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1809 ( MDCCCIX)
was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1809th year of the Common Era (CE) and (AD) designations, the 809th year of the Anno Domini 2nd millennium, the 9th year of the 19th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1809, the Gregorian calendar was
12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
April 9 – Tiroleans rise, under the command of Andreas Hofer, against French and Bavarian occupation.
April 10 – Napoleonic Wars – The War of the Fifth Coalition begins when forces of the Austrian Empire invade Bavaria.
April 11– 15 – Napoleonic Wars – Battle of the Basque Roads: The British Royal Navy defeats the French fleet in the mouth of the Charente, although officers on both sides face subsequent courts-martial.
April 14 – Battle of Abensberg, Bavaria: Napoleon defeats Austria.
April 18 – The 2,000 Guineas Stakes horse race is first run in England. 
April 19 – War of the Fifth Coalition –
April 22 – Battle of Eckmühl: French troops under Napoleon I and Marshal Davout defeat the Austrians, under Archduke Charles.
May 10 – Gustav IV Adolf is officially deposed from the Swedish throne, by the Riksdag of the Estates.
May 10– 11 – Peninsular War – Battle of Grijó: the Anglo-Portuguese Army, commanded by Sir Arthur Wellesley, defeats the French army, commanded by Marshal Soult, in Portugal.
May 12 – Peninsular War – Second Battle of Porto: The Anglo-Portuguese Army, commanded by Wellesley, drives the French army, commanded by Marshal Soult, out of Porto, and forces them to retreat from the country.
May 17 – Napoleon I of France orders the annexation of the Papal States to the French Empire. When he announces that the Pope's secular power has ended, the Pope excommunicates him.
May 21 – Battle of Aspern-Essling: Austrian troops under Archduke Karl beat the French under Napoleon, in a hard-fought battle.
May 24 – Dartmoor Prison opens in England, to house French prisoners of war. 
May 31 – Mauritius campaign of 1809–11 – Action of 31 May 1809 in the Bay of Bengal: The French frigate , operating from Caroline Isle de France (Mauritius), captures most of a British East India Company fleet.
June 6 – Sweden promulgates a new Instrument of Government, which restores political power to the Riksdag of the Estates, after authoritarian rule since 1772. On the same day, Duke Charles (uncle of the deposed king Gustav IV Adolf) is elected King, under the name Charles XIII.
June 7 – Shoja Shah of the Durrani Empire signs a treaty with the British; only weeks later, he is succeeded by Mahmud Shah. June 14 – A French victory, in the battle of Raab, prevents archduke John of Austria from bringing any significant force to the battle of Wagram.
October 8 – Prince Klemens von Metternich becomes foreign minister of the Austrian Empire.
October 11 – Along the Natchez Trace in Tennessee, explorer Meriwether Lewis dies under mysterious circumstances, at an inn called Grinder's Stand.
October 14 – The Treaty of Schönbrunn cedes the Illyrian Provinces to France.
November 18 – Napoleonic Wars: Action of 18 November 1809 – In the Bay of Bengal, a French frigate squadron captures three East Indiamen mainly carrying recruits for the presidency armies.
November 19 – Battle of Ocaña: A Spanish army is ridden down, and 4,000 are killed and wounded by French forces.
November 25 – Benjamin Bathurst, a British diplomat, mysteriously disappears (possibly murdered) in Perleberg, west of Berlin.
December – Boyd massacre: Whangaroa Māori people kill and eat 66 crew and passengers of the brigantine Boyd in New Zealand. 
December 25 – Dr. Ephraim McDowell performs the first ovariotomy, removing a 22-pound tumor.
December 26 – A British invasion force leaves Vlissingen. December 30 – Wearing masks at balls is forbidden in Boston, Massachusetts.
January 1 – Cao Bá Quát, Vietnamese poet (d. 1855)
January 4 – Louis Braille, French teacher, inventor of braille (d. 1852)
January 6 – Marie Durocher, Brazilian obstetrician, physician (d. 1893)
January 19 – Edgar Allan Poe, American writer, poet (d. 1849)
January 21 – Queen Sinjeong, Korean regent (d. 1890)
February 3 – Felix Mendelssohn, German composer (d. 1847)
February 15 – Cyrus McCormick, American inventor (d. 1884)
February 23 – William Sprague, American minister and politician from Michigan (d. 1868)
March 15 – Joseph Jenkins Roberts, 2-time President of Liberia (d. 1876)
March 24 – Joseph Liouville, French mathematician (d. 1882)
March 27 – Georges-Eugène Haussmann, French civic planner (d. 1891)
March 29 – Bettino Ricasoli, Italian statesman (d. 1880)
April 1 – Nikolai Gogol, Russian writer (d. 1852)
April 15 – Hermann Grassmann, Prussian mathematician (d. 1877)
April 20 – James David Forbes, Scottish physicist, geologist, inventor (d. 1868)
May 20 – Albert Newsam, American artist (d. 1864)
May 22 – Constantin A. Crețulescu, 7th Prime Minister of Romania (d. 1884)
June 8 – Richard Wigginton Thompson, American politician (d. 1900)
June 18 – Stephen Greenleaf Bulfinch, American minister, hymn writer (d 1870) June 20 – Isaak August Dorner, German theologian (d. 1884)
July 2 – John R. Goldsborough, United States Navy commodore (d. 1877)
July 9 – Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle, German-Jewish anatomist, physician (d. 1885)
July 31 – Francis Walker, English entomologist (d. 1874)
August 6 – Alfred, Lord Tennyson, British poet (d. 1892)
August 8 – Heinrich Abeken, German theologian (d. 1872)
August 27 – Hannibal Hamlin, 15th Vice President of the United States, American politician (d. 1891)
August 29 – Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., American physician, writer (d. 1894)
September 4 – Manuel Montt, 5th President of Chile (d. 1880)
September 27 – Raphael Semmes, American and Confederate naval officer (d. 1877)
October 22 – Volney E. Howard, American politician (d. 1889)
November 4 – Benjamin Robbins Curtis, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1874)
November 10 – David Einhorn (rabbi), German-American abolitionist (d. 1879)
November 20 – Gustav Koerner, German-born revolutionary, journalist, lawyer, politician, statesman of Illinois and Germany, Colonel of the U.S. Army (d. 1896)
November 27 – Fanny Kemble, British-born American actress, writer (d. 1893)
December 24 – Kit Carson, American frontiersman (d. 1868) December 29 – William Ewart Gladstone, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1898)
January 6 – Johann Augustus Eberhard, German theologian, philosopher (b. 1739)
January 16 – John Moore, British general (killed in battle) (b. 1761)
January 20 – Thomson J. Skinner, American politician (b. 1752)
February 6 – Antoine Joseph Santerre, French general (b. 1752)
February 20 – Richard Gough, English antiquary (b. 1735)
February 25 – John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore (Lord Dunmore)
March 7 – Johann Georg Albrechtsberger, Austrian composer (b. 1736)
March 11 – Hannah Cowley, English dramatist, poet (b. 1743)
March 18 – Karoline Kaulla, German banker (b. 1739)
March 20 – Mary Bateman, English woman executed for murder, known as the Yorkshire Witch
March 25 – Anna Seward, English writer (b. 1747)
March 27 – Joseph-Marie Vien, French painter (b. 1716)
May 13 – Beilby Porteus, English bishop, abolitionist (b. 1731)
May 17 – Leopold Auenbrugger, Austrian physician (b. 1722)
May 24 – Charles Rainsford, British general (b. 1728)
May 29 – Johannes von Müller, Swiss historian (b. 1752)
June 4 – Nicolai Abildgaard, Danish painter (b. 1743)
June 8 – Thomas Paine, American revolutionary writer (b. 1737)
June 15 – Sir George Baker, 1st Baronet, British physician (b. 1722) June 21 – Daniel Lambert, English gaol keeper and animal breeder, famous for his unusually large size (b. 1770)
July 6 – Antoine Charles Louis de Lasalle, French cavalry general (killed in battle) (b. 1775)
July 22 – Jean Senebier, Swiss pastor, botanist (b. 1742)
August 8 – Ueda Akinari, Japanese author, scholar (b. 1734)
August 18 – Matthew Boulton, English manufacturer, engineer (b. 1728)
August 29 – Lucy Barnes, American writer (b. 1780)
September 1 – Johann Friedrich August Göttling, German chemist (b. 1753)
September 3 – George Coventry, 6th Earl of Coventry, English noble and politician (b. 1722)
September 7 – Caroline Schelling, German scholar (b. 1763)
October 8 – James Elphinston, Scottish philologist (b. 1721)
October 11 – Meriwether Lewis, American explorer (suicide) (b. 1774)
October 30 – William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1738)
November 9 – Paul Sandby, English cartographer, painter (b. 1725)
November 28 – Jakob Heinrich Laspeyres, German lepidopterist (b. 1769) December 16 – Antoine François, comte de Fourcroy, French chemist (b. 1755)