33] Russia has said video of the chemical attack was staged by members of the White Helmets.[34][35] State media agency, the Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA) said that the Saudi Arabian-backed[36] Jaysh al-Islam was making "chemical attack fabrications in an exposed and failed attempt to obstruct advances by the Syrian Arab Army".[37]

In May 2017, French President Emmanuel Macron said the use of chemical weapons in Syria would be a red line requiring immediate reprisal.[38] France and the United States cited positive urine and blood samples collected as proof of chlorine being used in Douma.[39]

In the early hours of 9 April 2018, an airstrike was conducted against Tiyas Military Airbase in Syria.[40] The United States denied launching the airstrike, and an Israeli spokeswoman declined to comment.[41] On 10 April, an emergency United Nations Security Council meeting was held where competing solutions were presented on how to handle the response to the chemical attack; all were ultimately vetoed.[42][43] By 11 April, Western nations began to consider military action in Syria, seeking a "strong joint response."[39][44][45]

On 11 April, the Syrian government said it had invited the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons to investigate the sites of the attacks. "Syria is keen on cooperating with the OPCW to uncover the truth behind the allegations that some western sides have been advertising to justify their aggressive intentions," said SANA, quoting an official source in the Foreign Ministry.[46] Russia denied chemical weapons were used and on 13 April blamed Britain for staging the event in order to provoke US airstrikes.[47][48]

By 12 April, British Prime Minister Theresa May had ordered Royal Navy submarines in the Mediterranean to move within cruise missile range of Syria by the end of the week.[49] British military sources later told The Times that days before the missile strikes a British Astute-class submarine armed with Tomahawk missiles and approaching within firing range of Syrian military targets was chased by "one, and possibly two" Russian Kilo-class submarines from the Russian naval base at Tartus. The Russian submarines were supported by two frigates and an antisubmarine aircraft, while the British submarine was assisted by a US Navy P-8 Poseidon patrol aircraft. Ultimately no British submarine took part in the strikes.[50]

Military action

International law

The United Nations Charter requires a mandate from the United Nations Security Council for sovereign states to use force for the purpose of maintaining international security, but not for acting in self-defence or the protection of populations threatened by extermination at the hands of their own government. Since the UN Charter came into effect in 1945, military action in retaliation or reprisal to the act of another state has been prohibited; but a reprisal may be justified if its aim is to force the other state into compliance with its international obligations. Russia's use of its veto meant there was no prospect of the Security Council authorizing the use of force. Therefore, the legality of military action relies on an international public order argument based on defending the credibility of the prohibition of the use of chemical weapons, enforcing Syria's obligations under the terms of its membership of the Chemical Weapons Convention, and protecting civilians from further chemical weapon attacks to alleviate humanitarian suffering.[51][52]

The strikes came hours before inspectors from the OPCW Fact-Finding Mission were due to arrive in Syria to investigate the attack.[53]

The United Kingdom published its legal position regarding military action which concluded limited strikes are justified on humanitarian grounds.[3][54] After the strikes, the UK Parliament debated the considerations under international law regarding the urgency of the intervention, and whether there was a lack of practical alternatives.[55]

Forces involved

US Secretary of Defense Jim Mattis and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Joseph Dunford briefing reporters on the attack
A B-1B of 28th Bomb Wing preparing to launch a strike mission from Al Udeid Air Base

The strikes were carried out by the forces of the United States, the United Kingdom, and France[56] and were delivered by ship-launched, submarine-launched and airborne cruise missiles.[57] All of the missiles launched by British and French forces were variants of the Storm Shadow missile, known as SCALP EG and Missile de Croisière Naval (MdCN for Naval Cruise Missile) in French service.

Flying from RAF Akrotiri in Cyprus,[58] four Royal Air Force Tornado GR4 fighters of No. 9 Squadron, supported by four Eurofighter Typhoon air superiority fighters of No. 6 Squadron,[59] fired a total of eight Storm Shadow missiles.[57][60] The Royal Navy deployed the Type 45 destroyer, HMS Duncan (D37), to provide air defense for allied naval forces.[61] The French Navy deployed a strike group in the Eastern Mediterranean consisting of the Cassard-class frigate Cassard, the Georges Leygues-class frigate Jean de Vienne, the Durance-class tanker Var, and the FREMM multipurpose frigates Aquitaine, Auvergne, and Languedoc; the latter ship fired three MdCN land attack missiles.[62] The French strike group was accompanied by the US Navy Virginia-class submarine USS John Warner, which launched six Tomahawk cruise missiles.[63]

The French Air Force participation in the strikes consisted of five Rafale B fighters from the Escadron de Chasse 1/4 Gascogne based at Saint-Dizier Air Base, each carrying two SCALP EG missiles, four Mirage 2000-5F air superiority fighters from the Escadron de chasse 1/2 Cigognes from Luxeuil Air Base, two E-3F airborne early warning and control planes from the 36e Escadre de commandement et de conduite aéroportée Berry from Avord Air Base, and six C-135FR tankers from the Groupe de ravitaillement en vol 2/91 Bretagne from Istres Air Base.[63][64][65][66]

US forces included two US Air Force B-1B Lancer bombers from the 34th Bomb Squadron, which fired a total of nineteen JASSM missiles after taking off from Al Udeid Air Base in Qatar. They were accompanied by four F-22A Raptor air superiority fighters from the 95th Fighter Squadron, two KC-10 Extender tankers from the 908th Expeditionary Air Refueling Squadron and one US Marine Corps EA-6B Prowler electronic-warfare aircraft from VMAQ-2, which all departed from Al Dhafra Air Base in the United Arab Emirates.[63][67] Immediately after the strike it was claimed that long-range JASSM-ER had been fired by the two B1-B Lancer bombers, but five days later, the U.S. Air Forces Central Command issued a correction saying that actually older JASSM-A were used.[68] From a position in the Red Sea the US Navy Arleigh Burke-class destroyer USS Laboon fired seven and the Ticonderoga-class cruiser USS Monterey thirty Tomahawk cruise missiles, while the Arleigh Burke-class destroyer USS Higgins fired twenty-three Tomahawks from a position in the northern part of the Persian Gulf.[69][70] The Arleigh Burke-class destroyer, USS Donald Cook was reported to have participated in order to mislead defending forces, firing no missiles.[71] US Secretary of Defense Jim Mattis said twice as many weapons were used in the strike as in the 2017 Shayrat missile strike;[72] an anonymous US Defense Department official quoted by The Washington Post said about 100 Tomahawk missiles were fired by the US.[9]

The US Air Force also deployed a fighter group over the Eastern Mediterranean in the air-superiority and defensive-counter-air role, which consisted of at least eight F-15C Eagle fighters from the 493d Fighter Squadron and seven F-16C Falcon fighters from the 555th Fighter Squadron. The fighters were accompanied by at least two KC-135 Stratotanker aircraft from the 351st Air Refueling Squadron.[73][63]

According to US military's Joint Staff, the allocation of missiles to targets was:[74]

Syria responded using its air defense systems, and its state media aired a video purporting to show a successful missile interception.[75] The Syrian state news agency SANA and Colonel-General Sergei Rudskoi of the Russian military said Syria used Russian and Soviet air defense systems Pantsir-S1, S-125, S-200, Buk, and Kvadrat.[57][76][77]

Strikes

Buildings destroyed by allied missile strikes, 14 April 2018
President Trump delivers his announcement at 21:00 EST (0100 UTC).
Explosions near Dummar, Syria

President Donald Trump announced the strikes at 9 pm EDT, 13 April (4 AM, 14 April in Syria, 2 AM in London, 3 AM in Paris) along with allies France and the United Kingdom. Explosions were heard in Damascus, the capital of Syria, just as Trump was speaking.[8] According to US Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Joseph Dunford, Russia had not been warned in advance of the incoming attack;[78] he was contradicted by other American and French officials.[79]

US Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Joseph Dunford said three sites were targeted: a research center in Damascus, a chemical weapons storage facility near Homs, and an equipment storage facility and command post also near Homs.[80] The UK Ministry of Defence reported British aircraft struck chemical weapons sites in Homs.[81] Witnesses reported loud explosions and smoke in the capital Damascus in the early morning, including in the Barzeh neighborhood, the site of the Barzah scientific research centre, a major research establishment.[8] The strike destroyed what employees of the facility characterised as a Syrian antivenom medical center, but which US General Joseph Dunford described as a center for research, development, production and testing of chemical and biological weapons.[82][83] The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) said the attack sites included two scientific research centers in Damascus and another in the Homs area, as well as military bases in Damascus.[8] The US armed forces said all missiles hit their intended targets without interference,[77] and according to Lieutenant General Kenneth McKenzie, the Syrian air defences fired 40 intercepting surface-to-air missiles but failed to hit any of the targets. He said most were fired after the last incoming missile had struck its target.[84] Similarly, France said none of the twelve missiles it fired appear to have been intercepted,[85] although there were reports that between three and seven French missiles were not fired due to malfunctions.[86] The Syrian army said it "intercepted most of the missiles",[77] while the Syrian state media reported its air defenses shot down 13 incoming missiles near Al-Kiswa, south of Damascus.[57] The Russian military reported Syria's air defences shot down 71 of 103 cruise missiles,[76][77] and listed various airports and airbases, not mentioned by US military sources, as having been targeted partly or completely unsuccessfully.[87] The SOHR, which is cited by many western media organisations, reported no known casualties, but stated there was considerable material damage while also saying that the Syrian Air Defense Force intercepted and downed at least 65 missiles.[88][89] Syria's state-run TV news reported three civilians injured at Homs, and that the missile strike there was "aborted".[90]

Aftermath

Workers at a destroyed laboratory denied ever making any chemical weapons.[91]

Russia called for an emergency meeting of the United Nations Security Council on 14 April, but the resolution it brought to the session condemning the attacks failed to pass, with only Bolivia and China supporting it.[92][93] Nikki Haley, Permanent Representative of the United States to the UN, said the United States was "locked and loaded", should the Syrian government use chemical weapons again.[92] A further meeting of the Security Council was scheduled to be held on 16 April, to discuss a resolution presented jointly by France, the UK, and the US. The resolution calls for an independent inquiry into the use of chemical weapons in Syria, medical evacuations, and the safe passage of aid convoys across the country.[94]

The effectiveness and impact of the strike has been downplayed by analysts.[95] In Syria, the strikes were interpreted as a victory for Assad because their limited scope was seen as indicating that Western countries no longer intended to seriously challenge his rule.[96] According to Russian state media, the governor of Russia's autonomous Khanty-Mansiysk district said after meeting with Assad that "President Assad was in absolutely positive spirits. He is in a good mood."[96] American Director of the Joint Staff, Lieutenant General Kenneth F. McKenzie Jr., said the air strikes were a "severe blow" to the development of Syria's chemical weapons and that the United States military is "ready anytime" in the event of retaliation by the Syrian government.[97]

The activity of web brigades increased by "2,000%" following the attack, according to Chief Pentagon spokesperson Dana W. White.[98][99] The UK's National Cyber Security Centre, the FBI, and the US Department of Homeland Security issued a joint alert warning of a Russian global hacking campaign.[100][101]

According to Syrian state television, Syrian air defenses intercepted missiles that targeted Shayrat Airbase "late Monday night" (April 16); however, the Pentagon spokesman said the US military was not active at the time, while an Israeli military spokesman declined to comment.[102][103] Reuters reported that the Pro-Iranian Hezbollah militia's media unit claimed the Syrian air defenses had also intercepted three missiles which targeted Al-Dumayr Military Airport;[104] a commander in the regional military alliance backing the government told Reuters that it was a false alarm and part of an "electronic attack" by Israel and the US on the Syrian radar system.[105]

According to Syrian state television, two days after the strikes, Syrian forces discovered two unexploded missiles and handed them over the Russian military. They had been launched on April 14 but failed to detonate for unknown reasons. Russia’s defense ministry did not confirm the report, but the weapons were reportedly shipped by aircraft to Moscow on April 17.[106][unreliable source?]

According to Jane's IHS, the Russian Ministry of Defence (MoD) on 25 April 2018 "appeared to contradict" the MoD's earlier 16 April account, and was now stating that 22 (rather than 32) missiles hit their targets, that 66 (rather than 71) were intercepted, and that other incoming missiles had suffered technical malfunctions. According to Russia, 46 missiles were intercepted in five areas of the capital of Syria and Duvali, Dumayr, Blai, and Mazzeh nearby airfields, and 20 missiles were intercepted in three areas of the Homs air defense zone. The MoD did agree that the U.S. hit all three of the publicly targeted sites. The MoD also displayed remnants of SCALP and Storm Shadow missiles purportedly shot down; Jane's stated that "The missile remnants it displayed could have come from missiles that hit their targets or failed in a previous attack".[107] Russian government sources claimed that they had recovered as duds one Tomahawk and one 'precision air launched' missile, and would study them to improve their own weapons systems; the US denied the claims as "absurd".[108]

On 21 April, the OPCW Fact-Finding Mission visited a site in Douma to collect samples, and on 25 April visited a second site in Douma to collect further samples. The team also interviewed people related to incident in Damascus.[109] On 4 May the OPCW announced that the initial deployment of the Fact-Finding Mission in Douma was complete. Analysis of the samples may take at least three to four weeks.[110]

Analysis

Some analysts, cited by USA Today, assessed Syria's claim of shooting down missiles as not credible. Syria's air defenses were formidable before the civil war, but have subsequently been critically weakened due to years of conflict. Part of the incredulity stems from the observation that even a stronger air defense system would have struggled to repel the strike, given the quantity and sophistication of the incoming low-flying missiles, and given that the coalition likely took measures to jam Syrian radar.[111]

Statements and reactions

The Syrian state media called the attack a "flagrant violation of international law".[8]

Belligerent nations

French President Emmanuel Macron said in a statement on 14 April that France's "red line has been crossed", referring to the previous attacks on Douma.[112] While announcing the strikes, UK Prime Minister Theresa May said there was "no practicable alternative to the use of force" to deal with the Syrian government's use of chemical weapons.[81] Opposition politicians condemned the strikes, with many questioning May's decision to press ahead without obtaining parliamentary approval first. Leader of the Opposition Jeremy Corbyn called the strikes "legally questionable" and said "Bombs won't save lives or bring about peace".[113] He also urged the British government to push the United States and Russia to allow an independent investigation into the gas attack led by the United Nations.[114] US President Donald Trump announced the strikes in a televised address, arguing they were part of the effort to stop Assad from using chemical weapons, and said the US was "prepared to sustain this response" until this was achieved.[57] Dana W. White, The Pentagon Chief Spokesperson, said "this operation does not represent a change in US policy or an attempt to depose the Syrian regime".[84] The New York Times reported the reactions initially broke among partisan lines, with members of the Republican Party—the party of President Donald Trump—being generally supportive while the Democrats were generally critical.[115] Republicans Tom Cotton and Orrin Hatch praised the strikes.[116] Other lawmakers, in particular Democrats, although generally supportive of a limited strike to punish Assad for using banned chemical weapons, criticized the Trump administration for not seeking Congressional approval and for not having a "coherent Syria Strategy".[116] Democratic senator Tim Kaine re-emphasized his long-held belief that the military intervention without Congressional authorization and long-term strategy are "illegal" and "reckless".[117][118]

On 19 April, at a Pentagon press briefing, American Director of the Joint Staff Lt. Gen. Kenneth McKenzie Jr. affirmed that Russian air defenses - which included advanced S-400 missile systems[119] - were active but did not engage any missiles during the operation. "Russian air defenses were energized. They were scanning. They had a main state [sic] air defense aircraft up. They did not choose to engage, so I cannot speculate about why they did or did not do that," McKenzie stated, while denying that any missiles were shot down by Syrian air defenses.[111][120]

Syrian-allied states

The Iran Foreign Ministry condemned the missile strikes, said there is "no proof" of Syrian responsibility in the chemical attack on Douma, and criticized the United States for attacking without waiting for an Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons investigation.[121] Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Leader of Iran, called Trump, May and Macron "criminals" and warned "they will gain nothing" from the strike.[122]

Russia referred to the strike as a terrorist attack and compared it to Operation Barbarossa.[123] Russian President Vladimir Putin described the strikes as an "act of aggression".[92] Russia also called for an emergency meeting of the United Nations Security Council.[124] Anatoly Antonov, the Russian ambassador to the United States, strongly condemned the coalition attacks on Syria and warned the Western countries of "consequences".[125] Sergei Rudskoi, a Russian Colonel-General, in a TV briefing, said Russia may consider sending S-300 surface-to-air missile systems to Syria and other countries.[124]

Other NATO member states

Albania,[126][127][128] Bulgaria,[129] Canada,[130] Croatia,[131] the Czech Republic,[132][133] Denmark,[134] Estonia,[135] Germany,[136] Greece,[137] Italy,[138][139] the Netherlands,[140] Poland,[141][142][143] Romania,[144] Spain,[145] and Turkey[146][147][148] all agreed the decision to attack was justified.

Supranational organizations

Secretary-General of the United Nations António Guterres called for restraint from all states.[149]

President of the European Council Donald Tusk confirmed the European Union's support for the strikes[150] as did High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Federica Mogherini.[151] Secretary General of NATO Jens Stoltenberg supported the strikes in a statement.[152]

The Collective Security Treaty Organization condemned the strikes as violating norms of international law and the charter of the United Nations.[153]

Non-state organizations

Mohammad Alloush, a key member of Army of Islam coalition of Salafist and Islamist rebel groups,[154] wrote that US-led military strikes in Syria were a "farce" as long as President Assad remained in power.[155] The Hamas government in the Gaza Strip has condemned the bombing.[156] The Lebanese Shia militant resistance group/political party Hezbollah sharply condemned the US, French, and British airstrikes on Syria, praising the Arab neighbor's air defense for confronting the missile attacks.[157]

Religious organizations

Moran Mor Ignatius Aphrem II, the patriarch of the Syriac Orthodox Church, and Patriarch John X of Antioch, primate of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All The East, issued a joint strong condemnation of the strikes. They said the bombing "were clear violation of the international laws and the UN Charter", and that the "unjust aggression encourages the terrorist organizations and gives them momentum to continue in their terrorism."[158]

See also

References

  1. ^ Full Text of Trump Statement on Syria Attack
  2. ^ République, Présidence de la. "Press statement by the President of the French Republic on the intervention of the French armed forces in response to the use of chemical weapons in Syria". elysee.fr (in French). Retrieved 2018-04-19. 
  3. ^ a b "Syria action – UK government legal position". Prime Minister's Office, 10 Downing Street. 14 April 2018. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  4. ^ "U.S., France and U.K. Strike Syria Over Chemical Attack". Haaretz. 15 April 2018. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2018. 
  5. ^ Borger, Julian (14 April 2018). "Syria: US, UK and France launch air strikes in response to chemical attack". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  6. ^ CNN, Kevin Liptak, Jeff Zeleny and Zachary Cohen,. "Trump: US launches strikes on Syria". CNN. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  7. ^ "U.S. has taken decision to strike Syria: Fox News". Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f Editorial, Reuters. "Trump says ordered precision strikes against Syria chemical weapons..." U.S. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  9. ^ a b c Gearan, Anne; Ryan, Missy (13 April 2018). "U.S. launches missile strikes in Syria". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. 
  10. ^ [en.rfi.fr]
  11. ^ [www.hrw.org]
  12. ^ [www.amnesty.org]
  13. ^ [www.reuters.com]
  14. ^ [apnews.com]
  15. ^ [www.reuters.com]
  16. ^ [apnews.com]
  17. ^ [www.aljazeera.com]
  18. ^ a b "Suspected Syria chemical attack kills 70". BBC News. 8 April 2018. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  19. ^ "Jaysh al-Islam to leave Douma in return for releasing prisoners Archived 15 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine.". Reuters. 8 April 2018.
  20. ^ "Syrian rebels evacuated from Douma reach northwest: monitor". Reuters. 10 April 2018. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. 
  21. ^ "UK, US and France agree to HIT BACK over Syria chemical attack". 10 April 2018. 
  22. ^ "Suspected Syria chemical attack kills 70". BBC. 8 April 2018. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. 
  23. ^ "Syrian government accused of using nerve agents as death toll from Douma 'chemical weapons attack' rises". 8 April 2018. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. 
  24. ^ Almasy, Steve (8 April 2018). "Dozens dead in possible gas attack in Syria; regime denies allegation". CNN. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. 
  25. ^ Loveluck, Louisa; Cunningham, Erin (8 April 2018). "Dozens killed in apparent chemical weapons attack on civilians in Syria, rescue workers say". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. 
  26. ^ "Assad's deadly nerve gas that leaves victims foaming at the mouth before suffering seizures and death". 11 April 2018. Archived from the original on 10 April 2018. 
  27. ^ "Syria chemical attack would be the eighth since Trump took office". Archived from the original on 10 April 2018. 
  28. ^ Shaheen, Kareem (11 April 2018). "Syria: 500 Douma patients had chemical attack symptoms, reports say". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  29. ^ Issues Fact-Finding Mission Reports on Chemical Weapons Use Allegations in Douma, Syria in 2018 and in Al-Hamadaniya and Karm Al-Tarrab in 2016, OPCW, 6 July 2018
  30. ^ [www.bbc.com]
  31. ^ [www.reuters.com]
  32. ^ Chulov, Martin; Shaheen, Kareem; Chrisafis, Angelique; Pengelly, Martin (8 April 2018). "Trump: 'big price to pay' for Syria chemical weapons attack". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. 
  33. ^ "Moscow calls 'chemical attack' in Douma 'fake news,' warns against Syrian intervention". RT. 8 April 2018. Archived from the original on 8 April 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018. 
  34. ^ "Генштаб РФ объявил об отправке в Думу российской военной полиции" (in Russian). NEWSru. 11 April 2018. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. 
  35. ^ White Helmets staged Douma ‘chemical weapons attack’ on civilians — Russian General Staff Archived 12 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine. TASS, 11 April 2018.
  36. ^ "MAPPING MILITANT ORGANIZATIONS: Jaish al-Islam". Stanford University. 31 August 2017. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. 
  37. ^ "Dozens killed in suspected chemical attack on Syrian rebel enclave Archived 15 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine.". The Guardian. 8 April 2018.
  38. ^ Editorial, Reuters. "Chemical weapons a red line in Syria, France's Macron says". U.S. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  39. ^ a b "Macron 'has Syria chemical attack proof'". BBC News. 12 April 2018. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  40. ^ "Israel blamed for Syria airfield attack". BBC News. 9 April 2018. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  41. ^ Al-Khalidi, Suleiman. "Syria, Russia accuse Israel of missile attack on air base". U.S. Archived from the original on 9 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  42. ^ "Russia Vetoes U.S. Resolution on Syria in U.N. Security Council". NPR. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  43. ^ Editorial, Reuters. "Russia vetoes U.S. bid to form new Syria chemical weapons inquiry". U.S. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  44. ^ "Cabinet agrees 'need for action' in Syria". BBC News. 13 April 2018. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  45. ^ Press, The Associated (11 April 2018). "Trump Warns Russia: 'Get Ready' for Attack on Syria". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  46. ^ Editorial, Reuters. "Syria invites OPCW to investigate alleged chemical attack in Douma". U.S. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  47. ^ "Russia just blamed Britain for Syria chemical attack. Here's who else Moscow blames". USA Today. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  48. ^ "Syria 'chemical attack' staged to provoke US airstrike, London pushed perpetrators – Russian MoD". RT International. Archived from the original on 13 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  49. ^ Rayner, Christopher Hope & Gordon (11 April 2018). "British submarines move into missile range of Syria". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 17 April 2018. 
  50. ^ Tim Ripley, Mark Hookham and (15 April 2018). "British submarine in duel with Kremlin's 'Black Hole' hunter-killer". The Sunday Times. ISSN 0956-1382. Retrieved 17 April 2018. 
  51. ^ Marc Weller, Professor of International Law, University of Cambridge (14 April 2018). "Were the Syria air strikes legal?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  52. ^ "Reality Check: Does Russia always use a veto on Syria?". BBC News. 16 April 2018. Archived from the original on 16 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  53. ^ "Trump: US, allied strikes aimed at Syria's chemical weapons". Associated Press. 13 April 2018. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. 
  54. ^ "UK publishes legal case for Syria strikes". BBC News. 14 April 2018. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  55. ^ "Syrian strikes moral and legal, says PM". BBC News. 16 April 2018. Archived from the original on 16 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  56. ^ Elgot, Jessica (14 April 2018). "Theresa May orders Britain to join air strikes on Syria". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  57. ^ a b c d e Cooper, Helene; Shear, Michael D.; Hubbard, Ben (13 April 2018). "Trump Orders Strikes on Syria Over Suspected Chemical Weapons Attack". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  58. ^ "Syria air strikes: UK confident strikes were successful, says PM". BBC News. 14 April 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018. 
  59. ^ "Western powers strike Syria targets after suspected chemical attack". BBC News. 14 April 2018. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  60. ^ Beale, Jonathan (14 April 2018). "Syria air strikes: RAF used 'fire and forget' missiles to minimise risk". BBC News. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  61. ^ Withers, Paul (2018-04-13). "Ready for war: UK Navy Destroyer edges closer to Syria for 'air defence' against Russia". Express.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-05-08. 
  62. ^ Youssef, Nancy A.; Bender, Michael C. (14 April 2018). "U.S., U.K. and France Launch Strikes Against Syria". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  63. ^ a b c d Rogoway, Tyler. "This Awesome Chart Shows All The Assets Used In The Trilateral Missile Strikes On Syria". TheDRIVE. Retrieved 1 May 2018. 
  64. ^ "Successful Strikes and Targets Hit in Syria". Defense-Aerospace.com. 14 April 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018. 
  65. ^ Merchet, Jean-Dominique. "La France a tiré douze missiles de croisière contre la Syrie". L'Opinion (in French). Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  66. ^ "Élysée on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 14 April 2018. [non-primary source needed]
  67. ^ CNN, Zachary Cohen and Kevin Liptak,. "US, France and UK strike Syria's chemical weapons program". Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  68. ^ Oriana Pawlyk (19 Apr 2018). "DoD Officials Erred About Weapons, Fighters Used in Syria Strike Mission". Military.com. Retrieved 19 Apr 2018. 
  69. ^ Rogoway, Tyler; Trevithick, Joseph (14 April 2018). "Here Are All The Details The Pentagon Just Released Regarding Its Missile Attack on Syria". TheDrive.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  70. ^ "UPDATED: U.S. Ships Launch Strikes on Chemical Weapons Targets in Syria along with French, U.K. Fighters". 13 April 2018. 
  71. ^ [www.navytimes.com]
  72. ^ "US, UK and France strike Syria: Live updates". 14 April 2018. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  73. ^ "Here are the first photos of the U.S. Air Force F-16C and F-15C jets and KC-135 tankers returning to Aviano after tonight's mission". The Aviationist. Retrieved 1 May 2018. 
  74. ^ "US-led strikes on Syria: What was targeted?". 14 April 2018. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  75. ^ "Video reportedly shows missile interception - CNN Video". 2018. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  76. ^ a b Peter Beaumont; Andrew Roth (14 April 2018). "Russia claims Syria air defences shot down 71 of 103 missiles". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  77. ^ a b c d Veronica Stracqualursi. "Trump declares 'mission accomplished' in Syria strike". CNN. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  78. ^ "America, Britain and France strike Syria". Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2018. 
  79. ^ "America, Britain and France strike Syria". The Economist. 14 April 2018. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2018. 
  80. ^ US, UK and France strike Syria, Veronica Rocha, Amanda Wills and Brian Ries, CNN, 13 April 2018
  81. ^ a b "Four RAF fighters join Syria air strikes". BBC News. 14 April 2018. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  82. ^ Reuters (14 April 2018). "Syria Strike Reduces Research Center to Smoking Rubble". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 17 April 2018. 
  83. ^ "At destroyed Syria lab, workers say they produce antidotes to snake venom not toxic weapons". hindustantimes.com/. 14 April 2018. Retrieved 17 April 2018. 
  84. ^ a b Ewen MacAskill; Julian Borger (14 April 2018). "Allies dispute Russian and Syrian claims of shot-down missiles". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  85. ^ "Russia claims 71 of 103 missiles shot down during overnight air strikes". The Independent. 14 April 2018. Retrieved 17 April 2018. 
  86. ^ Merchet, Jean-Dominique (17 April 2018). "La Marine a rencontré des " aléas technique " lors du tir des missiles de croisière (actualisé)". L'Opinion (in French). 
  87. ^ "Briefing by Russian Defence Ministry official Major General Igor Konashenkov". Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. 16 April 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018. 
  88. ^ "The Western Coalition's strikes targeted important centers of the regime in the capital Damascus and its vicinity, as well as the outskirts of Homs city". SOHR. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  89. ^ Mal Siret; Joseph Lee (14 April 2018). "'More than 65 missiles intercepted' - monitoring group (14:10h)". BBC. Archived from the original on 16 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  90. ^ "Syrian TV says 3 wounded in Homs missile strike". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  91. ^ "At destroyed Syria lab, workers deny producing toxic weapons". Agence France-Presse. 14 April 2018. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. 
  92. ^ a b c "Syria latest: British defence secretary says attacks 'highly successful'". The Guardian. 14 April 2018. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  93. ^ "Security Council rejects Russian request to condemn airstrikes in Syria | UN News". United Nations. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2018. 
  94. ^ Wintour, Patrick (15 April 2018). "Syria: western allies launch diplomatic offensive in wake of strikes". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 16 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  95. ^ Phil McCausland; Yuliya Talmazan (15 April 2018). "Trump's U.S.-led airstrike on Syria won't stop Assad's chemical capabilities, experts say". NBC News. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2018. 
  96. ^ a b Liz Sly (15 April 2018). "Syria's Assad in a 'good mood,' scorns U.S. weaponry after airstrikes". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2018. "President Assad was in absolutely positive spirits. He is in a good mood," the Interfax news agency quoted Natalya Komarova, governor of Russia’s autonomous Khanty-Mansiysk district, as saying. [...] Despite claims by President Trump that the operation was an "enormous success," it is being interpreted in Syria as a win for Assad because the limited scope of the strikes suggested that Western powers do not intend to challenge his rule. 
  97. ^ "Syria strikes: All the latest updates". Al Jazeera. 15 April 2018. Archived from the original on 16 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  98. ^ "As it happened: The strike and its aftermath". CNN. 14 April 2018. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  99. ^ Rayner, Gordon; Yorke, Harry (15 April 2018). "Russia launches cyber war on UK with 'dirty tricks' campaign as PM to face Commons over Syria strikes". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 16 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  100. ^ "Russia accused of net hack attacks". BBC News. 16 April 2018. Archived from the original on 16 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  101. ^ "Russian State-Sponsored Cyber Actors Targeting Network Infrastructure Devices | US-CERT". www.us-cert.gov. Archived from the original on 16 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  102. ^ Suleiman Al-Khalidi (17 April 2018). "Syrian air defenses shoot down missiles in Homs: state TV". Reuters. Amman. Archived from the original on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 17 April 2018. 
  103. ^ "No U.S. military activity in Syria's Homs at this time: Pentagon". Reuters. Washington. 17 April 2018. Archived from the original on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 17 April 2018. 
  104. ^ "Pro-Iranian Hezbollah Says Missiles Intercepted Over Syria's Dumair Military Airport". Reuters. Amman. 17 April 2018. Archived from the original on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 17 April 2018. 
  105. ^ "False alarm set off Syrian air defenses: pro-Assad commander". Reuters. Beirut. 17 April 2018. Archived from the original on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 17 April 2018. 
  106. ^ Holloway, Henry (19 April 2018). "Russia war: Vladimir Putin media claims 'US cruise missiles seized by Moscow'". Daily Star. Retrieved 25 April 2018. 
  107. ^ "Russia displays cruise missiles 'shot down' in Syria | Jane's 360". www.janes.com. Retrieved 2018-04-29. 
  108. ^ "Russia claims it has a US Tomahawk cruise missile and will use it to improve its own weapons". 
  109. ^ "OPCW Fact-Finding Mission Visits Second Site in Douma, Syria" (Press release). OPCW. 25 April 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2018. 
  110. ^ "OPCW Spokesperson's Statement on Fact-Finding Mission Deployment to Douma" (Press release). OPCW. 4 May 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2018. 
  111. ^ a b Michaels, Jim (20 April 2018). "105 to 0: Why Syria's air defenses failed to intercept a single incoming missile". USA Today. Retrieved 21 April 2018. 
  112. ^ "French President Macron says 'red line has been crossed' in Syria". PBS NewsHour. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  113. ^ Helm, Toby; Chulov, Martin; Siddiqui, Sabrina; Savage, Michael (14 April 2018). "Theresa May faces anger over Syria raids as Trump declares 'mission accomplished'". The Observer. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  114. ^ "U.S.-led strikes on Syria spark global call for political settlement - Xinhua | English.news.cn". Xinhuanet. 15 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  115. ^ Cooper, Helene; Shear, Michael D.; Hubbard, Ben (13 April 2018). "Trump Orders Strikes on Syria Over Suspected Chemical Weapons Attack". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. Early reaction to the strikes from Capitol Hill appeared to break down along party lines, with Republicans expressing support for the president and Democrats questioning whether Mr. Trump has a well-thought-out strategy for what happens after the military action is over. 
  116. ^ a b News, A. B. C. (13 April 2018). "Members of Congress react to US strike on Syria". ABC News. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  117. ^ Kheel, Rebecca (13 April 2018). "Kaine rips Syria strikes: What's stopping Trump from bombing Iran, North Korea next?". TheHill. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  118. ^ "Where Tim Kaine And Hillary Clinton Stand on Key Issues". NPR. Archived from the original on 17 August 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  119. ^ Beaumont, Peter; Roth, Andrew (14 April 2018). "Russia claims Syria air defences shot down 71 of 103 missiles". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 May 2018. 
  120. ^ Allahverdi, Safvan (20 April 2018). "No intent to change Syria's strategic balance: Pentagon". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 25 April 2018. 
  121. ^ "US and allies strike Syria 'chemical weapons sites'". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  122. ^ "امام خامنه‌ای:‌حمله سحرگاه امروز به سوریه جنایت است/رئیس‌جمهور آمریکا، رئیس‌جمهور فرانسه و نخست‌وزیر اخبار تسنیم" (in Persian). Tasnim News Agency. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  123. ^ James, Mike; Dorell, Oren (13 April 2018). "Russian politician calls Trump 'Adolf Hitler No. 2 of our time'". USA Today. Retrieved 25 April 2018. 
  124. ^ a b "Russia calls for UN meeting on Syria, mulls supplies of S-300 systems". CNBC. 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  125. ^ Cooper, Helene; Gibbons-Neff, Thomas; Hubbard, Ben (13 April 2018). "U.S., Britain and France Strike Syria Over Suspected Chemical Weapons Attack". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  126. ^ "Syria Strikes Win Support but Raise Concern in Balkans". Balkan Insight. 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  127. ^ "Albanian Foreign Minister supports US, French and British attacks against Assad's regime in Syria". Top Channel. 14 April 2018. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  128. ^ "Albanian President supports Western allies for attack in Syria". Top Channel. 14 April 2018. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  129. ^ Author, About the (14 April 2018). "Bulgaria calls for de-escalation of tensions after US-led air strike on Syria". The Sofia Globe. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  130. ^ "Statement by the Prime Minister on airstrikes in Syria". 13 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  131. ^ "Hrvatska stala uz SAD, Ministarstvo: "Podupiremo saveznike i pratimo situaciju"" (in Croatian). Index.hr. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  132. ^ "Statement of the MFA on the current developments in Syria". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  133. ^ televize, Česká. "Spojené státy Česko o útoku na Sýrii informovaly, uvedl Stropnický. Podle Babiše byl úder nevyhnutelný". ČT24 (in Czech). Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  134. ^ "Statsministeren om militært modsvar i Syrien" (in Danish). Statsministeriet. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  135. ^ "Estonian reactions to US, French, British strikes against Syrian forces". ERR. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2018. 
  136. ^ "Germany backs airstrikes in Syria as 'necessary and appropriate'". DW. 14 April 2018. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  137. ^ "Greece calls for political, sustainable solution in Syria after air strikes" (14 April 2018). Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  138. ^ "European leaders back Syria airstrikes; China against". ABC News. 14 April 2018. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  139. ^ "Siria, Gentiloni: "Azione mirata e circoscritta, ma non sia inizio di un'escalation". L'attacco spacca il centrodestra". 14 April 2018. 
  140. ^ Blake, Sarah; Smethurst, Annika; Whinnett, Ellen (15 April 2018). "Big problem with Trump's air strikes". news.com.au. Archived from the original on 16 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  141. ^ "Polish president voices support for allied strikes on Syria – Radio Poland :: News from Poland". Thenews.pl. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2018. 
  142. ^ "World 'cannot remain inactive,' Polish foreign ministry says after Syria strikes – Radio Poland :: News from Poland". Thenews.pl. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2018. 
  143. ^ "Statement by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 14th April 2018". msz.gov.pl. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2018. 
  144. ^ Ana Petrescu (14 April 2018). "Iohannis afirmă solidaritatea României cu alianţa SUA-Marea Britanie-Franţa: Folosirea armelor chimice este dincolo de orice justificare". Gândul (in Romanian). 
  145. ^ "Spain Says Syria Strikes "Proportional" But Regrets Lack of Coordinated International Pressure on Assad" (14 April 2018). The Spain Report. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  146. ^ Editorial, Reuters. "Strikes on Syria 'appropriate response': Turkish foreign ministry..." U.S. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  147. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018.  Son dakika... Bekir Bozdağ: 'Türkiye saldırıdan önce bilgilendirildi'
  148. ^ Reuters Staff (14 April 2018). "Turkey's Erdogan welcomes Western attack on Syria, says operation a message to Assad". Retrieved 20 April 2018. 
  149. ^ "UN chief Guterres urges restraint after strikes on Syria". eNews Channel Africa. 14 April 2018. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  150. ^ Demianyk, Graeme; Sommers, Jack. "Britain, US And France Launch 'Precision Strikes' In Syria in Response To 'Despicable' Chemical Attack". HuffPost. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  151. ^ Smyth, Patrick (14 April 2018). "EU endorses attacks on Syria by US, UK and France". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  152. ^ "Statement by the NATO Secretary General on the actions against the Syrian regime's chemical weapons facilities and capabilities". NATO. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  153. ^ "Post-Soviet security bloc CSTO condemns Western airstrike on Syria". RT International. 14 April 2018. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  154. ^ "Who's involved in the rebels' Aleppo offensive? The cliff-notes Archived 29 October 2016 at Wikiwix". Al-Araby Al-Jadeed. 28 October 2016.
  155. ^ "Blasts shake Damascus as US and allies launch Syria strikes". Daily Times. 14 April 2018.
  156. ^ "Hamas condemns tripartite aggression on Syria". Hamas Islamic Resistance. 14 April 2018. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  157. ^ "PressTVWho says what about airstrikes on Syria". Presstv.com. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2018. 
  158. ^ A Statement Issued by the Patriarchates of Antioch and all the East for the Greek Orthodox, Syrian Orthodox, and Greek-Melkite Catholic Damascus, 14 April 2018

External links