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1780 ( MDCCLXXX)
was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1780th year of the Common Era (CE) and (AD) designations, the 780th year of the Anno Domini 2nd millennium, the 80th year of the 18th century, and the 1st year of the 1780s decade. As of the start of 1780, the Gregorian calendar was
11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
October 2 – American Revolutionary War – In Tappan, New York, British spy John André is hanged by American forces.
October 7 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Kings Mountain: Patriot militia forces annihilate Loyalists under British Major Patrick Ferguson, at Kings Mountain, South Carolina.
October 10– 16 – The Great Hurricane flattens the islands of Barbados, Martinique and Sint Eustatius; 22,000 are killed.
November 4 – Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II: In the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru, Túpac Amaru II leads an uprising of Aymara and Quechua peoples and mestizo peasants as a protest against the Bourbon Reforms.
November 28 – A lightning strike in Saint Petersburg begins a fire that burns 11,000 homes. 
November 29 – Maria Theresa of Austria dies, and her Habsburg dominions pass to her ambitious son, Joseph II, who has already been Holy Roman Emperor since 1765.
November 30 – American Revolutionary War: The British San Juan Expedition is forced to withdraw.
December 16 – Emperor Kōkaku accedes to the throne of Japan. December 20 – The Fourth Anglo-Dutch War begins. 
Jose Gabriel Kunturkanki, businessman and landowner, proclaims himself Inca
Túpac Amaru II. The
Duke of Richmond calls, in the House of Lords of Great Britain, for manhood suffrage and annual parliaments, which are rejected.
Jeremy Bentham's Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation, presenting his formulation of utilitarian ethics, is printed (but not published) in London.
Nikephoros Theotokis starts introducing , an attempt to integrate the Edinoverie Old Believers into Russia's established church. The
Woodford Reserve bourbon whiskey distillery begins operation in Kentucky. In Ireland, Lady Berry, who is sentenced to death for the murder of her son, is released when she agrees to become an
executioner (she retires in 1810). The original
Craven Cottage is built by William Craven, 6th Baron Craven, in London, on what will become the centre circle of Fulham F.C.'s pitch. The amateur dramatic group
is founded in Det Dramatiske Selskab Christiania, Norway. Western countries pay 16,000,000 ounces of silver for Chinese goods.
The Kingdom of Great Britain reaches c.9 million population.
January 13 – Pierre Jean Robiquet, French chemist (d. 1840)
January 14 – Henry Baldwin, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1844)
February 1 – David Porter, American naval officer (d. 1843)
February 19 – Richard McCarty, American politician (d. 1844)
February 25 – John Sumner, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1862)
March 25 – Joseph Ritner, American politician (d. 1869)
March 29 – Jørgen Jørgensen, Danish adventurer (d. 1841)
April 7 – William Ellery Channing, influential American Unitarian theologian and minister (d. 1842)
April 26 – Gotthilf Heinrich von Schubert, German naturalist (d. 1860)
April 29 – Charles Nodier, French author (d. 1844)
May 1 – John McKinley, American politician, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1852)
May 21 – Elizabeth Fry, British humanitarian (d. 1845)
May 29 – Henri Braconnot, French chemist, pharmacist (d. 1855)
June 1 – Carl von Clausewitz, Prussian military strategist (d. 1831)
July 4 – Sofia Hjärne, Finnish baroness, writer (d. 1860)
July 5 – François Carlo Antommarchi, French physician (d. 1838)
July 15 – Emilie Petersen, Swedish philanthropist (d. 1859)
July 27 – Anastasio Bustamante, 4th President of Mexico (d. 1853)
October 17 – Richard Mentor Johnson, 9th Vice President of the United States (d. 1850)
October 20 – Pauline Bonaparte, Italian noblewoman (d. 1825)
October 28 – Ernst Anschütz, German teacher, organist, poet, and composer (d. 1861)
November 13 – Ranjit Singh, Maharaja of The Punjab ( Sikh Empire), (d. 1839) 
December 13 – Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner, German chemist (d. 1849) December 26 – Mary Fairfax Somerville, British mathematician (d. 1872)
January 13 – Duchess Luise of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Prussian princess (b. 1722)
January 15 – Johann Rudolf Tschiffeli, Swiss agronomist (b. 1716)
February 10 – Samuel Egerton, British Member of Parliament (b. 1711)
February 14 – William Blackstone, English jurist (b. 1723)
February 17 – Andreas Felix von Oefele, German historian, librarian (b. 1706)
February 18 – Kristijonas Donelaitis, Lithuanian poet (b. 1714)
March 17 – Elizabeth Butchill, English woman executed for the murder of her newborn child (b. c. 1758)
March 26 – Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (b. 1713)
April 5 – Ulrika Strömfelt, Swedish courtier (b. 1724)
May 18 – Charles Hardy, British governor of Newfoundland (b. c. 1714)
May 21 – Thomas Townshend (MP), British politician (b. 1701)
June 3 – Thomas Hutchinson, American colonial governor of Massachusetts (b. 1711)
July 4 – Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine, Austrian military leader (b. 1712)
July 14 – Charles Batteux, French philosopher (b. 1713)
July 18 – Gerhard Schøning, Norwegian historian (b. 1722)
July 21 – Louis Legrand, French Sulpician priest and theologian (b. 1711)
August 3 – Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, French philosopher (b. 1715)
August 19 – Johann de Kalb, Bavarian-French military officer who served as a major general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War (b. 1721)
August 29 – Jacques-Germain Soufflot, French architect (b. 1713)
September 4 – John Fielding, English magistrate, social reformer (b. 1721)
September 6 – Françoise Basseporte, French painter (b. 1701)
September 15 – Jacob Rodrigues Pereira, academic, first teacher of deaf-mutes in France (b. 1715)
September 19 – James Cecil, 6th Earl of Salisbury, England (b. 1713)
September 23 – Marie Anne de Vichy-Chamrond, marquise du Deffand, French salon holder (b. 1697)
October 2 – John André, British Army officer of the American Revolutionary War (executed) (b. 1750)
October 17 – William Cookworthy, English chemist (b. 1705)
November 26 – Sir James Steuart, Scottish economist (b. 1713)
November 29 – Empress Maria Theresa of Austria (b. 1717)
December 12 – Jakab Fellner, Hungarian architect (b. 1722)
December 26 – John Fothergill, English physician (b. 1712) date unknown – Thomas Dilworth, British cleric and writer
Lossing, Benson John; Wilson, Woodrow, eds. (1910). Harper's Encyclopaedia of United States History from 458 A.D. to 1909. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 166.
^ a b
Ferguson, Russell J. (1938). Early Western Pennsylvania Politics. p. 34.
Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 333. ISBN . 0-304-35730-8
^ a b
Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN . 0-14-102715-0
Facts for the Times: Containing Historical Extracts, Candid Admissions, and Important Testimony from Eminent Authors, Ancient and Modern on the Leading Topics of the Scriptures and Signs of the Times. Review and Herald Publishing. 1893. p. 66.
Juster, Susan (2010). Doomsayers: Anglo-American Prophecy in the Age of Revolution. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 223.
"Timeline of the American Revolutionary War". Independence Hall. Archived from the original on May 30, 2007 . Retrieved . June 1, 2007
Hattendorf, John (2000). Naval policy and strategy in the Mediterranean: past, present, and future. Taylor & Francis. p. 37. ISBN . 0-7146-8054-0
Harbron, John (1988). Trafalgar and the Spanish Navy. Conway Maritime Press. p. 84. ISBN . 0-85177-477-6
^ "Fires, Great", in
The Insurance Cyclopeadia: Being an Historical Treasury of Events and Circumstances Connected with the Origin and Progress of Insurance, Cornelius Walford, ed. (C. and E. Layton, 1876) p59
Edler, Friedrich (2001) . The Dutch Republic and The American Revolution. Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific. pp. 163–166. ISBN . 0-89875-269-8
"Shere-e-Punjab Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780-1839 AD) (A brief account)". Chandigarh: Institute of Sikh Studies . Retrieved . October 10, 2012