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1846 ( was a MDCCCXLVI) common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1846th year of the Common Era (CE) and (AD) designations, the 846th year of the Anno Domini 2nd millennium, the 46th year of the 19th century, and the 7th year of the 1840s decade. As of the start of 1846, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
October 1 – Christ College, Tasmania, opens with the hope that it will develop along the lines of an Oxbridge college, and provide the basis for university education in Tasmania. By the 21st century it will be the oldest tertiary institution in Australia.
October 16 – At Massachusetts General Hospital, Dr. William T.G. Morton, a dentist, gives the first successful public demonstration of ether anesthesia. 
November 4 – The Donner Party, a wagon train of 87 settlers traveling to California, is stranded in the Sierra Nevada mountains by the first of several snowstorms. By the time a relief party reaches the starving settlers three months later, only 48 survivors are left, many of whom have survived by cannibalism. 
Pope Pius IX issues the encyclical , in response to the growing trend of agnosticism among intellectuals in Europe. Qui pluribus 
December 22 – The Guildsystem in Sweden is abolished by the and Fabriks och Handtwerksordning , and trade and handicrafts permits are granted to every male and female applicant of legal majority. Handelsordningen 
December 24 – Great Britain acquires Labuan from the Sultanate of Brunei.
December 28 – Iowa is admitted as the 29th U.S. state.
January 27 – M. Lewis Clark American founder of Kentucky Derby (d. 1899)
February 2 – Francis Marion Smith, American borax magnate (d. 1931)
February 9 – Wilhelm Maybach, German automobile designer (d. 1929)
February 18 – Wilson Barrett, English actor (d. 1904)
February 21 – James Timberlake, American lawman (d. 1891)
February 26 – William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody, American frontiersman, later showman (d. 1917)
March 4 – Franklin J. Drake, American admiral (d. 1929)
March 6 – Henry Radcliffe Crocker, English dermatologist (d. 1909)
March 9 – Ōdera Yasuzumi, Japanese general (d. 1895)
March 24 – Karl von Bülow, German field marshal (d. 1921)
April 4 – Comte de Lautréamont, French writer (d. 1870)
May 3 – Sir Edmund Elton, 8th Baronet, English inventor, studio potter (d. 1920)
May 5 – Henryk Sienkiewicz, Polish author, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1916)
May 20 – Alexander von Kluck, German general (d. 1934)
May 22 – Rita Cetina Gutiérrez, American teacher, poet, and activist (d. 1908)
May 25 – Princess Helena of the United Kingdom (d. 1923)
May 29 – Winfield Scott Edgerly, United States Brigadier General (d. 1927)
June 11 – William Louis Marshall, American general, engineer (d. 1920)
June 13 – Rose Cleveland, de facto First Lady of the United States (d. 1918)
June 27 – Charles Stewart Parnell, Irish political leader (d. 1891)
July 17 – Tokugawa Iemochi, 14th shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan (d. 1866)
July 26 – Texas Jack Omohundro, American frontier scout, actor, and cowboy (d. 1880)
July 29 – Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil (d. 1921)
August 16 – Oskar Victorovich Stark, Russian admiral and explorer (d. 1928)
August 18 – Robley Dunglison Evans, American admiral (d. 1912)
August 23 – Alexander Milne Calder, American sculptor (d. 1923)
September 7 – John Porter Merrell, American admiral (d. 1916)
September 16 – Anna Kingsford, British spiritual writer, doctor, feminist and pioneering vegetarian (d. 1888)
September 21 – Mihály Kolossa, Hungarian Slovene writer (d. 1906)
October 6 – George Westinghouse, American entrepreneur, engineer (d. 1914)
October 26 – Lewis Boss, American astronomer (d. 1912)
November 10 – Martin Wegelius, Finnish composer, musicologist (d. 1906)
November 13 – Herbert Standing, English actor (d. 1923)
November 20 – Konstantinos Koumoundouros, Greek army officer, politician (d. 1924)
November 25 – Carrie Nation, American temperance advocate (d. 1911)
December 2 – Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau, Prime Minister of France (d. 1904)
December 17 – Max von Hausen, German general (d. 1922)
December 21 – Julia Lermontova, Russian chemist (d. 1919)
^ "Venice Railroad Bridge". Structurae . Retrieved . 2012-02-22
^ Kalla-Bishop, P. M. (1971). Italian Railways. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. p. 20. ISBN 0-7153-5168-0.
^ Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 268–269. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
^ "Chancellors and Presidents of the University". University of Buffalo, The State University of New York . Retrieved . 2016-12-06
^ "Icons, a portrait of England 1840–1860". Archived from the original on August 17, 2007 . Retrieved . 2007-09-13
^ Hart, Hugh (2010-06-28). "June 28, 1846: Parisian Inventor Patents Saxophone". Wired . Retrieved . 2011-12-07
^ U.S. Patent 4,750
^ Lilian R. Furst, Medical Progress and Social Reality: A Reader in Nineteenth-Century Medicine and Literature (SUNY Press, 2000) p16
^ George R. Stewart, Ordeal by Hunger: The Story of the Donner Party (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2013) pp366-367
^ Gerald A. McCool, Nineteenth-century Scholasticism: The Search for a Unitary Method (Fordham University Press, 1989) p129
^ Du Rietz, Anita, Kvinnors entreprenörskap: under 400 år, 1. uppl., Dialogos, Stockholm, 2013, s 270