Events from the year 1885 in Canada.
- March 26 – Louis Riel and the Métis battle the North-West Mounted Police at Duck Lake
- April 2 – North-West Rebellion: In the Frog Lake Massacre, Cree warriors kill nine settler civilians and take 70 captive
- April 24 – North-West Rebellion: Battle of Fish Creek fought between Canadian Militia and the Métis
- May 2 – North-West Rebellion: Battle of Cut Knife
- May 9–12 – North-West Rebellion: Battle of Batoche the Métis are defeated in battle
- May 15 – Riel surrenders near Batoche, District of Saskatchewan, and is arrested
- May 28 – North-West Rebellion: Battle of Frenchman's Butte
- June 3 – North-West Rebellion: Battle of Loon Lake. The last Cree resistance is shattered.
- July 2 – Big Bear captured.
- July 6 – Riel is charged with six counts of high treason.
- July 20 – The trial of Louis Riel begins in Regina, District of Assiniboia
- July 20 – The Chinese Immigration Act of 1885 was enacted. The Act imposed a $50 head tax on Chinese immigrants, with the exceptions of diplomats, government representatives, tourists, merchants, "men of science", and students. The Act came after a big wave of Chinese immigrants going to Canada.
- August 1 – Riel is found guilty and sentenced to death
- September 9 – The Manitoba Court of Queen's Bench refuses to hear Riel's appeal
- September 15 – Northwest Territories election
- October 22 – The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council refuses to hear Riel's appeal
- October 31 – Newfoundland election: Robert Thorburn's Reforms win a majority
- November 7 – The Last Spike of the Canadian Pacific Railway at Craigellachie, British Columbia. John A. Macdonald receives a telegram announcing that the first train from Montreal in Quebec is approaching the Pacific.
- November 16 – Riel is hanged in Regina.
- November 27 – In Battleford, Wandering Spirit, Round the Sky, Bad Arrow, Miserable Man, Iron Body, Little Bear, Crooked Leg and Man Without Blood are hanged for murders committed during the Frog Lake Massacre. It the largest mass execution in Canadian history.
Full date unknown
Gordon Daniel Conant
January to June
- January 11 – Gordon Daniel Conant, lawyer, politician and 12th Premier of Ontario (d.1953)
- January 13 – Alfred Fuller, businessman (d.1973)
- February 4 – Cairine Wilson, Canada's first female Senator (d.1962)
- April 3 – Allan Dwan, film director, producer and screenwriter (d.1981)
- April 9 – Frank Patrick O'Connor, businessman, politician and philanthropist (d. 1939)
- May 8 – Thomas B. Costain, journalist and historical novelist (d.1965)
- June 27 – Arthur Lismer, painter and member of the Group of Seven (d.1969)
July to December
Account of battle at Duck Lake
Account of battle at Cut Knife Hill
Two settler women travel with Chief Big Bear's Cree band after Frog Lake Massacre
Accounts of battle at Batoche
Opposition Leader Edward Blake's speeches on fighting in Northwest
Convicted of treason, Chief Big Bear pleads for relief of his people
Louis Riel's statement at his trial
Report of psychiatric physician who visited Louis Riel in prison
Newspaper report of Louis Riel's execution
Citing emancipation of Blacks and Catholics, senator objects to head tax on Chinese
Air clears when women vote in Ontario municipal election
Montrealers' resistance to vaccination during smallpox outbreak turns to rioting
- ^ Transcription of Wm. Laurie article, Saskatchewan Herald (April 23, 1885). Accessed 8 October 2019 [scaa.sk.ca]
- ^ Transcription of article, Saskatchewan Herald (May 11, 1885). Accessed 8 October 2019 [scaa.sk.ca]
- ^ Theresa Gowanlock and Theresa Fulford, Two Months in the Camp of Big Bear[...] (1885). Accessed 8 October 2019 [peel.library.ualberta.ca]
- ^ Lewis Redman Ord, Reminiscences of a Bungle (1887), pgs. 29-32. Accessed 8 October 2019 [peel.library.ualberta.ca]
Moses Bremner's Statement (1886). Accessed 8 October 2019 [www.metismuseum.ca]
Canada; Department of Militia and Defence, Report upon the Suppression of the Rebellion in the North-West Territories[...] (1886), pgs. 27-33. Accessed 8 October 2019 [peel.library.ualberta.ca]
- ^ [House of Commons,] "Speech of Hon. E. Blake, M.P., on the Disturbance in the North-West; Ottawa, May 20th, 1885." Accessed 17 October 2019 [www.umanitoba.ca]
House of Commons Debates; Third Session, Fifth Parliament - 48 Vic., "Speech of Hon. E. Blake, M.P., on the Dissturbance in the North-West; Ottawa, July 6th, 1885." Accessed 17 October 2019 [peel.library.ualberta.ca]
- ^ William Bleasdell Cameron, Blood Red the Sun (1950), pgs. 196-9. Accessed 8 October 2019 [peel.library.ualberta.ca]
- ^ The Queen vs. Louis Riel[...] (1886), pgs. 147-54. Accessed 9 October 2019 [peel.library.ualberta.ca]
- ^ Daniel Clark, A Psycho-Medical History of Louis Riel (1887), pgs. 10-13. Accessed 9 October 2019 [peel.library.ualberta.ca]
- ^ "Riel Executed; He Dies Without A Speech; A Sane And Beautiful Death," Regina Leader (November 19, 1885), pg. 4. Accessed 9 October 2019 [library2.usask.ca]
- ^ Canada; Senate Debates (July 18, 1885), pgs. 1411-12. Accessed 8 October 2019 [www.collectionscanada.gc.ca]
- ^ Letitia Youmans, Campaign Echoes: The Autobiography of Letitia Youmans; Second Edition (1893), pgs. 206-9. Accessed 8 October 2019 [archive.org]
- ^ Mde Morel de la Durantaye, A Brief History of the Small Pox Epidemic in Montreal[...] (1886). Accessed 8 October 2019 [archive.org]