The 1956 USAC Championship Car season consisted of 12 races, beginning in Speedway, Indiana, on May 30 and concluding in Phoenix, Arizona, on November 12. There were also three non-championship events. The USAC National Champion was Jimmy Bryan and the Indianapolis 500 winner was Pat Flaherty. This was the first year that the National Championship was sanctioned by the USAC, after the withdrawal of the AAA from all forms of racing after the 1955 season.
^A Indianapolis 500 was USAC-sanctioned and counted towards the FIA F1 World Drivers' Championship title.
^B No pole is awarded for the Pikes Peak Hill Climb, in this schedule on the pole is the driver who started first. No lap led was awarded for the Pikes Peak Hill Climb, however, a lap was awarded to the drivers that completed the climb.