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1991 in Bangladesh

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See also:Other events of 1991
List of years in Bangladesh

1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1991st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 991st year of the 2nd millennium, the 91st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1990s decade.

The year 1991 was the 20th year after the independence of Bangladesh. It was also the first year of the first term of the Government of Khaleda Zia.


Prime Minister Khaleda Zia


Demographic Indicators for Bangladesh in 1991[1]
Population, total 108,727,432
Population density (per sq. km) 835.3
Population growth (annual %) 2.4%
Male to Female Ratio (every 100 Female) 104.5
Urban population (% of total) 20.3%
Birth rate, crude (per 1,000 people) 34.4
Death rate, crude (per 1,000 people) 9.9
Mortality rate, under 5 (per 1,000 live births) 137.8
Life expectancy at birth, total (years) 59
Fertility rate, total (births per woman) 4.3


Climate data for Bangladesh in 1991
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) 17.4
Average precipitation mm (inches) 13.8
Source: Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of University of East Anglia (UEA)[2]


The 1991 Bangladesh cyclone (IMD designation: BOB 01, JTWC designation: 02B) was among the deadliest tropical cyclones on record. On the night of April 29, 1991, it struck the Chittagong district of southeastern Bangladesh with winds of around 250 km/h (155 mph). The storm forced a 6-metre (20 ft) storm surge inland over a wide area, killing at least 138,866 people and leaving as many as 10 million homeless.[3]

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

During April 22, 1991, a circulation formed in the southern Bay of Bengal from a persistent area of convection, or thunderstorms, near the equator in the eastern Indian Ocean. Within two days, the cloud mass encompassed most of the Bay of Bengal, focused on an area west of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.[4][5] On April 24, the India Meteorological Department (IMD)[nb 1] designated the system as a depression, and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC)[nb 2] labeled the system as Tropical Cyclone 02B. Ships in the region reported winds of around 55 km/h (35 mph) around this time.[8]

From its genesis, the storm moved northwestward, being gradually strengthened, amplified by a wind surge from the south. By April 26, wind shear had decreased to near zero as an anticyclone developed aloft the hurricane. Around this time, the cyclone rounded the western periphery of a large subtropical ridge over Thailand, and the storm turned northward between the ridge to the northeast and northwest. On April 28, the flow of the southwesterlies caused the cyclone to accelerate to the north-northeast. This flow also amplified the storm's outflow, and the cyclone intensified further. By 12:00 UTC on April 28, or about 31 hours before landfall, the JTWC was correctly forecasting a landfall in southeastern Bangladesh.[4] Early on April 29, the IMD upgraded the system to a super cyclonic storm – the highest category – and estimated peak winds of 240 km/h (150 mph). The JTWC estimated peak winds of 160 mph (260 km/h), the equivalent to a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson scale or a super typhoon. The cyclone's high winds and low pressure, a rarity for the Bay of Bengal, ranked it among the most intense cyclones in the basin. At 19:00 UTC on April 29, the cyclone made landfall about 55 km (35 mi) south of Chittagong in southeastern Bangladesh while slightly below its peak strength. Moving through the mountainous terrain of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, the cyclone quickly weakened and crossed into northeast India, where it degenerated into a remnant low-pressure area.[9][8][4]


Key Economic Indicators for Bangladesh in 1991[1]
National Income
Current US$ Current BDT % of GDP
GDP $31.0 billion BDT1,105.2 billion
GDP growth (annual %) 3.5%
GDP per capita $284.7 BDT10,165
Agriculture, value added $9.1 billion BDT326.0 billion 30.4%
Industry, value added $6.5 billion BDT233.4 billion 21.7%
Services, etc., value added $14.4 billion BDT514.3 billion 47.9%
Balance of Payment
Current US$ Current BDT % of GDP
Current account balance $64.6 million .2%
Imports of goods and services $3,769.7 million BDT135.1 billion 12.2%
Exports of goods and services $2,119.7 million BDT73.6 billion 6.7%
Foreign direct investment, net inflows $1.4 million 0.0%
Personal remittances, received $769.4 million 2.5%
Total reserves (includes gold) at year end $1,307.9 million
Total reserves in months of imports 4

Note: For the year 1991 average official exchange rate for BDT was 36.60 per US$.


Visible satellite image of the intensifying cyclone on April 29, 1991, southwest of Bangladesh




See also


  1. ^ The India Meteorological Department became the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Center for the northern Indian Ocean in 1988.[6]
  2. ^ The Joint Typhoon Warning Center is a joint United States Navy – United States Air Force task force that issues tropical cyclone warnings for the northern Indian Ocean and other regions.[7]


  1. ^ a b "World Development Indicators". The World Bank. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  2. ^ "Climate Change Knowledge Portal". The World Bank Group. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  3. ^ Unattributed (2008). "The Worst Natural Disasters by Death Toll" (PDF). NOAA Backgrounder. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
  4. ^ a b c Annual Tropical Cyclone Report (PDF). Joint Typhoon Warning Center (Report). United States Navy, United States Airforce. 1992. p. 155. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 15, 2015. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
  5. ^ "Tropical Cyclone 02B Best Track". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. United States Navy, United States Airforce. December 1, 2002. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
  6. ^ Cyclone Warning Services in India (Report). India Meteorological Department. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
  7. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center (2011). "Joint Typhoon Warning Center Mission Statement". United States Navy, United States Airforce. Archived from the original on July 26, 2007. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
  8. ^ a b Bangladesh Cyclone, April 24-30 1991 (PDF) (Report on Cyclonic Disturbances (Depressions and Tropical Cyclones) over North Indian Ocean in 1991). India Meteorological Department. January 1992. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 15, 2015. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
  9. ^ IMD Best track data 1990-2015 (XLS) (Report). India Meteorological Department. 2015. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
  10. ^ Berke, Richard L. (May 12, 1991). "U.S. SENDS TROOPS TO AID BANGLADESH IN CYCLONE RELIEF". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
  11. ^ "215-Law-1991" (PDF). Department of Printing and Publications, Government of Bangladesh.
  12. ^ Dieter Nohlen, Florian Grotz & Christof Hartmann (2001) Elections in Asia: A data handbook, Volume I, p534 ISBN 0-19-924958-X
  13. ^ "SOUTH ASIAN GAMES". Olympic Council of Asia. Retrieved 2018-11-01.
  14. ^ "Bangladesh - List of Cup Winners". Ian King, Hans Schöggl and Erlan Manaschev for Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 2018-10-30.