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1784 ( MDCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1784th year of the Common Era (CE) and (AD) designations, the 784th year of the Anno Domini 2nd millennium, the 84th year of the 18th century, and the 5th year of the 1780s decade. As of the start of 1784, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
India Act requires that the governor general be chosen from outside the British East India Company, and makes company directors subject to parliamentary supervision.
Britain receives its first bales of imported American cotton.
King Carlos III of the Spanish Empire authorizes land grants in Alta California. Princess
Yekaterina Vorontsova-Dashkova is named first president of the newly created Russian Academy. The
North Carolina General Assembly incorporates the town of Morgansborough, named for Daniel Morgan. The town is designated as the county seat for Burke County, North Carolina and is subsequently renamed Morgantown, later shortened to Morganton. The North Carolina General Assembly changes the name of Kingston, North Carolina, originally named for King
George III of Great Britain, to Kinston. The
Japanese famine continues as 300,000 die of starvation. A huge
locust swarm hits South Africa. Foundation of the first theater in Estonia, the
Tallinna saksa teater.
Benjamin Franklin invents bifocal spectacles.
Benjamin Franklin tries in vain to persuade the French to alter their clocks in winter to take advantage of the daylight.
Antoine Lavoisier pioneers quantitative chemistry.
Cholesterol is isolated.
Carl Friedrich Gauss pioneers the field of summation with the formula summing at the age of 7. Madame du Coudray, pioneer of modern midwifery, retires.
January 28 – George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1860)
February 5 – Nancy Hanks, mother of Abraham Lincoln (d. 1818)
February 29 – Leo von Klenze, German neoclassicist architect, painter and writer (d. 1864)
March 12 – William Buckland, English geologist, paleontologist (d. 1856)
March 22 – Samuel Hunter Christie, English physicist, mathematician (d. 1865)
March 23 – Tom Molineaux, African-American boxer (d. 1818)
April 5 – Louis Spohr, German violinist, composer (d. 1859)
April 13 – Friedrich Graf von Wrangel, Prussian field marshal (d. 1877)
April 24 – Peter Vivian Daniel, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1860)
June 24 – Juan Antonio Lavalleja, Uruguayan military, political figure (d. 1853)
July 21 – Charles Baudin, French admiral (d. 1854)
July 22 – Friedrich Bessel, German mathematician, astronomer (d. 1846)
July 27 – Denis Davydov, Russian general, poet (d. 1839)
August 18 – Robert Taylor, British Radical writer, freethought advocate (d. 1844)
September 4 – William Pope Duval, first civilian governor of the Florida Territory (d. 1854)
October 13 – King Ferdinand VII of Spain (d. 1833)
October 15 – Thomas Robert Bugeaud, Marshal of France and duke of Isly (d. 1849) October 19
February 4 – Princess Friederike Luise of Prussia, Prussian princess (b. 1714)
February 27 – Count of St. Germain, French philosopher, adventurer (b. 1710)
March 26 – Thomas Bond, American physician and surgeon (b. 1712)
March 27 – Ralph Bigland, British officer of arms (b. 1712)
March 31 – Thomas Adam, Clergyman, religious writer (b. 1701)
April 26 – Nano Nagle, Irish convent founder (b. 1718)
April 29 – Agustín de Jáuregui, Spanish colonial governor (b. 1711)
May 3 – Anthony Benezet, French-born American abolitionist and educator (b. 1713)
May 10 – Antoine Court de Gébelin, French pastor (b. 1725)
May 12 – Abraham Trembley, Swiss naturalist (b. 1710)
June 8 – Lukrecija Bogašinović Budmani, Croatian poet (b. 1710)
June 13 – Henry Middleton, American president of the Continental Congress (b. 1717)
June 14 – Andrzej Mokronowski, Polish general (b. 1713)
June 26 – Caesar Rodney, American lawyer, signer of the Declaration of Independence (b. 1728) July 1 – Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, German composer (b. 1710)
July 31 – Denis Diderot, French philosopher, encyclopedist (b. 1713)
August 4 – Giovanni Battista Martini, Italian musician (b. 1706)
August 10 – Allan Ramsay, Scottish portrait-painter (b. 1713)
August 14 – Nathaniel Hone, Irish-born painter (b. 1718)
August 28 – Junípero Serra, Spanish Franciscan missionary (b. 1713)
September 1 – Jean-François Séguier, French astronomer and botanist (b. 1703)
September 4 – César-François Cassini de Thury, French astronomer (b. 1714)
September 8 – Ann Lee, American religious leader (b. 1736)
September 15 – Nicolas Bernard Lépicié, French painter (b. 1735)
November 1 – Jean-Jacques Lefranc, Marquis de Pompignan, French polymath, author and poet (b. 1709)
November 9 – George Baylor, officer in the American Continental Army (b. 1752) December 5 – Phillis Wheatley, first published African-American author (b. 1753)
December 13 – Samuel Johnson, English writer, lexicographer (b. 1709)
December 25 – Yosa Buson, Japanese poet, painter (b. 1716)
December 26 – Seth Warner, American revolutionary leader (b. 1743)
date unknown – Lê Quý Đôn, Vietnamese philosopher, poet, encyclopedist, and government official (b. 1726) date unknown – Raja Haji Fisabilillah, Buginese monarch of riau lingga, warrior, emperor, and government official
Koch, Christophe; Schoell, Maximillian Samson Friedrich (1839). . Whittaker and Company. p. The Revolutions of Europe: Being an Historical View of the European Nations from the Subversion of the Roman Empire in the West to the Abdication of Napoleon 163. treaty of constantinople 1784.
^ a b c d
Harper's Encyclopaedia of United States History from 458 A. D. to 1909, ed. by Benson John Lossing and, Woodrow Wilson (Harper & Brothers, 1910) p167
Cavendish, Henry (1784). "Experiments on Air". . Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 75: 372–384. Bibcode: 1785RSPT...75..372C. doi: . 10.1098/rstl.1785.0023 JSTOR 106582.
^ Charles Kettleborough, Ph.D.,
Constitution Making in Indiana: A Source Book of Constitutional Documents, with Historical Introduction and Critical Notes (Indiana Historical Commission, 1916) p3
Denis Hollier and R. Howard Bloch,
A New History of French Literature (Harvard University Press, 1994) p549
^ "Commercial banks", by Benjamin J. Klebaner, in
The Encyclopedia of New York City, 2nd edition (Yale University Press, 2010)
American State Papers: Documents, Legislative and Executive, of the Congress of the United States (Gales and Seaton, 1833) p89
^ John Keay,
The Honourable Company: A History of the English East India Company (Macmillan Publishing, 1991), p390
Michell, John (1784). "On the Means of Discovering the Distance, Magnitude, &c. of the Fixed Stars, in Consequence of the Diminution of the Velocity of Their Light, in Case Such a Diminution Should be Found to Take Place in any of Them, and Such Other Data Should be Procured from Observations, as Would be Farther Necessary for That Purpose. By the Rev. John Michell, B.D.F.R.S. In a Letter to Henry Cavendish, Esq. F.R.S. and A.S." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 75: 35–57. Bibcode: 1784RSPT...74...35M. doi: . 10.1098/rstl.1784.0008 JSTOR 106576.