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20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954 film)

20,000 Leagues Under the Sea
Theatrical release poster
Directed byRichard Fleischer
Produced byWalt Disney (uncredited)
Screenplay byEarl Felton
Based onTwenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea
by Jules Verne
Music byPaul Smith
Joseph S. Dubin (orchestration)
CinematographyFranz Planer
Edited byElmo Williams
Distributed byBuena Vista Distribution
Release date
  • December 23, 1954 (1954-12-23)
Running time
127 minutes
CountryUnited States
Budget$5 million[1] [2]
Box office$28.2 million[2]

20,000 Leagues Under the Sea is a 1954 American Technicolor science fiction-adventure film and one of the first features shot in CinemaScope. It was personally produced by Walt Disney through Walt Disney Productions, directed by Richard Fleischer, and stars Kirk Douglas, James Mason, Paul Lukas, and Peter Lorre.[3] It was also the first feature-length Disney film to be distributed by Buena Vista Distribution. The film is adapted from Jules Verne's 19th-century novel Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea. It is considered an early precursor of the steampunk genre.[4]

The film was a critical and commercial success, being especially remembered for the fight with a giant squid, and Mason's definitive performance as the charismatic anti-hero Captain Nemo. It won two Academy Awards for Best Art Direction and Best Special Effects.


In 1868, rumors of a sea monster attacking ships in the Pacific Ocean have disrupted shipping lanes. The United States invites Professor Pierre M. Aronnax and his assistant, Conseil, onto a Navy expedition to prove the monster's existence. On board with them is the cocky master harpooner Ned Land.

After months of searching in vain, Captain Farragut announces that he is ending the search. Soon after, though, a nearby steamship explodes, and when the crew investigates, the "monster" is spotted. They attack by firing a cannon, but it turns and rams the warship. Ned and Aronnax are thrown overboard, and Conseil goes in after Aronnax. The now crippled frigate drifts away, and no one aboard responds to the cries of its overboard passengers. Clinging to a piece of flotsam, Aronnax and Conseil come upon a strange-looking metal vessel, and realize the "monster" is a man-made "submerging boat" that appears deserted. Going aboard, Aronnax finds a large interior viewport and witnesses an underwater funeral, while Ned Land arrives on an overturned longboat from their ship. Fascinated by the funeral, Aronnax resists leaving just long enough for the submarine crew to spot him.

Ned, Aronnax, and Conseil attempt to leave in the longboat, but the crew stops the castaways. The captain later introduces himself as Nemo, master of the Nautilus. He returns Ned and Conseil to the deck while offering Aronnax, whom he recognizes from his scientific work, the chance to stay. After Aronnax proves willing to die with his companions, Nemo allows Ned and Conseil to remain aboard.

Nemo takes them to the penal colony island of Rura Penthe, where the prisoners are loading a munitions ship. Nemo was a prisoner there, as were many of his crew. Nautilus rams the steamer, destroying its cargo, the ship, and killing the crew. An anguished Nemo tells Aronnax that his actions have saved thousands from death in war; he also discloses that this "hated nation" tortured his wife and son to death while attempting to force him to reveal his secrets and discoveries. In Nemo's cabin, Ned finds the coordinates of Nemo's secret island base, Vulcania, and later releases messages in bottles, hoping someone will discover it.

Off the coast of New Guinea, Nautilus becomes stranded on a reef. Ned is surprised when Nemo allows him to go ashore with Conseil, ostensibly to collect specimens, while strictly admonishing them to stay on the beach. Ned goes off alone to explore avenues of escape. While drinking from a pool, he sees human skulls posted on stakes. Ned runs for his life and rejoins Conseil, and they row away, now pursued by cannibals. Aboard Nautilus, the cannibals are repelled by electrical charges sent through its deck and hull. Nemo, furious with Ned for disobeying his orders, confines him to the brig.

A warship approaches, firing upon Nautilus, which descends into the depths, where it attracts a giant squid. After a similar electric charge fails to repel the monster, Nemo and his men surface during a violent storm to dislodge it. Nemo is caught in one of its tentacles, and Ned, having escaped from captivity, saves Nemo from drowning. Nemo has a change of heart and claims that he wants to make peace with the world.

As Nautilus nears Vulcania, Nemo finds the island surrounded by warships, whose marines are converging on his base. Nemo navigates closer ashore, while on the deck Ned tries to identify himself to the warships as the author of the bottled messages. Aronnax is furious, recognizing that Nemo will now destroy all evidence of his discoveries. Nemo, having submerged Nautilus to enter his base, goes ashore and activates a prearranged time bomb, but he is mortally wounded on deck from a bullet to his back. After navigating the submarine beneath and away from Vulcania, Nemo announces that he will be "taking the Nautilus down for the last time". The crew declares that they will accompany their captain in death.

Aronnax, Conseil, and Ned are confined to their cabins, while Nautilus's crew also retreat to their cabins at Nemo's instructions. Ned escapes and manages to surface the submarine, hitting a reef in the process, causing her to flood. Nemo staggers to his salon viewport, where he dies while viewing his beloved undersea domain.

Aronnax tries retrieving his detailed journal, but the urgency of their escape obliges Ned to knock him unconscious and carry him out. Aboard Nautilus's skiff, the three companions and Nemo's pet sea lion, Esmeralda, witness Vulcania explode and a billowing mushroom cloud rise above the island's destruction. Ned apologizes to Aronnax for hitting him, but Aronnax concedes that the loss of his journal might have been for the best. As Nautilus goes down by the stern, Nemo's last words to Aronnax echo: "There is hope for the future. And when the world is ready for a new and better life, all this will someday come to God's good time".


Dinner aboard the Nautilus. From left to right: James Mason, Kirk Douglas, Peter Lorre, and Paul Lukas.


In 1950 Sig Rogell announced he had bought the rights to the novel as well as to an adaptation prepared by Robert L. Lippert's production company. He was going to make the film independently.[5] The rights eventually went to Disney.

20,000 Leagues Under the Sea was filmed at various locations in The Bahamas and Jamaica, with the cave scenes filmed beneath what is now the Xtabi Resort on the cliffs of Negril.[6] Filming began in spring of 1954.[7] Some of the location filming sequences were so complex that they required a technical crew of more than 400 people. The film presented many other challenges, as well. The famous giant squid attack sequence had to be entirely re-shot, as it was originally filmed as taking place at dusk and in a calm sea.[8][Note 1] The sequence was filmed again, this time taking place at night and during a huge gale, both to increase the drama and to better hide the cables and other mechanical workings of the animatronic squid.[9]

With a total (and greatly over-run) production cost of $9 million,[10] the film was the most expensive in Hollywood to that date and presented a serious financial risk to the studio should it flop.[11]


Upon release

Upon the film's original release, The New York Times film critic Bosley Crowther gave it a generally positive review by stating that, "As fabulous and fantastic as anything he has ever done in cartoons is Walt Disney's 'live action' movie made from Jules Verne's '20,000 Leagues Under the Sea.' Turned out in CinemaScope and color, it is as broad, fictitiously, as it is long (128 minutes), and should prove a sensation—at least with the kids".[12] In his 1967 biography The Disney Version, the critic, Richard Schickel, stated that James Mason was "superbly cast as the mad inventor Captain Nemo".[13][better source needed]

The film was also praised for the performances of its lead actors.[14] This was the first time that major international stars such as Kirk Douglas, James Mason, and Peter Lorre had appeared in a Disney film, although Robert Newton, a well-known actor in British films, had played Long John Silver in Disney's Treasure Island (1950), and Richard Todd, another well-known British actor, had appeared in Disney's Technicolor live-action version of The Story of Robin Hood and His Merrie Men (1952). Mason especially was singled out for his performance of Captain Nemo. Many people who had first seen him on-screen in the film identify him most strongly with this role.[15][16]

20,000 Leagues Under the Sea received positive reviews from critics and was the second highest-grossing film of the year (behind White Christmas), earning $8 million at the box office in North America.[17]

Critical opinion

Modern-day film critic Steve Biodrowski said that the film is "far superior to the majority of genre efforts from the period (or any period, for that matter), with production design and technical effects that have dated hardly at all". Biodrowski also added that the film "may occasionally succumb to some of the problems inherent in the source material (the episodic nature does slow the pace), but the strengths far outweigh the weaknesses, making this one of the greatest science-fiction films ever made".[18]

Audiences remember it primarily for its giant-squid battle sequence, as well as the Nautilus itself and James Mason's portrayal of Nemo.[19] The film currently holds an 89% approval rating at the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, with the consensus being: "One of Disney's finest live-action adventures, 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea brings Jules Verne's classic sci-fi tale to vivid life, and features an awesome giant squid".[20]

Awards and nominations

The film won two Academy Awards and was nominated for one more.[21]

Won: Best Art Direction – Color (John Meehan, Emile Kuri)
Won: Best Special Effects (John Hench, Joshua Meador)
Nominated: Best Film Editing (Elmo Williams)

The film's primary art director Harper Goff, who designed the Nautilus, was not a member of the Art Directors Union in 1954 and therefore, under a bylaw within the Academy of Motion Pictures, was unable to receive his Academy Award for Art Direction.[22]

Record albums

Rather than an authentic soundtrack recording of the film's score or dialogue, two vinyl studio cast record albums were released to coincide with the film's first two releases (1954 and 1963). Both albums contained condensed and heavily altered versions of the film's script without the usage of any of the film's cast for character voices. In addition, both albums were narrated by Ned Land as opposed to Aronnax, who narrated the film and the original novel. Neither album mentioned Nemo as actually being "cracked" (i.e. insane), as the film does, and considerably sanitized the character by omitting any mention of him killing anyone. The albums also had Nemo surviving at the end and releasing Ned, Arronax, and Conseil out of gratitude for their saving his life.[23] In this version, Ned, Aronnax and Conseil were not shipwrecked because the Nautilus rammed the ship they were on, but because a hurricane came up.[24]

The first album was issued in 1954 in conjunction with the film's original release, and starred William Redfield as the voice of Ned. This album, a book-and-record set, was issued as part of RCA Victor's Little Nipper series on two 45-RPM records.[25][better source needed] The second album, released by Disneyland Records in 1963 in conjunction with the film's first re-release,[26] was issued on one 33​13 RPM 12-inch LP with no accompanying booklet and no liner notes – the usual practice with most Disneyland label albums. It contained much more of the film's plot, but with many of the same alterations as the first album, so this recording was technically a remake of the earlier one. The cast for the 1963 album was uncredited. Neither album listed the film's credits or made any mention of the film's cast.

A single for the film's most memorable song "A Whale of a Tale", written by Norman Gimbel and Al Hoffman and sung by Kirk Douglas, was also released in 1954 under the Decca Children's Series label. The song "And the Moon Grew Brighter and Brighter", which Douglas had sung in the movie Man Without a Star (written by Lou Singer and Jimmy Kennedy), was the B-side. Both songs can be found on the 2008 digital release of the film's soundtrack.[27] In the film, Johann Sebastian Bach's Toccata and Fugue in D minor is played by Nemo on the Nautilus's organ, but James Mason's playing is actually dubbed by an anonymous organist.

Official soundtrack

20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (Soundtrack)
Soundtrack album by
Various Artists
ReleasedJanuary 29, 2008
LabelWalt Disney
ProducerRandy Thorton

On January 29, 2008, Walt Disney Records released a 26-track digital album containing the music of Paul Smith's original soundtrack score to 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, plus both sides of the "A Whale of a Tale" single, as well as a digital booklet companion that explores the music of the film. This was the first official release of the film score and was initially available only through the iTunes Store.[27][28] Intrada released the same soundtrack on CD in 2011.[29]

Track listing
1."Main Title (Captain Nemo’s Theme)"Paul Smith2:26
2."Street Fight"Paul Smith1:04
3."Aboard the Abraham Lincoln / Hunting the Monster"Paul Smith2:28
4."A Whale of a Tale"Kirk Douglas2:09
5."The Monster Attacks"Paul Smith2:21
6."Deserted Sub / Burial / Captured"Paul Smith9:14
7."Fifty Fathoms / The Island of Crespo"Paul Smith8:45
8."Storm at Sea / Nemo Plays"Paul Smith2:25
9."Strange Man of the Seas"Paul Smith4:04
10."Nemo’s Torment"Paul Smith0:59
11."Justified Hate"Paul Smith1:29
12."Searching Nemo’s Cabin"Paul Smith4:02
13."Ned’s Bottles"Paul Smith0:43
14."Ashore at New Guinea"Paul Smith2:54
15."Native Drums / Back to the Nautilus"Paul Smith3:08
16."Submerge"Paul Smith1:45
17."The Giant Squid"Paul Smith6:53
18."Ambush at Vulcania"Paul Smith4:47
19."Nemo Wounded"Paul Smith2:43
20."Escape from Vulcania"Paul Smith3:41
21."Finale / Deep Is the Mighty Ocean"Paul Smith0:56
22."A Whale of a Tale (Single)"Kirk Douglas2:11
23."And the Moon Grew Brighter and Brighter (Single B-Side)"Kirk Douglas2:35
24."A Whale of a Tale"Bill Kanady2:24
25."A Whale of a Tale"The Wellingtons2:07
26."A Whale of a Tale (Reprise)"Kirk Douglas0:11
Total length:1:18:23

In Disney resorts

Disneyland used the original sets as a walk-through attraction from 1955 to 1966. Walt Disney World Resort's Magic Kingdom also had a dark ride named 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea: Submarine Voyage from 1971 to 1994 which consisted of a submarine ride, complete with the giant squid attack, and an arrangement of the main theme from the 1954 film playing on Captain Nemo's organ in the background. For this ride, voice artist Peter Renaday stood in for James Mason in the role of Captain Nemo.[30] In 1994, a walkthrough attraction at Disneyland Paris, named Les Mystères du Nautilus, opened,[31] and a dark ride at Tokyo DisneySea was created in 2001.[32] The exterior to The Little Mermaid: Ariel's Undersea Adventure contains a silhouette of the Nautilus in a rock wall[33] and the tiki bar Trader Sam's Grog Grotto at Disney's Polynesian Village Resort serves a cocktail called the "Nautilus"[34] which is itself served in a stylized drinking vessel resembling the submarine,[35] and features a dive helmet and a mechanical squid tentacle that pours liquor behind the bar.[36]

Home media

Over the years, the film has been released on VHS, LaserDisc, SelectaVision videodisc, and DVD. Most recently, a 4K HD streaming video has also been released via iTunes.[37]

Comic book adaptation


On January 6, 2009, Variety reported that a live-action remake titled 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea: Captain Nemo was being planned with Joseph McGinty Nichol, known as "McG", attached to direct. The film serves as an origin story for the central character, Captain Nemo, as he builds his warship, the Nautilus.[40] McG has remarked that it will be "much more in keeping with the spirit of the novel" than Richard Fleischer's film, in which it will reveal "what Aronnax is up to and the becoming of Captain Nemo, and how the man became at war with war itself." It was written by Bill Marsilli, with Justin Marks and Randall Wallace brought in to do rewrites.[41] The film was to be produced by Sean Bailey with McG's Wonderland Sound and Vision.[42]

McG once suggested that he wanted Will Smith for the Captain Nemo role, but he has reportedly turned down the part.[43][44] As a second possible choice, McG had mentioned Sam Worthington, whom he worked with on Terminator Salvation, though they did not ever discuss it seriously. The project was later shelved in November 2009 with McG backing out of directing.[45]

During the 2010 San Diego Comic-Con, director David Fincher announced plans of directing 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea for Walt Disney Pictures based on a script by Scott Z. Burns.[46] While Fincher was wrapping up The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2011), it was speculated that 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea would enter principal photography by late 2012.[47] In the meantime, Fincher began courting Brad Pitt to play the role of Ned Land while the film was kept on hold.[48] However, in February 2013, it was announced that Pitt had officially turned down the role.[49]

In April 2013, it was announced that the Australian government will provide a one-off incentive of $20 million in order to secure the production.[50] Despite this, the film was put on hold again the following month due to complications in casting a lead.[51] On July 17, 2013, Fincher dropped out of the film to direct the adaptation of Gone Girl.[52] Fincher revealed in an interview that he left the film because he wanted Channing Tatum for Ned Land, but Disney wanted Chris Hemsworth for the role.[53][54] Additionally, the money originally allocated for the production of this film was redirected towards Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Men Tell No Tales.[55]

In February 2016, Disney announced that it was planning a live-action film titled Captain Nemo, with James Mangold directing.[56] In February 26, 2020, it was reported that Mangold is no longer attached to the project.[57]

See also


  1. ^ Footage of the original, rejected giant squid attack sequence shows details of the filming.


  1. ^ "Disney's Fiscalities". Variety. January 11, 1956. p. 5. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Box Office Information for '20,000 Leagues Under the Sea'." The Numbers. Retrieved: April 15, 2013.
  3. ^ "Walt Disney filmography." Film Reference. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  4. ^ Higham, William. "What The Hell Is Steampunk?" Huffington Post, February 17, 2012. Retrieved: February 15, 2012.
  5. ^ By THOMAS F BRADY Special to THE NEW,YORK TIMES. (1950, Nov 25). COURT DISMISSES FILM UNIONS' SUIT. New York Times (1923-Current File) Retrieved from []
  6. ^ "Movie location information: 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea." IMDB. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  7. ^ "In a league of its own." The Walt Disney Company, December 3, 2009. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  8. ^ Sunset Squid Fight– 20,000 Leagues – unused monster sequence on YouTube
  9. ^ Bourne, Mark. "20,000 Leagues Under the Sea: Special Edition DVD." The DVD Journal, 2003. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  10. ^ " Home » Program » The Reel Thing XXVII: Program Abstracts The Reel Thing XXVII: Program Abstracts" Reel Thing, July 8, 2011. Retrieved: April 4, 2018.
  11. ^ "The Making of '20000 Leagues Under the Sea' (Young, Mark (writer) and John Rhys-Davies, (narrator)." IMDb, May 20, 2003. Retrieved: August 18, 2010
  12. ^ Crowther, Bosley. "Movie Review: 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954); The Screen in Review; '20,000 Leagues' in 128 Fantastic Minutes." The New York Times, December 24, 1954.
  13. ^ Schickel 1997, p. 300.
  14. ^ Erickson, Glenn. "'20,000 Leagues Under The Sea: Special Edition'." DVD Talk, May 12, 2003. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  15. ^ "Overview: '20,000 Leagues Under the Sea'." Solar Navigator (Max Energy Limited), 2013. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  16. ^ "Overview: '20,000 Leagues Under the Sea'." Eccentric Cinema, May 26, 2003. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  17. ^ "All Time Domestic Champs." Variety, January 6, 1960, p. 34.
  18. ^ Biodrowski, Steve. "Hollywood Gothique: Captain Nemo Double Bill.", August 25, 2007.
  19. ^ "The CinemaScope Wing 3." Widescreen Museum. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  20. ^ "Movie Reviews: '20,000 Leagues Under the Sea'." Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved: July 30, 2010.
  21. ^ "Academy Awards: 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea." The New York Times. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  22. ^ "Spotlight: 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea." Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  23. ^ Video on YouTube
  24. ^ "More Golden Age Classics: 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea." Kidde Records, July 15, 2011. Retrieved: May 31, 2013.
  25. ^ "Walt Disney's 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (Little Nipper Story Book Album)." Amazon. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  26. ^ "Label: Disneyland Records." Rate Your Music. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  27. ^ a b "Soundtrack Details: '20,000 Leagues Under the Sea'." Soundtrack Collector. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  28. ^ "Soundtrack: '20,000 Leagues Under the Sea' by Various Artists." iTunes Store. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  29. ^ "Soundtrack Details: '20,000 Leagues Under the Sea'." Intrada. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  30. ^ "20,000 Leagues Under the Sea". 20K Ride. Retrieved January 9, 2015.
  31. ^ "Les Mystères du Nautilus". Photos Magiques. Retrieved January 9, 2015.
  32. ^ Wilson, Shellie (June 10, 2012). "Review: Tokyo Disneyland and DisneySea – Part 2: Tokyo DisneySea". Craft Gossip. Retrieved January 9, 2015.
  33. ^ Sanders, Savannah (April 20, 2016). "Walt Disney World Relics and Tributes: The Magic Kingdom". Retrieved February 24, 2019.
  34. ^ "Trader Sam's Grog Grotto menu". Disney World. Disney. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
  35. ^ "Trader Sam's Nautilus cocktail vessel".
  36. ^ Fillmen, Travis (March 29, 2015). "Trader Sam's Grog Grotto: Drinking You 20,000 Leagues Under The Table". Central Florida Aquarium Society. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
  37. ^ "20,000 Leagues Under The Sea - iTunes HD Review - Not on Blu-ray". Not on Blu-ray.
  38. ^ "Dell Four Color #614". Grand Comics Database.
  39. ^ Dell Four Color #614 at the Comic Book DB (archived from the original)
  40. ^ Fleming. Michael. "McG to direct Disney's 'Leagues'." Variety, January 6, 2009. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  41. ^ "Randall Wallace to Rewrite 'Captain Nemo'.", July 8, 2009. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  42. ^ Graser, Marc. "Justin Marks rewriting 'Nemo'." Variety, February 11, 2009.
  43. ^ Vejvoda, Jim. "Finding McG's Nemo." Archived February 21, 2009, at the Wayback Machine IGN, January 15, 2009. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  44. ^ Morris, Clint. "Exclusive: Sam downplays 'Nemo'." Archived June 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, August 21, 2009. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  45. ^ Goldman, Eric. "McG Talks T5." Archived August 10, 2009, at the Wayback Machine IGN, August 7, 2009. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  46. ^ Rosenberg, Adam."Exclusive: David Fincher Confirms That Work Continues On '20,000 Leagues Under The Sea'." MTV Movies Blog. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  47. ^ Davis, Edward."Sony Officially Plans To Make 'Dragon Tattoo' Sequels, But David Fincher Is Looking To Direct '20,000 Leagues' Instead." Archived June 5, 2013, at the Wayback Machine IndieWire, January 9, 2012. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  48. ^ Sneider, Jeff. "Director courts frequent collaborator for role of harpoonist Ned Land." Variety, October 18, 2012. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  49. ^ Dibdin, Emma. "Brad Pitt 'turns down David Fincher's '20,000 Leagues Under the Sea'." Digital Spy, February 12, 2013. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  50. ^ Bullbeck, Pip. "Disney’s ‘20,000 Leagues Under the Sea’ Confirmed For Australia Shoot'." The Hollywood Reporter, April 2, 2013. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  51. ^ Child, Ben. "20,000 Leagues Under the Sea remake put on hold." The Guardian, May 20, 2013. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  52. ^ Davis, Edwatd. "Exclusive: Andrew Kevin Walker Rewriting ‘Dragon Tattoo’ Sequel; David Fincher's ‘20,000 Leagues’ Is Dead." Archived July 20, 2013, at the Wayback Machine IndieWire, July 17, 2013. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  53. ^ Jagernauth, Kevin. "David Fincher Says Differences Over Casting And Disney's Corporate Culture Stalled '20,000 Leagues Under The Sea'." Archived September 18, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Indie Wire, September 15, 2014. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  54. ^ Jagernauth, Jenkins. "David Fincher." Archived April 15, 2015, at the Wayback Machine Indie Wire, September 16, 2014. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  55. ^ Child, Ben. "Pirates of the Caribbean 5 gets green light to shoot in Australia." The Guardian, September 1, 2014. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  56. ^ Ford, Rebecca (February 25, 2016). "'Wolverine' Helmer James Mangold to Direct Disney's 'Captain Nemo'". The Hollywood Reporter.
  57. ^ ‘Ford v Ferrari’ Director James Mangold In Talks To Direct ‘Indiana Jones 5’


  • Schickel, Richard. The Disney Version: The Life, Times, Art and Commerce of Walt Disney (Third ed.). Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1997. ISBN 978-1-56663-158-7.
  • Warren, Bill. Keep Watching the Skies: American Science Fiction Films of the Fifties, 21st Century Edition. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 2009 (First Edition 1982). ISBN 0-89950-032-3.

External links