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1955 ( MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1955th year of the Common Era (CE) and (AD) designations, the 955th year of the Anno Domini 2nd millennium, the 55th year of the 20th century, and the 6th year of the 1950s decade.
March – A young Jim Henson builds the first version of Kermit the Frog.
Claudette Colvin, a fifteen-year-old African-American girl, refuses to give up her seat on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, to a white woman after the driver demands it. She is carried off the bus backwards while being kicked and handcuffed and harassed on the way to the police station. She becomes a plaintiff in (1956) which rules bus segregation to be unconstitutional. Browder v. Gayle Serious floods in Australia.
WBBJ-TV signs on the air in the Jackson, Tennessee, with WDXI as its initial call-letters, to expanded American commercial television in mostly-rural areas.
Elvis Presley makes his television debut on "Louisiana Hayride" carried by KSLA-TV Shreveport (although audio recordings exists, there is no known video footage of this appearance).
March 7 – The Broadway musical version of , which had opened in Peter Pan 1954 starring Mary Martin, is presented on television for the first time by NBC-TV with its original cast, as an installment of . It is also the first time that a stage musical is presented in its entirety on TV almost exactly as it was performed on stage. This program gains the largest viewership of a TV special up to this time, and it becomes one of the first great TV family musical classics. Producers' Showcase
March 17 – Richard Riot in Montreal: 6,000 people protest the suspension of French Canadian ice hockey star Maurice Richard of the Montreal Canadiens by the National Hockey League following a violent incident during a match.
March 19 – KXTV signs on the air in Sacramento, California.
March 20 – The movie adaptation of Evan Hunter's novel premieres in the United States, featuring the famous single " Blackboard Jungle Rock Around the Clock" by Bill Haley & His Comets. Teenagers jump from their seats to dance to the song.
May 5 – West Germany becomes a sovereign country recognized by important Western foreign countries, such as France, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States.
May 6 – Western European Union charter effective.
May 7 – The last time Newcastle United won a domestic title.
May 9 – West Germany joins the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
May 11 – Japanese National Railways' ferry after collision with sister ship Shiun Maru sinks Uko Maru in thick fog off Takamatsu, Shikoku, in the Seto Inland Sea of Japan; 166 passengers (many children) and two crew are killed. This event is influential in plans to construct the Akashi Kaikyō Bridge (built 1986-98).
May 12– New York's Third Avenue Elevated runs its last train between Chathem Square in Manhattan and East 149th Street in the Bronx, thus ending elevated train service in Manhattan.
May 14 – Eight Communist Bloc countries, including the Soviet Union, sign a mutual defence treaty in Warsaw, Poland, that is called the Warsaw Pact. It will be dissolved in 1991.
May 15 – Austrian State Treaty, which restores Austria's national sovereignty, is concluded between the four occupying powers following World War II (the United Kingdom, the United States, the Soviet Union, and France) and Austria, setting it up as a neutral country.
May 25 – Joe Brown and George Band are the first to attain the summit of Kangchenjunga in the Himalayas, as part of a British team led by Charles Evans.
July 7 – The New Zealand Special Air Service is formed.
July 13 – Ruth Ellis is hanged for murder in London, becoming the last woman ever to be executed in the United Kingdom.
The first nuclear-generated electrical power is sold commercially, partially powering the town of
Arco, Idaho. The Illinois Governor,
William Stratton, signs the "Loyalty Oath Act", passed by the State Legislature, which mandates all public employees take a loyalty oath to Illinois and the United States, or lose their jobs. The first Geneva Summit meeting between the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and France begins. It ends on July 23.
July 22 – In Long Beach, U.S.A., Hillevi Rombin of Sweden was crowned Miss Universe.
July 27 – El Al Flight 402 from Vienna, Austria to Tel Aviv via Istanbul is shot down over Bulgaria. All 58 passengers and crewmen aboard the Lockheed Constellation airplane are killed.
July 28 – The first Interlingua Congress in Tours, France, leading to foundation of the Union Mundial pro Interlingua.
October 2 – debuts on the Alfred Hitchcock Presents CBS TV network in the United States.
October 3 – debuts on the The Mickey Mouse Club ABC-TV network in the United States.
October 4 – The Reverend Sun Myung Moon is released from prison in Seoul, South Korea.
October 5 – Disneyland Hotel opens to the public in Anaheim, California.
October 11 – 70-mm film for projection is introduced with the theatrical release of Rodgers and Hammerstein's musical film, . Oklahoma!
October 14 – Organization of Central American States secretariat inaugurated.
October 20 – Disc jockey Bill Randle of WERE ( Cleveland) is the key presenter of a concert at Brooklyn High School (Ohio), featuring Pat Boone and Bill Haley & His Comets and opening with Elvis Presley, Elvis's first filmed performance, for a documentary on Randle titled . The Pied Piper of Cleveland
October 27 – Film , starring Rebel Without a Cause James Dean, is released in the United States.
October 29 – Soviet battleship explodes at moorings in Novorossiysk Sevastopol Bay, killing 608, the Soviet Union's worst naval disaster.
December 4 – The International Federation of Blood Donor Organizations was founded in Luxembourg.
December 9 – Adnan Menderes of DP forms the new government of Turkey (22nd government)
December 10 – Australian federal election, 1955: Robert Menzies' Liberal/ Country Coalition Government is re-elected with a substantially increased majority, defeating the Labor Party led by H.V. Evatt. This election came in the immediate aftermath of the devastating split in the Labor Party, which led to the formation of the Democratic Labor Party. The DLP would preference against Labor and keep the Coalition in office until 1972.
Tappan Zee Bridge over the Hudson River in New York State opens to traffic.
Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Finland, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Laos, Libya, Nepal, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Sri Lanka join the United Nations simultaneously, after several years of moratorium on admitting new members that began during the Korean War.
December 20 – Cardiff is declared by the British Government as the capital of Wales.
December 22 – American cytogeneticist Joe Hin Tjio discovers the correct number of human chromosomes, forty-six.
December 31 – General Motors becomes the first American corporation to make a profit of over one billion dollars in one year.
World population: 2,755,823,000
South America: 190,797,000
North America: 186,884,000
January 2 – Vivien Savage, French singer
January 5 – Mamata Banerjee, Indian politician, Chief Minister of West Bengal
January 6 – Rowan Atkinson, English comedian and actor
January 9 – J. K. Simmons, American actor
January 10 – Michael Schenker, German guitarist ( Scorpions, UFO, Michael Schenker Group)
January 19 – Sir Simon Rattle, English orchestral conductor
January 21 – Jeff Koons, American artist
January 22 – Keiko Takahashi, Japanese actress
January 25 – Petra Gerster, German television presenter and newscaster
February 1 – Hans Werner Olm, German television and film comedian
February 2 – Leszek Engelking, Polish poet, writer and translator
February 3 – Kirsty Wark, Scottish television presenter
February 7 – Miguel Ferrer, American actor (d. 2017)
February 12 – Ai Satō, Japanese voice actress
February 13 – Akiko Yano, Japanese singer-songwriter
February 17 – Mo Yan, Chinese writer
February 19 – Jeff Daniels, American actor
February 21 – Kelsey Grammer, American actor and comedian
February 22 – David Axelrod, American political analyst
February 28 – Gilbert Gottfried, American actor and comedian
March 1 – Sir Timothy Laurence, English admiral and second husband of Anne, Princess Royal
March 3 – Kent Derricott, Canadian TV personality in Japan
March 4 – Dominique Pinon, French actor
March 8 – Don Ashby, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 1981)
March 11 – Nina Hagen, German pop singer
March 17 – Gary Sinise, American actor, producer and director
March 20 – Mariya Takeuchi, Japanese singer-songwriter
March 23 – Moses Malone, American basketball player (d. 2015)
March 26 – Danny Arndt, Canadian ice hockey player
March 27 – Mariano Rajoy, Prime Minister of Spain
March 31 – Angus Young, lead guitarist of Australian rock group AC/DC
April 2 – Sirindhorn, Princess Royal of Thailand
April 6 – Michael Rooker, American actor
April 9 – Kate Heyhoe, American food writer
April 11 – Kevin Brady, American politician
April 15 – Dodi Fayed, Egyptian businessman (d. 1997)
April 17 – Rob Bolland, Dutch musician, songwriter and music producer ( Bolland & Bolland)
April 18 – Bobby Castillo, American baseball player (d. 2014)
April 24 – John de Mol, Dutch media tycoon
April 26 – Chen Daoming, Chinese actor
James Risen, American Pulitzer Prize-winning investigative reporter and author
Eric Schmidt, American software engineer and businessman, former CEO of Google (2001-2011)
April 28 – Eddie Jobson, English musician
April 30 – Zlatko Topčić, Bosnian writer and screenwriter
June 1 – Chiyonofuji Mitsugu, Japanese sumo wrestler (58th Yokozuna grand champion) (d. 2016)
June 2 – Dana Carvey, American actor and comedian
June 5 – Fernando Borrego Linares, Cuban singer and songwriter (aka Polo Montañez)
June 11 – Yuriy Sedykh, Ukrainian hammer thrower
Kim Lankford, American actress, businesswoman and horse wrangler
Paul O'Grady (also known as "Lily Savage"), English talk show host and comedian
June 16 – Laurie Metcalf, American actress
June 18 – Sandy Allen, American, world's tallest woman (d. 2008)
June 20 – Tor Nørretranders, Danish author
June 28 – Shirley Cheriton, British actress
July 4 – Víctor Reymundo Nájera, Mexican politician
July 13 – Yoshitaka Tamba, Japanese actor
July 14 – Ramon Jimenez Jr., Filipino attorney
July 18 – Bernd Fasching, Austrian painter and sculptor
July 19 – Karen Cheryl, French singer, actress, radio and television presenter
July 25 – Iman, Somalian model
July 27 – Allan Border, Australian cricketer
July 31 – Jakie Quartz, French singer
August 2 – Caleb Carr, American writer
August 8 – Diddú (Sigrún Hjálmtýsdóttir), Icelandic soprano and songwriter
August 9 – Doug Williams, American football quarterback
August 10 – Mel Tiangco, Filipina television anchor, journalist, and humanitarian
August 13 – Daryl, American magician (d. 2017)
August 14 – Gillian Taylforth, English television actress
August 17 – Richard Hilton, American businessman
August 20 – Agnes Chan, Hong Kong-born TV personality in Japan
August 23 – David Learner, British actor, Stephen M.Papuzek
August 24 – Mike Huckabee, American politician, former Governor and 2008 Presidential candidate
August 25 – John McGeoch, British musician, (d. 2004)
August 31 – Edwin Moses, American athlete
September 6 – Raymond Benson, American author
September 7 – Efim Zelmanov, Russian mathematician
September 9 – John Kricfalusi, Canadian cartoonist
September 12 – Peter Scolari, American actor and comedian
September 18 – Bob Papenbrook, American actor and voice actor (d. 2006)
September 19 – Richard Burmer, American composer, sound designer and musician (d. 2006)
September 21 – Richard Hieb, American astronaut
September 24 – Shinbo Nomura, Japanese manga artist
September 28 – Stéphane Dion, Canadian politician
October 2 – Philip Oakey, Member of British pop group The Human League
October 3 – Tommy Wiseau, American film director and actor, known for the 2003 "dark comedy" The Room
Clinton Bennett, British scholar of religions, specialist in the study of Islam
Yo-Yo Ma, French-born Chinese American cellist
October 13 – Sergei Shepelev, Russian ice hockey player
October 17 – Tyrone Mitchell, American murderer (d. 1984)
October 19 – LaSalle Ishii, Japanese television personality
October 20 – Thomas Newman, American composer
October 25 – Glynis Barber, South African-born British actress
October 30 – Jeremy Black, British historian
October 31 – Eduardo V. Manalo, 3rd Executive Minister ( Tagapamahalang Pangkalahatan) of the (Church of Christ) Iglesia ni Cristo
November 1 – Joe Arroyo, Colombian salsa and tropical music singer (d. 2011)
November 2 – Chris Burnett, American saxophone player, composer, veteran of US military jazz bands and band leader
November 6 – Maria Shriver, American television journalist, host; First Lady of California
November 7 – Detlef Ultsch, German judo athlete
November 9 – Karen Dotrice, Guernsey-born child actress
November 10 – Roland Emmerich, German film director
November 11 – Jigme Singye Wangchuck, King of Bhutan
November 13 – Whoopi Goldberg, American actress and comedian
November 14 – Koichi Nakano, Japanese bicycle racer
November 17 – Peter Cox, English singer-songwriter ( Go West)
November 19 – Dianne de Leeuw, Dutch figure skater
November 20 – Ray Ozzie, American computer programmer
November 22 – George Alagiah, Ceylonese-born British newsreader, journalist and television news presenter
November 25 – Bruno Tonioli, film, music video and theater choreographer
November 26 – Tracy Hickman, American author
November 27 – Bill Nye, American science presenter and public television host
November 28 – Alessandro Altobelli, Italian football player
November 29 – Howie Mandel, Canadian actor and game show host
December 4 – Maurizio Bianchi, Italian musician
December 7 – Priscilla Barnes, American actress
December 9 – Asashio Tarō IV, Japanese sumo wrestler
December 12 – Gianna Angelopoulos-Daskalaki, Greek politician and businesswoman
December 17 – Brad Davis, American basketball player
December 21 – Jane Kaczmarek, American actress
December 27 – Barbara Olson, American television commentator (d. 2001)
December 28 – Liu Xiaobo, Chinese literary critic and human rights activist, Nobel Peace Prize laureate (d. 2017)
December 31 – Jim Tracy, American baseball player
January 1 – Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar, Indian scientist (b. 1894)
January 2 – José Antonio Remón Cantera, 19th President of Panama (assassinated) (b. 1908)
January 6 – Yevgeny Tarle, Soviet historian (b. 1874)
January 11 – Rodolfo Graziani, Italian general (b. 1882)
January 18 – August Duesenberg, German-born American automobile manufacturer (b. 1879)
January 20 – Robert P. T. Coffin, American poet (b. 1892)
January 21 – Archie Hahn, American athlete (b. 1880)
January 24 – Ira Hayes, U.S. Marine flag raiser on Iwo Jima (b. 1923)
January 29 – Hans Hedtoft, 14th Prime Minister of Denmark (b. 1903)
January 31 – John Mott, American YMCA leader, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1865)
March 3 – Katharine Drexel, American Roman Catholic saint (b. 1858)
March 8 – William C. deMille, American screenwriter and director (b. 1878)
March 9 – Matthew Henson, American explorer (b. 1866)
March 11 – Sir Alexander Fleming, Scottish scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1881) 
March 12 – Charlie Parker, American saxophonist (b. 1920)
March 16 – Nicolas de Staël, Russian painter (b. 1914)
March 19 – Mihály Károlyi, 1st President of Hungary and 20th Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1875)
March 22 – Maurice Schutz, French actor (b. 1866)
March 23 – Arthur Bernardes, 12th President of Brazil (b. 1875)
March 24 – John W. Davis, American politician, diplomat, and lawyer (b. 1873)
March 30 – Ylla, Hungarian photographer (b. 1911) (jeep accident)
May 2 – Alexander Hore-Ruthven, 1st Earl of Gowrie, 10th Governor-General of Australia (b. 1872)
May 11 – Gilbert Jessop, English cricketer (b. 1874)
May 16 – James Agee, American writer (b. 1909)
May 17 – Owen Roberts, American Supreme Court Justice (b. 1875)
May 18 – Mary McLeod Bethune, American educator (b. 1875)
May 19 – Concha Espina, Spanish writer (b. 1869)
May 22 – Richard "Skeets" Gallagher, American actor (b. 1891)
May 26 – Alberto Ascari, Italian race-car driver (accident) (b. 1918)
May 30 – Bill Vukovich, American race-car driver (accident) (b. 1918)
October 1 – Charles Christie, American film studio owner (b. 1880)
October 4 – Alexander Papagos, Greek Field Marshal (b. 1883)
October 7 – Rodolphe Seeldrayers, German journalist and administrator, 4th President of FIFA (b. 1876)
October 8 – Iry LeJeune, Cajun musician (b. 1928)
October 17 – Dimitrios Maximos, Prime Minister of Greece (b. 1873)
October 18 – José Ortega y Gasset, Spanish philosopher (b. 1883)
October 19 – John Hodiak, American actor (b. 1914)
October 27 – Juan de Dios Martínez, 23rd President of Ecuador (b. 1875)
October 31 – William Woodward, Jr., American banker and horse breeder, shot to death by his wife (b. 1920)
November 1 – Dale Carnegie, American writer and lecturer (b. 1888)
November 4 – Cy Young, American baseball player ( Cleveland Spiders) and a member of the MLB Hall of Fame (b. 1867)
November 5 – Maurice Utrillo, French artist (b. 1882)
November 7 – Tom Powers, American actor (b. 1890)
November 11 – Jerry Ross, American lyricist and composer (b. 1926)
November 12 – Alfréd Hajós, Hungarian swimmer and architect (b. 1878)
November 13 – Moshe Pessach, chief rabbi of Volos (b. 1869)
November 14 – Robert E. Sherwood, American playwright (b. 1896)
November 15 – Lloyd Bacon, American actor and director (b. 1889)
November 17 – Helmuth Weidling, German general (b. 1891)
November 22 – Shemp Howard, American actor and comedian ( The Three Stooges) (b. 1895)
November 27 – Arthur Honegger, French-born Swiss composer (b. 1892)
November 30 – Alta Bates, nurse anesthetist and founder of Alta Bates Hospital (b. 1879)
December 1 – Chief Thundercloud, American character actor (b. 1899)
December 5 – Jirō Minami, Japanese general and Governor-General of Korea (1936-1942) (b. 1874)
December 8 – Hermann Weyl, German mathematician, theoretical physicist and philosopher (b. 1885)
December 13 – António Egas Moniz, Portuguese neurologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1874)
December 15 – Otto Braun, German politician, former Minister President of the Free State of Prussia (b. 1872)
December 21 – Garegin Nzhdeh, Armenian statesman (b. 1886)
December 22 – Otto Eppers, American cartoonist (b. 1893)
December 27 – Alfred Francis Blakeney Carpenter, English soldier (b. 1881)