19th ( nineteenth) century was a century that began on January 1, 1801, and ended on December 31, 1900. It is often used interchangeably with the 1800s, though the start and end dates differ by a year.
The 19th century saw large amounts of social change;
slavery was abolished, and the Second Industrial Revolution led to massive urbanization and much higher levels of productivity, profit and prosperity. European imperialism brought much of Asia and almost all of Africa under colonial rule.
It was marked by the collapse of the
Spanish, Napoleonic, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. This paved the way for the growing influence of the British Empire, the Russian Empire, the United States, the German Empire (essentially replacing the Holy Roman Empire), the French colonial empire and Meiji Japan, with the British boasting unchallenged dominance after 1815. After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the British and Russian empires expanded greatly, becoming the world's leading powers. The Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. The British Empire grew rapidly in the first half of the century, especially with the expansion of vast territories in Canada, Australia, South Africa and heavily populated India, and in the last two decades of the century in Africa. By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the world's land and one quarter of the world's population. During the post-Napoleonic era, it enforced what became known as the Pax Britannica, which had ushered in unprecedented globalization and economic integration on a massive scale.
electronics appeared in the 19th century, with the introduction of the electric relay in 1835, the telegraph and its Morse code protocol in 1837, the first telephone call in 1876, and the first functional  light bulb in 1878.
The 19th century was an era of rapidly accelerating
scientific discovery and invention, with significant developments in the fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, electricity, and metallurgy that laid the groundwork for the technological advances of the 20th century. The  Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan. The  Victorian era was notorious for the employment of young children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty and gender roles. Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the  Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, in the First Sino-Japanese War. Advances in medicine and the understanding of human anatomy and disease prevention took place in the 19th century, and were partly responsible for rapidly accelerating population growth in the western world. Europe's population doubled during the 19th century, from approximately 200 million to more than 400 million. The introduction of  railroads provided the first major advancement in land transportation for centuries, changing the way people lived and obtained goods, and fuelling major urbanization movements in countries across the globe. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century. London became the world's largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later. The last remaining undiscovered landmasses of Earth, including vast expanses of interior Africa and Asia, were explored during this century, and with the exception of the extreme zones of the Arctic and Antarctic, accurate and detailed maps of the globe were available by the 1890s. Liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe.
Arab slave traders
and their captives along the Ruvuma river (in today's Tanzania and Mozambique), 19th century
Slavery was greatly reduced around the world. Following a successful slave revolt in Haiti, Britain and France stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UK's Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the global slave trade. The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, who did so in 1834. America's  13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888 (see Abolitionism). Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia.
The 19th century was remarkable in the widespread formation of new
settlement foundations which were particularly prevalent across North America and Australia, with a significant proportion of the two continents' largest cities being founded at some point in the century. Chicago in the United States and Melbourne in Australia were non-existent in the earliest decades but grew to become the 2nd largest cities in the United States and British Empire respectively by the end of the century. In the 19th century approximately 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States.
The 19th century also saw the rapid creation, development and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain and the United States.
Association football, rugby union, baseball and many other sports were developed during the 19th century, while the British Empire facilitated the rapid spread of sports such as cricket to many different parts of the world. Also, ladywear was a very sensitive topic during this time, where women showing their ankles was viewed to be scandalous.
The boundaries set by the Congress of Vienna, 1815.
It also marks the fall of the Ottoman rule of the Balkans which led to the creation of
Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro and Romania as a result of the second Russo-Turkish War, which in itself followed the great Crimean War.
Map of the world from 1897. The
(marked in pink) was the superpower of the 19th century.
's retreat from Russia in 1812. The war swings decisively against the French Empire
The Napoleonic Wars were a series of major conflicts from 1803 to 1815 pitting the
French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict.
In the aftermath of the
French Revolution, Napoleon Bonaparte gained power in France in 1799. In 1804, he crowned himself Emperor of the French.
In 1805, the French victory over an Austrian-Russian army at the
Battle of Austerlitz ended the War of the Third Coalition. As a result of the Treaty of Pressburg, the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved.
Later efforts were less successful. In the
Peninsular War, France unsuccessfully attempted to establish Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain. In 1812, the French invasion of Russia had massive French casualties, and was a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars.
In 1814, after defeat in the
War of the Sixth Coalition, Napoleon abdicated and was exiled to Elba. Later that year, he escaped exile and began the Hundred Days before finally being defeated at the Battle of Waterloo and exiled to Saint Helena, an island in the South Atlantic Ocean.
After Napoleon's defeat, the
Congress of Vienna was held to determine new national borders. The Concert of Europe attempted to preserve this settlement was established to preserve these borders, with limited impact.
Latin American independence
Most countries in
Central America and South America obtained independence from colonial overlords during the 19th century. In 1804, Haiti gained independence from France. In Mexico, the Mexican War of Independence was a decade-long conflict that ended in Mexican independence in 1821.
Due to the Napoleonic Wars, the royal family of Portugal
relocated to Brazil from 1808-1821, leading to Brazil having a separate monarchy from Portugal.
Federal Republic of Central America gained independence from Spain in 1821 and from Mexico in 1823. After several rebellions, by 1841 the federation had dissolved into the independent countries of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica.
In 1830, the post-colonial nation of
Gran Colombia dissolved and the nations of Colombia (including modern-day Panama), Ecuador, and Venezuela took its place.
Revolutions of 1848
Revolutions of 1848 were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. The revolutions were essentially democratic and liberal in nature, with the aim of removing the old monarchical structures and creating independent nation states.
The first revolution began in
January in Sicily. Revolutions then spread across Europe after a separate revolution began in France in February. Over 50 countries were affected, but with no coordination or cooperation among their respective revolutionaries.
According to Evans and von Strandmann (2000), some of the major contributing factors were widespread dissatisfaction with political leadership, demands for more participation in government and democracy, demands for freedom of the press, other demands made by the working class, the upsurge of nationalism, and the regrouping of established government forces.
Abolition and the American Civil War
abolitionism movement achieved success in the 19th century. The Atlantic slave trade was abolished in 1808, and by the end of the century, almost every government had banned slavery. The Slavery Abolition Act of 1833 banned slavery throughout the British Empire, and the Lei Áurea abolished slavery in Brazil in 1888.
Abolitionism in the United States continued until the end of the American Civil War. Among others Frederick Douglass, and Harriet Tubman, were two of many American Abolitionists who helped win the fight against slavery. Douglass was an articulate orator and incisive antislavery writer; while Tubman's efforts was by using a network of antislavery activists and safe houses known as the Underground Railroad.
The American Civil War took place from 1861-1865. Eleven
southern states seceded from the United States, largely over concerns related to slavery. In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. Lincoln issued a preliminary on September 22, 1862 warning that in all states still in rebellion (  Confederacy) on January 1, 1863, he would declare their slaves "then, thenceforward, and forever free." The  Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, ratified in 1865, officially abolished slavery in the entire country.
Five days after
Robert E. Lee surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, Lincoln was assassinated by actor and Confederate sympathiser John Wilkes Booth.
Decline of the Ottoman Empire
Greece became the first country to break away from the Ottoman Empire after the Greek War of Independence. In 1831, the Great Bosnian uprising against Ottoman rule occurred. In 1817, the Principality of Serbia became suzerain from the Ottoman Empire, and in 1867, it passed a Constitution which defined its independence from the Ottoman Empire. In 1876, Bulgarians instigate the April Uprising against Ottoman rule. Following the Russo-Turkish War, the Treaty of Berlin recognized the formal independence of the Principality of Serbia, Montenegro and Romania. Bulgaria becomes autonomous.
China: Taiping Rebellion
Taiping Rebellion was the bloodiest conflict of the 19th century, leading to the deaths of 20 million people. Its leader, Hong Xiuquan, declared himself the younger brother of Jesus Christ and developed a new Chinese religion known as the God Worshipping Society. After proclaiming the establishment of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in 1851, the Taiping army conquered a large part of China, capturing Nanjing in 1853. In 1864, after the death of Hong Xiuquan, Qing forces recaptured Nanjing and ended the rebellion.
Japan: Meiji Restoration
Edo period, Japan largely pursued an isolationist foreign policy. In 1853, United States Navy Commodore Matthew C. Perry threatened the Japanese capital Edo with gunships, demanding that they agree to open trade. This led to the opening of trade relations between Japan and foreign countries, with the policy of Sakoku formally ended in 1854.
By 1872, the Japanese government under
Emperor Meiji had eliminated the and established a strong central government. Further reforms included the abolishment of the daimyō system samurai class, rapid industrialization and modernization of government, closely following European models.
In 1862, French gained its first foothold in
Southeast Asia, and in 1863 France annexes Cambodia.
In Africa, European exploration and technology led to the colonization of almost the entire continent by 1898. New medicines such as
quinine and more advanced firearms allowed European nations to conquer native populations.
Motivations for the
Scramble for Africa included national pride, desire for raw materials, and Christian missionary activity. Britain seized control of Egypt to ensure control of the Suez Canal. France, Belgium, Portugal, and Germany also had substantial colonies. The Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 attempted to reach agreement on colonial borders in Africa, but disputes continued, both amongst European powers and in resistance by the native population.
diamonds were discovered in the Kimberley region of South Africa. In 1886, gold was discovered in Transvaal. This led to colonization in Southern Africa by the British and business interests, led by Cecil Rhodes.
1801– 1815: the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War between the United States and the Barbary States of North Africa
1804– 1810: Fulani Jihad in Nigeria.
1804– 1813: Russo-Persian War.
1806– 1812: Russo-Turkish War, Treaty of Bucharest.
1808– 1809: Russia conquers Finland from Sweden in the Finnish War.
rises to power over the
. Zulu expansion was a major factor of the
("Crushing") that depopulated large areas of southern Africa
1810: The Grito de Dolores begins the Mexican War of Independence.
1810s– 1820s: Punjab War between the Sikh Empire and British Empire.
1812–1815: War of 1812 between the United States and Britain; ends in a draw, except that Native Americans lose power
1813– 1837: Afghan–Sikh Wars.
1814–16: Anglo-Nepalese War between Nepal (Gurkha Empire) and British Empire.
1817: First Seminole War begins in Florida.
1817: Russia commences its conquest of the Caucasus.
1820: Revolutions of 1820 in Southern Europe
1825- 1830: Java War.
1826– 1828: After the final Russo-Persian War, the Persian Empire took back territory lost to Russia from the previous war.
1828– 1832: Black War in Tasmania leads to the near extinction of the Tasmanian aborigines
1830: November Uprising in Poland against Russia.
1830: End of the Diponegoro war. The whole area of Yogyakarta and Surakarta Manca nagara Dutch seized. 27 September, Klaten Agreement determines a fixed boundary between Surakarta and Yogyakarta and permanently divide the kingdom of Mataram was signed by Sasradiningrat, Pepatih Dalem Surakarta, and Danurejo, Pepatih Dalem Yogyakarta. Mataram is a de facto and de yure controlled by the Dutch East Indies.
1831: France invades and occupies Algeria.
1831– 1833: Egyptian–Ottoman War.
1846– 1848: The Mexican–American War leads to Mexico's cession of much of the modern-day Southwestern United States.
1853– 1856: Crimean War between France, the United Kingdom, the Ottoman Empire and Russia
1861– 1865: American Civil War between the Union and seceding Confederacy.
Dead Confederate soldiers. 30% of all Southern white males 18–40 years of age died in the
American Civil War
1861– 1867: French intervention in Mexico and the creation of the Second Mexican Empire, ruled by Maximilian I of Mexico and his consort Carlota of Mexico.
1863– 1865: Polish uprising against the Russian Empire.
1864– 1870: The Paraguayan War ends Paraguayan ambitions for expansion and destroys much of the Paraguayan population.
1866: Austro-Prussian War results in the dissolution of the German Confederation and the creation of the North German Confederation and the Austrian-Hungarian Dual Monarchy.
1868- 1869: Boshin War results in end of the shogunate and the founding the Japanese Empire.
1868– 1878: Ten Years' War between Cuba and Spain.
1870– 1871: The Franco-Prussian War results in the unifications of Germany and Italy, the collapse of the Second French Empire and the emergence of a New Imperialism.
1879: Anglo-Zulu War results in British victory and the annexation of the Zulu Kingdom.
1879– 1880: Little War against Spanish rule in Cuba leads to rebel defeat.
1879– 1883: Chile battles with Peru and Bolivia over Andean territory in the War of the Pacific.
1880– 1881: the First Boer War.
1881– 1899: The Mahdist War in Sudan.
1882: The Anglo-Egyptian War British invasion and subsequent occupation of Egypt
1894– 1895: After the First Sino-Japanese War, China cedes Taiwan to Japan and grants Japan a free hand in Korea.
1895: Taiwan is ceded to the Empire of Japan as a result of the First Sino-Japanese War.
1895– 1896: Abyssinia defeats Italy in the First Italo–Ethiopian War.
1895– 1898: Cuban War for Independence results in Cuban independence from Spain.
1896- 1898: Philippine Revolution results Filipino victory.
1898: The Spanish-American War results in independence of Cuba.
1899– 1901: The Boxer Rebellion in China is suppressed by an Eight-Nation Alliance.
1899– 1902: The Thousand Days' War in Colombia breaks out between the " Liberales" and " Conservadores", culminating with the loss of Panama in 1903.
1899– 1902: Second Boer War begins. 1899– 1902: Philippine–American War begins.
Science and technology
Distinguished Men of Science.
Use your cursor to see who is who.
The 19th century saw the birth of science as a profession; the term
scientist was coined in 1833 by William Whewell, which soon replaced the older term of  (natural) philosopher. Among the most influential ideas of the 19th century were those of Charles Darwin (alongside the independent researches of Alfred Russel Wallace), who in 1859 published the book , which introduced the idea of The Origin of Species evolution by natural selection. Another important landmark in medicine and biology were the successful efforts to prove the germ theory of disease. Following this, Louis Pasteur made the first vaccine against rabies, and also made many discoveries in the field of chemistry, including the asymmetry of crystals. In chemistry, Dmitri Mendeleev, following the atomic theory of John Dalton, created the first periodic table of elements. In physics, the experiments, theories and discoveries of Michael Faraday, André-Marie Ampère, James Clerk Maxwell, and their contemporaries led to the creation of electromagnetism as a new branch of science. Thermodynamics led to an understanding of heat and the notion of energy was defined. Other highlights include the discoveries unveiling the nature of atomic structure and matter, simultaneously with chemistry – and of new kinds of radiation. In astronomy, the planet Neptune was discovered. In mathematics, the notion of complex numbers finally matured and led to a subsequent analytical theory; they also began the use of hypercomplex numbers. Karl Weierstrass and others carried out the arithmetization of analysis for functions of real and complex variables. It also saw rise to new progress in geometry beyond those classical theories of Euclid, after a period of nearly two thousand years. The mathematical science of logic likewise had revolutionary breakthroughs after a similarly long period of stagnation. But the most important step in science at this time were the ideas formulated by the creators of electrical science. Their work changed the face of physics and made possible for new technology to come about: Thomas Alva Edison gave the world a practical everyday lightbulb. Nikola Tesla pioneered the induction motor, high frequency transmission of electricity, and remote control. Other new inventions were electrical telegraphy and the telephone.
bacilli. The disease killed an estimated 25 percent of the adult population of Europe during the 19th century.
First motor bus in history: the
Omnibus, built in 1895 for the Netphener bus company
The Great Exhibition
in London. Starting during the 18th century, the United Kingdom was the first country in the world to industrialise.
On the literary front the new century opens with
romanticism, a movement that spread throughout Europe in reaction to 18th-century rationalism, and it develops more or less along the lines of the Industrial Revolution, with a design to react against the dramatic changes wrought on nature by the steam engine and the railway. William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge are considered the initiators of the new school in England, while in the continent the German spreads its influence as far as Italy and Spain. French arts had been hampered by the Sturm und Drang Napoleonic Wars but subsequently developed rapidly. Modernism began.
The Goncourts and
Émile Zola in France and Giovanni Verga in Italy produce some of the finest naturalist novels. Italian naturalist novels are especially important in that they give a social map of the new unified Italy to a people that until then had been scarcely aware of its ethnic and cultural diversity. There was a huge literary output during the 19th century. Some of the most famous writers included the Russians Alexander Pushkin, Nikolai Gogol, Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov and Fyodor Dostoyevsky; the English Charles Dickens, John Keats, Alfred, Lord Tennyson and Jane Austen; the Scottish Sir Walter Scott; the Irish Oscar Wilde; the Americans Edgar Allan Poe, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Mark Twain; and the French Victor Hugo, Honoré de Balzac, Jules Verne, Alexandre Dumas and Charles Baudelaire.
, Self-portrait, c. 1860
Ottomar Anschütz, chronophotographer
Mathew Brady, documented the American Civil War
Edward S. Curtis, documented the American West notably Native Americans
Louis Daguerre, inventor of daguerreotype process of photography, chemist
Thomas Eakins, pioneer motion photographer
George Eastman, inventor of roll film
Hércules Florence, pioneer inventor of photography
Auguste and Louis Lumière, pioneer film-makers, inventors
Étienne-Jules Marey, pioneer motion photographer, chronophotographer
Eadweard Muybridge, pioneer motion photographer, chronophotographer
Nadar a.k.a. Gaspard-Félix Tournachon, portrait photographer
Nicéphore Niépce, pioneer inventor of photography
Louis Le Prince, motion picture inventor and pioneer film-maker
Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, chemist and photographer William Fox Talbot, inventor of the negative / positive photographic process.
Visual artists, painters, sculptors
Realism and Romanticism of the early 19th century gave way to Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in the later half of the century, with Paris being the dominant art capital of the world. In the United States the Hudson River School was prominent. 19th-century painters included:
Sonata form matured during the Classical era to become the primary form of instrumental compositions throughout the 19th century. Much of the music from the 19th century was referred to as being in the Romantic style. Many great composers lived through this era such as Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky and Richard Wagner. The list includes:
: 29 January,
arrives in Singapore with
to establish a trading post for the
British East India Company
. 8 February, The treaty is signed between Sultan Hussein of Johor, Temenggong Abdul Rahman and Stamford Raffles. Farquhar is installed as the first Resident of the settlement.
1810: The University of Berlin was founded. Among its students and faculty are Hegel, Marx, and Bismarck. The German university reform proves to be so successful that its model is copied around the world (see History of European research universities).
1814: Elisha Collier invents the Flintlock Revolver.
1815: April, Mount Tambora in Sumbawa island erupts, becoming the largest volcanic eruption in recorded history, destroying Tambora culture, and killing at least 71,000 people, including its aftermath. The eruption created global climate anomalies known as " volcanic winter". 
1816: Year Without a Summer: Unusually cold conditions wreak havoc throughout the Northern Hemisphere, likely influenced by the 1815 explosion of Mount Tambora.
1816– 1828: Shaka's Zulu Kingdom becomes the largest in Southern Africa.
1819: The modern city of Singapore is established by the British East India Company.
1820: Discovery of Antarctica.
1820: Liberia founded by the American Colonization Society for freed American slaves.
1820: Dissolution of the Maratha Empire.
1822– 1823: First Mexican Empire, as Mexico's first post-independent government, ruled by Emperor Agustín I of Mexico.
1823: Monroe Doctrine declared by US President James Monroe. 1825: The Decembrist revolt.
. From 1830 to 1914, almost 5 million Irish people went to the United States alone.
A barricade in the
, 18 March 1871. Around 30,000 Parisians were killed, and thousands more were later executed.
1870: Official dismantling of the Cultivation System and beginning of a ' Liberal Policy' of deregulated exploitation of the Netherlands East Indies. 
1870– 1890: Long Depression in Western Europe and North America.
1871– 1872: Famine in Persia is believed to have caused the death of 2 million.
1871: The Paris Commune briefly rules the French capital.
1872: Yellowstone National Park, the first national park, is created.
1874: The Société Anonyme Coopérative des Artistes Peintres, Sculpteurs, and Graveurs, better known as the Impressionists, organize and present their first public group exhibition at the Paris studio of the photographer Nadar.
1874: The Home Rule Movement is established in Ireland.
1875: surveys the deepest point in the Earth's oceans, the HMS Challenger Challenger Deep
1876: Battle of the Little Bighorn leads to the death of General Custer and victory for the alliance of Lakota, Cheyenne and Arapaho
1876– 1914: The massive expansion in population, territory, industry and wealth in the United States is referred to as the Gilded Age.
1877: Great Railroad Strike in the United States may have been the world's first nationwide labour strike.
1881: Wave of pogroms begins in the Russian Empire.
1881– 1882: The Jules Ferry laws are passed in France establishing free, secular education.
1883: Krakatoa volcano explosion, one of the largest in modern history.
1883: The quagga is rendered extinct.
1886: Construction of the Statue of Liberty; Coca-Cola is developed.
1888: Founding of the shipping line (KPM) that supported the unification and development of the colonial economy. Koninklijke Paketvaart-Maatschappij  1889: Eiffel Tower is inaugurated in Paris.
Charles Alderton, creator of Dr Pepper
Alexander II, Emperor of Russia, King of Poland
Clara Barton, nurse, pioneer of the American Red Cross
Sitting Bull, a leader of the Lakota
John Burroughs, Naturalist, conservationist, writer
Benito Juárez, Mexican President
Davy Crockett, King of the wild frontier, folk hero, frontiersman, soldier and politician
Jefferson Davis, Confederate States President
William Gilbert Grace, English cricketer
Emilio Aguinaldo, A Filipino revolutionary, politician, and military leader
Baron Haussmann, civic planner
Franz Joseph I of Austria, Emperor of Austria and brother of Mexican Emperor
Chief Joseph, a leader of the Nez Percé
Kamehameha I, founder of the Kingdom of Hawaii died in May 1819
Ned Kelly, Australian folk hero, and outlaw
Elizabeth Kenny, Australian Nurse and found an Innovative Treatment of Polio
Sándor Kőrösi Csoma, explorer of the Tibetan culture
Abraham Lincoln, United States President
Fitz Hugh Ludlow, writer and explorer
William McKinley, 25th U.S. President
John Muir, Naturalist, writer, preservationist
Florence Nightingale, nursing pioneer
Ranjit Singh, Maharaja of the Sikh Empire
Napoleon I, First Consul and Emperor of the French
Charles Stewart Parnell, Irish political leader
Commodore Perry, U.S. Naval commander, opened the door to Japan
José Rizal, Filipino polymath, physician, nationalist, novelist, poet, liberator
Sacagawea, Important aide to the Lewis and Clark Expedition
Giuseppe Garibaldi, was an Italian general and politician, a central figure in the Italian Risorgimento
Ignaz Semmelweis, proponent of hygienic practices
Dr. John Snow, the founder of epidemiology
F R Spofforth, Australian cricketer
Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom
King Victor Emmanuel II, first King of Italy
William Wilberforce, Abolitionist, Philanthropist
Hong Xiuquan inspired China's Taiping Rebellion, perhaps the bloodiest civil war in human history
Karl Marx wrote The Communist Manifesto, promoted the abolition of capitalism through international revolution.
Nikola Karev commander and leader of the Ilinden Uprising in Ottoman-Macedonia.
Henry George, economist and author of Progress and Poverty, one of the most influential books of the 19th century in the United States Nabi Tajima, last verified surviving person born in the 19th century, died in 2018.
Show business and theatre
P. T. Barnum, showman
David Belasco, actor, playwright, theatrical producer
Sarah Bernhardt, actress
Edwin Booth, actor
John Wilkes Booth, actor, assassin of Abraham Lincoln
Dion Boucicault, playwright
Mrs Patrick Campbell, actress
Anton Chekhov, playwright
Buffalo Bill Cody, Wild West legend, and showman
Baptiste Deburau, Bohemian–French actor and mime.
Sergei Diaghilev, art critic, ballet impresario
Eleonora Duse, actress
Henrik Ibsen, playwright
Edmund Kean, actor
Charles Kean, actor
Olga Knipper, actress
Lillie Langtry, actress, socialite
Frédérick Lemaître, actor
Jenny Lind, opera singer called the Swedish Nightingale
William Macready, actor
Céleste Mogador, dancer
Lola Montez, exotic dancer
Adelaide Neilson, actress
Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko, playwright, theatre director, co-founder of Moscow Art Theatre
Annie Oakley, Wild West, sharp-shooter
Alexander Ostrovsky, playwright
Lillian Russell, singer, actress
George Bernard Shaw, playwright
Mikhail Shchepkin, actor
Konstantin Stanislavski, actor, theatre director, co-founder of Moscow Art Theatre
Edward Askew Sothern, actor
Ellen Terry, actress Maria Yermolova, actress
John Jacob Astor III, Real Estate
Andrew Carnegie, Industrialist, philanthropist
Robert Reed Church, a freedman who became the South's first black millionaire, real estate
Jay Cooke, Finance
Henry Clay Frick, Industrialist, art collector
Jay Gould, Railroad developer
Meyer Guggenheim Family patriarch, mining
Daniel Guggenheim (copper)
E. H. Harriman, Railroads
Henry O. Havemeyer (sugar), art collector
George Hearst, Gold
James J. Hill (railroads) – The Empire Builder
Thomas Lipton, Scottish merchant and yachtsman known for Lipton tea
Savva Mamontov, Industrialist, philanthropist
Andrew W. Mellon, Industrialist, philanthropist, art collector
J. P. Morgan, Banker, art collector
George Mortimer Pullman (railroads)
Ludvig Nobel, Oil
Charles Pratt Oil, founder of the Pratt Institute
Cecil Rhodes diamonds, mining magnate, founder of De Beers and benefactor of the Rhodes Scholarship.
John D. Rockefeller, Oil, Business tycoon, philanthropist
Levi Strauss, clothing manufacturer
Pavel Tretyakov, Businessman, art collector, philanthropist, founder of Tretyakov Gallery
Cornelius Vanderbilt, Shipping, Railroads
William Chapman Ralston, Businessman, Financier, founder of Bank of California. Madam C.J. Walker, African American entrepreneur, philanthropist, political and social activist. Eulogized as first female self-made millionaire in America.
Anthropology, archaeology, scholars
Churchill Babington, Archaeology
Adolph Francis Alphonse Bandelier, Archaeology
Franz Boas, Anthropology
Charles Étienne Brasseur de Bourbourg, Archaeology
Louis Agassiz Fuertes, Ornithology
George Bird Grinnell, Anthropology
Joseph LeConte, Scholar, preservationist
Nicholai Miklukho-Maklai, Anthropology
Clinton Hart Merriam, Zoology
Lewis H. Morgan, Anthropology Jules Étienne Joseph Quicherat, Archaeology
Robert Ridgway, Ornithology
Edward Burnett Tylor, Anthropology Karl Verner, Linguist
Journalists, missionaries, explorers
Roald Amundsen, explorer
Samuel Baker, explorer
Thomas Baines, artist, explorer
Heinrich Barth, explorer
Henry Walter Bates, naturalist, explorer
Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen, explorer
Jim Bridger, explorer
Richard Francis Burton, explorer
William Clark, explorer The
Lewis and Clark Expedition, exploration
Frederick Samuel Dellenbaugh, explorer
Percy Fawcett, adventurer, explorer, proto- Indiana Jones
Vladimir Gilyarovsky, journalist
Horace Greeley, journalist
Peter Jones (missionary), Canadian Methodist minister, and go-between for Christians and his fellow Mississaugas and other Indian tribes.
Adoniram Judson, missionary Sir
John Kirk, explorer, physician, companion of David Livingston Sir
Joseph Dalton Hooker, botanist, explorer, friend of Charles Darwin Sir
William Jackson Hooker, botanist, explorer, father of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker
Otto von Kotzebue, explorer
Pyotr Kozlov, explorer
Mikhail Lazarev, fleet commander, explorer
Meriwether Lewis, explorer
David Livingstone, missionary
Stepan Makarov, explorer, oceanographer
Thomas Nast, journalist, caricaturist and editorial cartoonist
Robert Peary, explorer
Marcelo H. del Pilar, writer, journalist, editor of . La Solidaridad
Nikolai Przhevalsky, explorer
Frederick Selous, explorer
Pyotr Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky, explorer, geographer
John Hanning Speke, explorer
Henry M. Stanley, journalist, explorer
John McDouall Stuart, explorer
John L. O'Sullivan, journalist who coined Manifest Destiny
Shoqan Walikhanov, explorer ethnographer, historian
Carter G. Woodson, African-American historian, author, journalist and the founder of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History. Ferdinand von Wrangel, explorer
Philosophy and religion
The 19th century was host to a variety of religious and philosophical thinkers, including:
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad founded the Ahmadiyya Islamic movement in India.
Bahá'u'lláh founded the Bahá'í Faith in Persia
Mikhail Bakunin, anarchist
William Booth, social reformer, founder of the Salvation Army
Auguste Comte, philosopher
Mary Baker Eddy, religious leader, founder of Christian Science
Friedrich Engels, political philosopher
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, philosopher
Allan Kardec, systematizer of the Spiritist Doctrine
Søren Kierkegaard, philosopher
Peter Kropotkin, anarchist
Karl Marx, political philosopher
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Mutualist anarchist
John Stuart Mill, philosopher
Krste Petkov Misirkov, philosopher and historian
William Morris, social reformer
Friedrich Nietzsche, philosopher
Nikolai (Nicholas) of Japan, religious leader, introduced Eastern Orthodoxy into Japan
Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, Hindu mystic
Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, founder of French socialism
Arthur Schopenhauer, philosopher
Joseph Smith, Jr. and Brigham Young, founders of Mormonism
Vladimir Solovyov, philosopher
Herbert Spencer, "The Great philosopher"
Charles Spurgeon, Baptist preacher and writer
Leo Tolstoy, anarchist
Ayya Vaikundar, initiator of the belief system of Ayyavazhi
Ellen White religious author and co-founder of the Seventh-day Adventist Church St. Thérèse of Lisieux, French discalced Carmelite nun
Politics and the Military
John Quincy Adams, U.S. congressman, lawyer, and president
Alexander I of Russia
Alexander III of Russia
Susan B. Anthony, U.S. women's rights advocate
Pyotr Bagration, Russian general
Otto von Bismarck, German chancellor
Napoleon Bonaparte, French general, first consul and emperor
William Wells Brown, American abolitionist, novelist, playwright, and historian
John C. Calhoun, U.S. senator
Henry Clay, U.S. statesman, "The Great Compromiser"
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America
Louis-Nicolas Davout, French general
Benjamin Disraeli, novelist and politician
Frederick Douglass, U.S. abolitionist spokesman
Ferdinand VII of Spain
Joseph Fouché, French politician
John C. Frémont, Explorer, Governor of California
Giuseppe Garibaldi, unifier of Italy and Piedmontese soldier
Alexander Gorchakov, Russian Chancellor
Isabella II of Spain
Gojong of Joseon, Korean emperor
William Lloyd Garrison, U.S. abolitionist leader
William Ewart Gladstone, British prime minister
Ulysses S. Grant, U.S. general and president
Theodor Herzl, founder of modern political Zionism
Andrew Jackson, U.S. general and president
Thomas Jefferson, American statesman, philosopher, and president
John Mitchell, Jr., American businessman, newspaper editor, activist, and politician
Ioannis Kapodistrias, Russian and Greek statesman
Lajos Kossuth, Hungarian governor; leader of the war of independence
Mikhail Kutuzov, Russian general
Robert E. Lee, Confederate general
Libertadores, Latin American liberators
Abraham Lincoln, U.S. president; led the nation during the American Civil War
Sir John A. Macdonald, Canada, first Prime Minister of Canada
Klemens von Metternich, Austrian Chancellor
Joachim Murat, King of Naples and French general
Meiji Emperor of Japan
Michel Ney, French general
Nicholas I of Russia
Pedro II of Brazil
Józef Poniatowski, Polish general
John Ross Robertson, newspaper publisher and philanthropist
Theodore Roosevelt, Explorer, Naturalist, future President of The United States
William Tecumseh Sherman, Union general during the American Civil War
Dred Scott, enslaved African American man
Fulwar Skipwith, the first and only president of the short lived Republic of West Florida
Mikhail Skobelev, Russian general
Leland Stanford, Governor of California, U.S. Senator, entrepreneur
István Széchenyi, aristocrat, leader of the Hungarian reform movement
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, French politician
Harriet Tubman, African-American abolitionist, humanitarian, played a part in the Underground Railroad
Sojourner Truth, was an African-American abolitionist and women's rights activist
William M. Tweed, a.k.a. Boss Tweed, influential New York City politician, head of Tammany Hall
Abdülmecid I, 31st Sultan and 110th Caliph of Islam of the Ottoman Empire
Queen Victoria, British monarch
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, British General and prime minister
Hong Xiuquan, revolutionary, self-proclaimed Son of God
Victoria Woodhull, American politician, suffragette, abolitionist
Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the last Japanese shōgun
Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor, Johore Sultan Andres Bonifacio, Filipino revolutionary leader
Supplementary portrait gallery
"The First Telephone Call".
"Dec. 18, 1878: Let There Be Light — Electric Light". WIRED. 18 December 2009.
Encyclopædia Britannica's Great Inventions. Encyclopædia Britannica.
"The United States and the Industrial Revolution in the 19th Century". Americanhistory.about.com. 2012-09-18. Archived from the original on 2012-07-23 . Retrieved . 2012-10-31
^ Laura Del Col, West Virginia University,
The Life of the Industrial Worker in Nineteenth-Century England
"Modernization – Population Change". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on April 6, 2009.
Liberalism in the 19th century. Encyclopædia Britannica.
Sailing against slavery. By Jo Loosemore. BBC.
The Atlantic: Can the US afford immigration?. Migration News. December 1996.
Perez-Brignoli, Hector (1989). A Brief History of Central America. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520909762.
^ R.J.W. Evans and Hartmut Pogge von Strandmann, eds.,
The Revolutions in Europe 1848–1849 (2000) pp. v, 4
^ McPherson, J. M. (2014). Emancipation Proclamation and Thirteenth Amendment. In E. Foner, & J. A. Garraty (Eds.),
The Reader's companion to American history. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved from [search.credoreference.com]
Reilly, Thomas H. (2004). The Taiping heavenly kingdom rebellion and the blasphemy of empire (1 ed.). Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0295801926.
^ W. G. Beasley,
The Meiji Restoration (1972),
^ a b c
Kerr, Gordon (2012). A short history of Africa : from the origins of the human race to the Arab spring. Harpenden, Herts [UK]: Pocket Essentials. pp. 85–101. ISBN 9781842434420.
". John Huddleston (2002). Killing ground: photographs of the Civil War and the changing American landscape Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6773-8
Engraving after 'Men of Science Living in 1807-8', John Gilbert engraved by George Zobel and William Walker, ref. NPG 1075a, National Portrait Gallery, London, accessed February 2010
Smith, HM (May 1941). "Eminent men of science living in 1807-8". J. Chem. Educ. 18 (5): 203. doi: 10.1021/ed018p203.
Snyder, Laura J. (2000-12-23). "William Whewell". Stanford University . Retrieved . 2008-03-03
"Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2018-12-31. Archived from the original on April 21, 2009.
^ David Damrosch and David L. Pike, eds.
The Longman Anthology of World Literature, Volume E: The Nineteenth Century (2nd ed. 2008)
^ M. H. Abrams et al., eds.,
The Norton Anthology of English Literature (9th ed. 2012)
Oppenheimer, Clive (2003). "Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815". Progress in Physical Geography. 27 (2): 230–259. doi: 10.1191/0309133303pp379ra.
^ a b c Vickers (2005), page xii
^ Wahyu Ernawati: "Chapter 8: The Lombok Treasure", in
Colonial collections Revisited: Pieter ter Keurs (editor) Vol. 152, CNWS publications. Issue 36 of Mededelingen van het Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde, Leiden. CNWS Publications, 2007. ISBN 978-90-5789-152-6. 296 pages. pp. 186–203
New Cambridge Modern History (13 vol 1957-79), old but thorough coverage, mostly of Europe; strong on diplomacy
Bury, J. P. T. ed.
The New Cambridge Modern History: Vol. 10: the Zenith of European Power, 1830-70 (1964) online Crawley, C. W., ed.
The New Cambridge Modern History Volume IX War and Peace In An Age of Upheaval 1793-1830 (1965) online Darby, H. C. and H. Fullard
The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 14: Atlas (1972) Hinsley, F.H., ed. The New Cambridge Modern History, vol. 11, Material Progress and World-Wide Problems 1870-1898 (1979) online Langer, William. An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed. 1973); highly detailed outline of events online free
Diplomacy and international relations
Greater France: A History of French Overseas Expansion (1996) Bartlett, C. J.
Peace, War and the European Powers, 1814-1914 (1996) brief overview 216pp Bridge, F. R. & Roger Bullen.
The Great Powers and the European States System 1814-1914, 2nd Ed. (2005) Gooch, G.P.
History of Modern Europe: 1878-1919 (1923) online Herring, George C.
Years of Peril and Ambition: U.S. Foreign Relations, 1776-1921 (2017)
Kennedy, Paul. (1987), stress on economic and military factors The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers Economic Change and Military Conflict From 1500-2000 Langer, William.
European Alliances and Alignments 1870-1890 (1950); advanced history online Langer, William.
The Diplomacy of Imperialism 1890-1902 (1950); advanced history online Mowat, R.B.
A history of European diplomacy, 1815-1914 (1922) online free Osterhammel, Jürgen.
The Transformation of the World: A Global History of the Nineteenth Century (2015) Porter, Andrew, ed.
The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume III: The Nineteenth Century (2001) Sontag, Raymond.
European Diplomatic History: 1871-1932 (1933), basic summary; 425pp online Taylor, A.J.P.
(1954) 638pp; advanced history and analysis of major diplomacy; The Struggle for Mastery in Europe 1848–1918 online free Taylor, A.J.P. "International Relations" in F.H. Hinsley, ed.,
The New Cambridge Modern History: XI: Material Progress and World-Wide Problems, 1870-98 (1962): 542-66. online Wesseling, H.L. The European Colonial Empires: 1815-1919 (2015).
Anderson, M. S.
The Ascendancy of Europe: 1815–1914 (3rd ed. 2003) Blanning, T. C. W. ed.
The Nineteenth Century: Europe 1789–1914 (Short Oxford History of Europe) (2000) 320pp Bruun, Geoffrey.
Europe and the French Imperium, 1799–1814 (1938) online. Cameron, Rondo.
France and the Economic Development of Europe, 1800–1914: Conquests of Peace and Seeds of War (1961), awide-ranging economic and business history. Evans, Richard J.
The Pursuit of Power: Europe 1815–1914 (2016), 934pp Gildea, Robert.
Barricades and Borders: Europe 1800–1914 (3rd ed. 2003) 544 pp, online 2nd ed, 1996 Grab, Alexander.
Napoleon and the Transformation of Europe (2003) Mason, David S.
A Concise History of Modern Europe: Liberty, Equality, Solidarity (2011), since 1700 Merriman, John, and J. M. Winter, eds.
Europe 1789 to 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of Industry and Empire (5 vol. 2006) Steinberg, Jonathan.
Bismarck: A Life (2011) Salmi, Hannu. 19th Century Europe: A Cultural History (2008).
Ajayi, J. F. Ade, ed.
UNESCO General History of Africa, Vol. VI, Abridged Edition: Africa in the Nineteenth Century until the 1880s (1998) Akyeampong. Emmanuel and Robert H. Bates, eds.
Africa's Development in Historical Perspective (2014) Chamberlain. M.E.
The Scramble for Africa (3rd ed. 2010) Collins, Robert O. and James M, Burns, eds.
A History of Sub-Saharan Africa. )2--7)
Davidson, Basil Africa In History, Themes and Outlines. (2nd ed. 1991). Holcombe, Charles.
A History of East Asia: From the Origins of Civilization to the Twenty-First Century (2nd ed. 2017) Ludden, David.
India and South Asia: A Short History (2013). McEvedy, Colin.
The Penguin Atlas of African History (2nd ed. 1996). excerpt Mansfield, Peter, and Nicolas Pelham,
A History of the Middle East (4th ed, 2013). Murphey, Rhoads.
A History of Asia (7th ed, 2016) excerpt Pakenham, Thomas. The Scramble for Africa: 1876 to 1912 (1992)
North and South America
A History of Latin America (Blackwell, 1997) Beezley, William, and Michael Meyer, eds.
The Oxford History of Mexico (2010)
Bethell, Leslie (ed.), The Cambridge History of Latin America, Cambridge UP, , 12 vol, 1984–2008 Black, Conrad.
Rise to Greatness: The History of Canada From the Vikings to the Present (2014) Burns, E. Bradford,
Latin America: A Concise Interpretive History, paperback, PrenticeHall 2001, 7th edition Howe, Daniel Walker.
What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815-1848 (2009), Pulitzer Prize Kirkland, Edward C.
A History Of American Economic Life (3rd ed. 1960) online Lynch, John, ed.
Latin American revolutions, 1808-1826: old and new world origins (University of Oklahoma Press, 1994) McPherson, James M.
Battle Cry of Freedom The CIvil War Era (1988) Pulitzer Prize for US history Parry, J.H.
A Short History of the West Indies (1987) Paxson, Frederic Logan.
History of the American frontier, 1763–1893 (1924) online, Pulitzer Prize White, Richard. The Republic for Which It Stands: The United States during Reconstruction and the Gilded Age, 1865-1896 (2017)
de Bary, Wm. Theodore, ed.
Sources of East Asian Tradition, Vol. 2: The Modern Period (2008), 1192pp Kertesz, G.A. ed Documents in the Political History of the European Continent 1815–1939 (1968), 507pp; several hundred short documents