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1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1918th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 918th year of the 2nd millennium, the 18th year of the 20th century, and the 9th year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1918, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. 1918 is the centenary year of the Gregorian Calendar, which began on Monday, January 1, 2018.
This year is famous for the end to the First World War on the evleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month.
Below, events of World War I have the "WWI" prefix.
- February 1 – The Cattaro Mutiny sees Austrian sailors in the Gulf of Cattaro (Kotor), led by two Czech Socialists, mutiny.
- February 5 – The SS Tuscania is torpedoed off the Irish coast; it is the first ship carrying American troops to Europe to be torpedoed and sunk.
- March 1 – WWI: German submarine U-19 sinks HMS Calgarian off Rathlin Island, Northern Ireland.
- March 3 – WWI:the Central Powers and Bolshevist Russia sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, ending Russia's involvement in the war.
- March 6
- March 7 – WWI: Finland forms an alliance with Germany.
- March 8 – WWI: Battle of Tell 'Asur launched by units of the British Army's Egyptian Expeditionary Force against Ottoman defences from the Mediterranean Sea, across the Judaean Mountains to the edge of the Jordan Valley ends on March 12 with the move of much of the front line north into Ottoman territory.
- March 12 – Moscow becomes the capital of Soviet Russia.
- March 19 – The United States Congress establishes time zones and approves daylight saving time (DST goes into effect on March 31).
- March 21–July 18 – WWI: Spring Offensive by the German Army along the Western Front fails to make a breakthrough despite large losses on each side, including nearly 20,000 British Army dead on the first day, Operation Michael.
- March 21 – WWI: First Transjordan attack on Amman by units of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force begins with the passage of the Jordan River.
- March 23
- WWI: The giant German cannon, the 'Paris Gun' (Kaiser Wilhelm Geschütz), begins to shell Paris from 114 km (71 mi) away.
- In London at the Wood Green Empire, Chung Ling Soo (William E. Robinson, U.S.-born magician) dies during his trick where he is supposed to "catch" two separate bullets – but one of them perforates his lung. He dies the following morning in a hospital.
- March 25
- March 26 – Dr. Marie Stopes publishes her influential book Married Love in the U.K.
- March 27 – WWI: First Battle of Amman launched by units of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force during the First Transjordan attack on Amman, ends with their withdrawal on 31 March back to the Jordan Valley.
- March 30 – March Days: Bolshevik and Armenian Revolutionary Federation forces suppress a Muslim revolt in Baku, Azerbaijan, resulting in up to 30,000 deaths.
- April 1 – The Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service in Britain are merged to form the Royal Air Force, the first autonomous Air Force in the world.
- April 5 – Sālote succeeds as Queen of Tonga; she will remain on the throne until her death in 1965.
- April 9 – Union of Bessarabia with Romania: Bessarabia votes to become part of the Kingdom of Romania.
- April 21 – WWI: Manfred von Richthofen, "The Red Baron", the war's most successful fighter pilot, dies in combat at Morlancourt Ridge near the Somme River.
- April 22 –Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia declare their independence from Russia as the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic.
- April 23 – WWI:
- April 28 – WWI: Gavrilo Princip, assassin of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, dies in Terezin, Austria-Hungary, after three years in prison.
- April 30 – WWI: Second Transjordan attack on Shunet Nimrin and Es Salt launched by units of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force ends on 4 May with their withdrawal back to the Jordan Valley.
- June 1 – WWI: The Battle of Belleau Wood begins.
- June 4 – RMS Kenilworth Castle, one of the Union-Castle Line steamships, collides with her escort destroyer HMS Rival while trying to avoid her other escort, the cruiser HMS Kent.
- June 5 – The Afrikaner Broederbond, a confidential cultural organisation, is founded in Johannesburg.
- June 8 – V603 Aquilae, the brightest nova observed since Kepler's of 1604, is discovered.
- June 10 – WWI: The Austro-Hungarian dreadnought battleship SMS Szent István is sunk by two Italian MAS motor torpedo boats off the Dalmatian coast.
- June 12
- Grand Duke Michael of Russia is murdered, thereby becoming the first of the Romanovs to be murdered by the Bolsheviks.
- WWI: First airplane bombing raid by an American unit in France.
- June 16 – The Declaration to the Seven, a British government response to a memorandum issued anonymously by seven Syrian notables, is published.
- June 22 – Suspects in the Chicago Restaurant Poisonings are arrested, and more than 100 waiters are taken into custody, for poisoning restaurant customers with a lethal powder called Mickey Finn.
- June–August – "Spanish 'flu" becomes pandemic. Over 30 million people die in the following 6 months.
- July 3 – Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War: The Siberian Intervention is launched by the Allies to extract the Czechoslovak Legion from the Russian Civil War.
- July 4 – Mehmed VI succeeds as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire on the death of his half-brother Mehmed V (Reşâd, who has reigned since 1909), himself reigning until the Sultanate is abolished in 1922.
- July 9 – Great Train Wreck of 1918: in Nashville, Tennessee, an inbound local train collides with an outbound express, killing 101.
- July 12 – The Imperial Japanese Navy battleship Kawachi blows up off Tokuyama, Yamaguchi, western Honshu, Japan, killing at least 621.
- July 13 – The National Czechoslovak Committee is established.
- July 14 – Release in the United States of the film The Glorious Adventure featuring Mammy Lou who becomes one of the oldest people ever to star in a film, at a claimed age of 114.
- July 15 – WWI: Second Battle of the Marne: The battle begins near the River Marne with a German attack.
- July 17
- WWI: RMS Carpathia (famed for rescuing survivors of the RMS Titanic) is torpedoed and sunk off the east coast of Ireland by Imperial German Navy submarine U-55; 218 of the 223 on board are rescued.
- Execution of the Romanov family: By order of the Bolshevik Party and carried out by the Cheka, former emperor Nicholas II, his wife Alexandra Feodorovna, their children, Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Alexei, and retainers are shot at the Ipatiev House in Ekaterinburg, Russia.
: Attempted assassination of Lenin
, depicted by Vladimir Pchelin
Flag of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats an Slovenes
- December 4 – President Woodrow Wilson departs by ship to the Paris Peace Conference, becoming the first United States President to travel to Europe while holding office.
- December 5 – Estonian War of Independence: The British light cruiser HMS Cassandra strikes a mine and sinks near Saaremaa in the Baltic Sea, killing eleven sailors.
- December 14 – Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse renounces the Finnish throne.
- December 14 - Portuguese President Sidónio Pais is assassinated.
- December 16 – Vincas Mickevičius-Kapsukas declares formation of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic, a puppet state created by the Russian SFSR to justify the Lithuanian–Soviet War.
- December 17 – Darwin Rebellion in Australia: Disaffected workers march on Government House, Darwin demanding the resignation of the Administrator of the Northern Territory, John A. Gilruth.
- December 20 – Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk returns to the Czechoslovak Republic.
- December 21 – Estonian War of Independence: The Red Army captures Tartu in Estonia.
- December 27 – Greater Poland Uprising (1918–19) begins: Poles in Greater Poland (the former Grand Duchy of Posen) rise up against the Germans, ignited by a patriotic speech made in Poznań by pianist and politician Ignacy Jan Paderewski.
- December 28 – Sinn Féin have a landslide victory in Irish seats in the Irish general election (part of the United Kingdom general election, 1918), following the counting of votes, winning 73 of the 105 seats in Ireland. In accordance with their manifesto, Sinn Féin members will not take their seats in the Palace of Westminster but will form the First Dáil in Dublin. Countess Constance Markievicz, while detained in Holloway Prison (London), becomes the first woman elected to (but does not take her seat in) the British House of Commons.
- December 31 – A British-brokered ceasefire ends the two weeks of fighting in the Georgian–Armenian War.
- January 1 – Patrick Anthony Porteous, Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross (d. 2000)
- January 2 – Gudrun Zapf-von Hesse, German typographer, calligrapher and book-binder
- January 9 – Alma Ziegler, American female professional baseball player (d. 2005)
- January 10 – Arthur Chung, 1st President of Guyana (d. 2008)
- January 11 – Kassim Al-Rimawi, Prime Minister of Jordan (d. 1982)
- January 15
- January 16
- January 17 – George M. Leader, American politician (d. 2013)
- January 19
- January 20
- January 21
- January 22 – Elmer Lach, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 2015)
- January 23 – Gertrude B. Elion, American scientist recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1999)
- January 24 – Oral Roberts, American neo-Pentecostal televangelist (d. 2009)
- January 25 – Ernie Harwell, American baseball sportscaster (d. 2010)
- January 26
- January 27
- January 29
- January 30 – Bazilije Pandžić, Croatian historian, archivist and orientalist
- March 1
- March 2 – Martin Flannery, British politician (d. 2006)
- March 3
- March 4 – Margaret Osborne duPont, former American female tennis player (d. 2012)
- March 5
- March 9
- March 10 – Günther Rall, German ace fighter pilot (d. 2009)
- March 11 – Jack Coe, American evangelist (d. 1956)
- March 12 – Elaine de Kooning, American artist (d. 1989)
- March 13 – Eddie Pellagrini, American baseball player and coach (d. 2006)
- March 14 – John McCallum, Australian actor (d. 2010)
- March 15 – William McIntyre, Canadian Puisne Justice (d. 2009)
- March 16 – Frederick Reines, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998)
- March 17 – Viviane Gauthier, Haitian dancer (d. 2017)
- March 18 – Bob Broeg, American sports writer (d. 2005)
- March 20 – Jack Barry, American television game show host and producer (d. 1984)
- March 22 – Cheddi Jagan, President of Guyana (d. 1997)
- March 23
- March 25 – Howard Cosell, American attorney, lecturer, and sports journalist (d. 1995)
- March 28 – Gonzalo Facio Segreda, Costa Rican lawyer, politician, and diplomat (d. 2018)
- March 29
- May 1 – Jack Paar, American television show host (The Tonight Show) (d. 2004)
- May 3 – Richard Dudman, American reporter and editorial writer (St. Louis Post-Dispatch) (d. 2017)
- May 4
- May 5 – Egidio Galea, Maltese Roman Catholic priest (d. 2005)
- May 6 – Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, 1st President of the United Arab Emirates (d. 2004)
- May 9
- May 10
- May 11 – Richard Feynman, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1988)
- May 12 – Julius Rosenberg, American-born Soviet spy (d. 1953)
- May 15
- May 16 – Wilf Mannion, English footballer (d. 2000)
- May 17
- May 18 – Claudia Bryar, American actress (d. 2011)
- May 19 – Abraham Pais, Dutch-born American physicist (d. 2000)
- May 20 – Edward B. Lewis, American geneticist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2004)
- May 23 – Frank Mancuso, American major league baseball player and politician (d. 2007)
- May 27 – Yasuhiro Nakasone, Prime Minister of Japan
- May 28 – Norbert Franck, Luxembourgian swimmer (d. 2006)
- May 30
- June 2 – Kathryn Tucker Windham, American writer and storyteller (d. 2011)
- June 4 – Johnny Klein, American drummer (d. 1997)
- June 6
- June 8 – Robert Preston, American actor (The Music Man) (d. 1987)
- June 9 – John Hospers, American philosopher (d. 2011)
- June 10
- June 12 – Jerry A. Moore Jr., American politician (d. 2017)
- June 15 – François Tombalbaye, former President of Chad (d. 1975)
- June 17
- June 18
- June 21
- June 22 – Cicely Saunders, English Anglican nurse, social worker, physician and writer (d. 2005)
- June 23 – Paul Ashbee, British archaeologist (d. 2009)
- June 24
- June 25
- June 26
- June 27
- June 28 – Marshall Brown, American professional basketball player (d. 2008)
- June 29
- June 30 – Des Case, Welsh rugby union and professional rugby league footballer
- August 3 – Sidney Gottlieb, American Central Intelligence Agency official (d. 1999)
- August 4 – Noel Willman, Irish actor (d. 1988)
- August 5 – Betty Oliphant, co-founder of National Ballet of Canada (d. 2004)
- August 6 – Charles Coulston Gillispie, American historian (d. 2015)
- August 11 – Thomas A. Bird, British WWII army officer and architect (d. 2017)
- August 12 – Roy C. Bennett, American songwriter (d. 2015)
- August 13
- August 19 – Shankar Dayal Sharma, 9th President of India (d. 1999)
- August 21 – Bruria Kaufman, American-born Israeli physicist (d. 2010)
- August 22 – Said Mohamed Djohar, former President of the Comoros (d. 2006)
- August 25 – Leonard Bernstein, American composer and conductor (d. 1990)
- August 26
- August 27
- August 28 – Alejandro Agustín Lanusse, 37th President of Argentina (d. 1996)
- August 29 – Brian Stonehouse, English painter and WWII spy (d. 1998)
- August 30 – Ted Williams, American baseball player (d. 2002)
- September 1 – James D. Martin, American politician (d. 2017)
- September 3 – Helen Wagner, American soap opera actress (d. 2010)
- September 4
- September 8 – Derek Barton, British chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998)
- September 9 – Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, 9th President of the Italian Republic (d. 2012)
- September 13
- September 15 – Nipsey Russell, American comedian (d. 2005)
- September 17 – Chaim Herzog, 6th President of Israel 1983–93 (d. 1997)
- September 21 – John Gofman, American Manhattan Project scientist and advocate (d. 2007)
- September 22 – Henryk Szeryng, Polish-born violinist (d. 1988)
- September 24 – Emerante Morse, Haitian singer, dancer and folklorist (d. 2018)
- September 26 – Peng Chang-kuei, Taiwanese chef (d. 2016)
- September 27 – Martin Ryle, English radio astronomer, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics (d. 1984)
- September 28
- September 30 – Giovanni Canestri, Italian cardinal (d. 2015)
- October 4 – Kenichi Fukui, Japanese chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998)
- October 6 – Goh Keng Swee, former Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore (d. 2010)
- October 8 – Jens Christian Skou, Danish chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
- October 9 – E. Howard Hunt, Watergate break-in coordinator (d. 2007)
- October 13 – Robert Walker, American actor (d. 1951)
- October 14 – Thelma Coyne Long, Australian tennis player (d. 2015)
- October 16 – Louis Althusser, French philosopher (d. 1990)
- October 17 – Rita Hayworth, American actress (d. 1987)
- October 18
- October 19 – Robert S. Strauss, Democratic National Committee Chairman (d. 2014)
- October 23 – Augusta Dabney, American actress (d. 2008)
- October 25 – Milton Selzer, American actor (d. 2006)
- October 26 – Marc Hodler, Swiss lawyer (d. 2006)
- October 27
- October 29 – Diana Serra Cary, American actress
- October 31 – Ian Stevenson, American parapsychologist (d. 2007)
- December 3 – Abdul Haris Nasution, Indonesian general (d. 2000)
- December 7 – Jórunn Viðar, Icelandic pianist and composer (d. 2017)
- December 8 – Gérard Souzay, French baritone (d. 2004)
- December 11 – Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Russian writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2008)
- December 12 – Joe Williams, American jazz singer (d. 1999)
- December 14 – B. K. S. Iyengar, Indian yoga teacher (d. 2014)
- December 15 – Jeff Chandler, American actor (d. 1961)
- December 17 – Dusty Anderson, American actress and model
- December 20 – Joseph Payne Brennan, American poet and author (d. 1990)
- December 21
- December 23
- December 25
- December 31 – Al Lakeman, American catcher in Major League Baseball (d. 1976)
- February 2 – John L. Sullivan, American boxer, World Heavyweight Champion (b. 1858)
- February 5 – Leonard Monteagle Barlow, British fighter pilot (accident) (b. 1898)
- February 6 – Gustav Klimt, Austrian painter (b. 1862)
- February 8 – Louis Renault, French jurist, educator and Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1843)
- February 10
- February 11 – Alexey Kaledin, Russian general (suicide) (b. 1861)
- February 15 – Vernon Castle, American dancer (b. 1887)
- February 16 – Károly Khuen-Héderváry, 2-Time Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1849)
- February 23 – Adolphus Frederick VI, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (b. 1882)
- May 2 – Jüri Vilms, Estonian politician (b. 1889)
- May 14 – James Gordon Bennett, Jr., American newspaper publisher (b. 1841)
- May 17 – William Drew Robeson, American minister, father of singer and actor Paul Robeson (b. 1844)
- May 18 – Maria Magdalena Merten, German Roman Catholic religious professed and blessed (b. 1883)
- May 19 – Raoul Lufbery, Franco-American fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1885)
- May 23 – Mariano Ponce, Filipino diplomat, politician and writer (b. 1863)
- May 24 – József Kiss, Austro-Hungarian fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1896)
- May 30 – Georgi Plekhanov, Russian revolutionary and philosopher (b. 1856)
- September 5 – Nikolay Maklakov, Russian politician, former minister of the Interior (b. 1871)
- September 6 – Elizabeth Yates (mayor), New Zealand politician (b. 1845)
- September 8 – Francis Mary of the Cross Jordan, German Roman Catholic priest and venerable (b. 1848)
- September 12 – George Reid, 4th Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1845)
- September 13 – Eduard, Duke of Anhalt (b. 1861)
- September 16 – Maurice Boyau, French World War I fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1888)
- September 20 – Prince Erik, Duke of Västmanland (b. 1889)
- September 25 – Mikhail Alekseyev, Russian general (b. 1857)
- September 27 – Fritz Rumey, German World War I fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1891)
- September 28
- September 29 – Frank Luke, American fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1897)
- December 2 – Edmond Rostand, French writer (b. 1868)
- December 4 – Princess Teriivaetua (b. 1869)
- December 5 – Schalk Willem Burger, Boer military leader, lawyer, politician, and statesman, acting President of the South African Republic (1900-1902) (b. 1852)
- December 11 – Ivan Cankar, Slovenian writer (b. 1876)
- December 14 – Sidónio Pais, Portuguese politician, general and diplomat, 66th Prime Minister of Portugal and 4th President of Portugal (b. 1872)
- December 20 – Sultan Ali bin Hamud of Zanzibar (b. 1884)
- December 21 – Prince Konrad of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst, Austrian statesman, former Prime Minister (b. 1863)
- December 28 – Olavo Bilac, Brazilian poet (b. 1865)
- ^ "Historical Concert for the Benefit of Widows and Orphans". World Digital Library. 2014-02-10. Retrieved 2014-06-22.
- ^ Barry, John M. (2005). The Great Influenza; The Story of the Deadliest Pandemic in History. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0143036494.
- ^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- ^ Shores, Christopher (1969). Finnish Air Force, 1918–1968. Reading, Berkshire, UK: Osprey Publications Ltd. p. 3. ISBN 978-0668021210.
- ^ Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 355–356. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- ^ Royal Canadian Legion Branch # 138."2-Minute Wave of Silence" Revives a Time-honoured Tradition. Accessed on 5 June 2014.
- ^ The first was from Allahabad to Naini Junction in India on 18 February 1911 and the second from London to Windsor Castle on 22 June 1911.
- ^ "La Grippe Espagnole de 1918". Institut Pasteur. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
- ^ "Carpathia Sunk; 5 of Crew Killed". New York Times. 20 July 1918. p. 4.
- ^ Lichfield, John (2014-07-07). "A History of the First World War in 100 Moments: The 'blackest day' of the German army". The Independent. London. Retrieved 2014-07-07.
- ^ Pitt, Barrie (2003). 1918: The Last Act. Barnsley: Pen and Sword. ISBN 0-85052-974-3.
- ^ Massie, Robert K. (2004). Castles of Steel: Britain, Germany, and the Winning of the Great War at Sea. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-40878-0.
- ^ Biger, Gideon (2004). The Boundaries of Modern Palestine, 1840–1947. London: Routledge. pp. 55, 164. ISBN 978-0-7146-5654-0. Retrieved 2009-05-02.
- ^ Wainwright, Martin (23 August 2010). "British warships sunk 90 years ago found off Estonian coast". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- ^ Ward, Margaret (1983). Unmanageable Revolutionaries: Women and Irish nationalism. London: Pluto Press. p. 137. ISBN 0-86104-700-1.
Primary sources and year books