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1630s decade ran from January 1, 1630, to December 31, 1639.
February 19 – Born of The Great Maratha King Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaja at Shivneri Fort in Pune, Maharshtra
February 22 – Native American Quadequine introduces popcorn to English colonists.
March – Fedorovych Uprising: Zaporozhian Cossacks rebel against the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and occupy a large part of present day Ukraine. After a number of indecisive skirmishes with a Polish army sent to pacify the region, the Treaty of Pereyaslav is signed, ending the uprising.
March 3 – A fleet sent by the Dutch West India Company captures Recife from the Portuguese, establishing Dutch Brazil.
March 9 – The 1630 Crete earthquake occurs.
April 8 – Puritan migration to New England (1620-1640) – Winthrop Fleet: The ship and three others set sail from the Arbella Solent in England, with 400 passengers under the leadership of John Winthrop, headed for the Massachusetts Bay Colony in America; seven more, with another 300 aboard, follow in the next few weeks.
June – Scottish-born Presbyterian (and former physician) Alexander Leighton is brought before Archbishop William Laud's Star Chamber court in London for publishing the seditious pamphlet An Appeale to the Parliament, or, Sions Plea Against the Prelacy, an attack on Anglican bishops (printed in the Netherlands, 1628). He is sentenced to be pilloried and whipped, have his ears cropped, one side of his nose slit, and his face branded with "SS" (for "sower of sedition"), to be imprisoned, and be degraded from holy orders. 
June 6 – Swedish warships depart from Stockholm, Sweden for Central Europe. June 14 – Passengers of the , including Arbella Anne Bradstreet, America's first poet of significance, finally set foot in the New World at Salem, Massachusetts.
January 23 – Thirty Years' War: Sweden and France sign the Treaty of Bärwalde, a military alliance in which France provides funds for the Swedish army invading northern Germany.
February 5 – Roger Williams emigrates to Boston.
February 16 – The Reval Gymnasium is founded in Tallinn, Estonia, by Swedish king Gustavus II Adolphus.
April 13 – Thirty Years' War: Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden defeats an imperial garrison at the city of Frankfurt an der Oder.
May 18 – In Dorchester, Massachusetts, John Winthrop takes the oath of office, and becomes the first Governor of Massachusetts.
May 20 – Thirty Years' War: After a two-month siege, an Imperial army under the command of Tilly storms the German city of Magdeburg, and brutally sacks it, massacring over 20,000 inhabitants. Shocked by the massacre, many Protestant states in the Holy Roman Empire decide to ally with Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, and support his ongoing invasion.
May 28 – William Claiborne sails from England to establish a trading post on Kent Island, the first English settlement in Maryland.
June 17 – The death in childbirth of Mumtaz Mahal at Burhanpur causes her husband Shah Jahan to commission the Taj Mahal at Agra, as a mausoleum for her. Construction is started in 1632, and finished in 1653.
June 19 – War of the Mantuan Succession: The Treaty of Cherasco is signed, ending the War of the Mantuan Succession. June 20 – Algerian pirates sack Baltimore, County Cork in Ireland.
July 16 – The city of Würzburg is taken by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, putting an end to the Würzburg witch trials, but not before an estimated 900 people from the city and its environs have been burned at the stake for witchcraft.
July 22 – Thirty Years' War – Battle of Werben: Tilly defeats Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, but not decisively.
August – Thirty Years' War: Running out of supplies, Tilly is forced to send his army into the Electorate of Saxony in order to secure supplies, as well as to force a reaction from John George, Elector of Saxony and Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden.
September 11 – Thirty Years' War: As a result of Tilly's invasion, John George, Elector of Saxony, who has until now stayed neutral, allies with Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, in order to drive the Imperial army out of Saxony.
September 12– 13 – Eighty Years' War – Battle of the Slaak: A Spanish fleet carrying an invasion force is intercepted and almost completely destroyed by a Dutch fleet.
September 12 – Eighty Years' War – Battle of Albrolhos: A Spanish fleet, under the command of Admiral Antonio de Oquendo, defeats a Dutch fleet off the coast of Brazil.
September 17 – Thirty Years' War – Battle of Breitenfeld: Tilly's imperial army is decisively defeated by Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden, shattering the imperial army of the Holy Roman Empire, and marking the first significant victory for the Protestants in the war.
October 10 – Thirty Years' War: A Saxon army takes over Prague.
December 16 – A volcanic eruption of Mount Vesuvius at Pompeii occurs, for the only time this century. December 23 – Thirty Years' War: Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden takes the city of Mainz, without any resistance.
January – The Holland's Leguer, a brothel in London, is closed after having been besieged for a month.
February 22 – Galileo's is published. Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems
March 29 – The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye is signed, returning Quebec to French control, after the English had seized it in 1629.
March – Thirty Years' War – Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden invades Bavaria with his army.
April 15 – Thirty Years' War – Battle of Rain: Gustavus Adolphus defeats Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly, commander of the Catholic League (German) armies, for the second time within a year; Tilly is severely wounded during the battle and dies on April 30.
May – Thirty Years' War – Munich, capital of Bavaria, is captured by the Swedish army.
June 15 – Sir Francis Windebank is made chief Secretary of State in England.
June 20 – Charles I of England issues a charter for the colony of Maryland (named in honor of Henrietta Maria), under the control of Lord Baltimore.
June 20 – Two ships, the Saint Jean (250 tons) and the L'Esperance-En-Dieu, set sail from La Rochelle, bound for Acadia.
June 25 – Fasilides, Emperor of Ethiopia in succession to his father Susenyos, declares the state religion of the country to again be Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, and confiscates the lands of the Jesuit missionaries, relegating them to Fremona. June – Eighty Years' War – Leading a Dutch army, Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange captures in short succession the cities of Venlo, Roermond and Sittard, before besieging the city of Maastricht.
July 23 – Three hundred colonists for New France depart Dieppe.
August 22 – Eighty Years' War: A Dutch army, led by Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, captures the city of Maastricht after a two-month siege.
September 1 – Battle of Castelnaudary: A rebellion against French king Louis XIII is crushed. The leader of the rebellion, Gaston, Duke of Orléans, the brother of Louis XIII, surrenders.
September 9 – Thirty Years' War: Battle of the Alte Veste – Besieged by Wallenstein at Nuremberg, Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus attempts to break the siege, but is defeated.
October 15 – The University of Tartu officially opens, in Swedish Livonia.
October 30 – Henri II de Montmorency, is executed for his participation in the rebellion of Gaston, Duke of Orléans, against French king Louis XIII.
November 8 – Wladyslaw IV Waza is elected king of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, after Sigismund III Vasa's death.
November 16 (November 6 Old Style) – Thirty Years' War: Battle of Lützen – Swedish king Gustavus II Adolphus leads an assault on Wallenstein's army, but is killed early in the battle. Despite the king's death, the Swedish commanders manage to rally the army and eventually defeat Wallenstein's army. As a result, Wallenstein withdraws from Saxony. Following the death of Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, he is succeeded by his six-year-old daughter Christina, while five regents (headed by Axel Oxenstierna) govern the country. November 17 – Thirty Years' War – Gottfried zu Pappenheim, Field Marshal of the Holy Roman Empire, dies from wounds sustained in the Battle of Lützen.
January – Pierre Corneille's tragicomedy is first performed, in Le Cid Paris, France.
February 3 – Tulip mania collapses in the Dutch Republic.
February 15 – Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor.
February 18 – Eighty Years' War – Battle off Lizard Point: Off the coast of Cornwall, England, a Spanish fleet intercepts an Anglo-Dutch merchant convoy of 44 vessels escorted by six warships, destroying or capturing 20 of them.
April 10 – Plymouth Colony grants the "tenn menn of Saugust" a new settlement on Cape Cod, later named Sandwich, Massachusetts.
April 30 – King Charles I of England issues a proclamation, attempting to stem emigration to the North American colonies. 
May 26 – Pequot War – Mystic massacre: A band of English settlers under Captain John Mason, and their Narragansett and Mohegan allies, set fire to a fortified village of the Mashantucket Pequot Tribe near the Mystic River. Between 400 and 700 people, mostly women, children and old men, are killed.
May – Chinese encyclopedist Song Yingxing publishes his Tiangong Kaiwu ("Exploitation of the Works of Nature"), considered one of the most valuable encyclopedias of classical China. June 27 – The first English venture to China is attempted by Captain John Weddell, who sails into port in Macau and Canton during the late Ming Dynasty, with six ships. The voyages are for trade, which is dominated here by the Portuguese (at this time combined with the power of Spain). He brings 38,421 pairs of eyeglasses, perhaps the first recorded European-made eyeglasses to enter China. 
Second Manchu invasion of Korea: The Joseon court reluctantly submits to the Manchu's demands of vassalhood, while continuing to pledge loyalty to the Chinese Ming Dynasty.
Pierre de Fermat makes a notation, in a document margin, claiming to have proof of what will become known as Fermat's Last Theorem.
René Descartes promotes intellectual rigour in his , and introduces the Discourse on the Method Cartesian coordinate system in its appendix (published in La Géométrie Leiden).  France places a few missionaries in the
Ivory Coast, a country it will rule more than 200 years later. The first
opera house, , opens in Teatro San Cassiano Venice.
Scottish army officer Robert Monro publishes Monro, His Expedition With the Worthy Scots Regiment Called Mac-Keys in London, the first military history in English.
Elizabeth Poole becomes the first woman to have founded a town ( Taunton, Massachusetts) in the Americas. The Blessed Virgin is proclaimed Queen of Genoa.
February 28 – The Scottish National Covenant is signed in Edinburgh, Scotland.
March 3 – Battle of Rheinfelden: A mercenary army under Bernard of Saxe-Weimar, fighting for France, defeats Imperial forces.
March 5 – Thirty Years' War – The Treaty of Hamburg is signed by France and Sweden.
March 29 – Settlers from Sweden arrive on the ships and Kalmar Nyckel , to establish the settlement of Fogel Grip New Sweden in Delaware, beginning the Swedish colonization of the Americas.
March – Anne Hutchinson is banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for heresy, and goes to Rhode Island.
April 3 – John Wheelwright is banished from Boston, and founds Exeter, New Hampshire.
April 15 – Shogunate forces defeat the last remnants of the Shimabara Rebellion, in the fortress of Hara.
May 13 – Construction begins on the Red Fort in Delhi (India) for Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan who is transferring his capital there from Agra.
May 23 – The Kandyan Treaty is signed between Singhala King Rajasimha II and the Dutch, to rid Ceylon of the Portuguese.
June 20 – Eighty Years' War – Battle of Kallo: Spanish troops under Ferdinand of Austria defeat a much larger Dutch force, near Antwerp. June 27 – Patriarch Cyril of Constantinople is deposed for high treason, and strangled and thrown into the sea by Janissaries, on Ottoman Sultan Murad IV's command.
September 21 – The Treaty of Hartford is signed, ending the Pequot War between British American colonists and the Pequot.
September – John Spofford arrives in Boston Harbor, on the ship John of London, and is one of the first people to establish Rowely, Essex County, Massachusetts.
October 21 – The Great Thunderstorm breaks out in Widecombe-in-the-Moor, England.
November – The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is summoned to Glasgow, by King Charles I of England.
December 18 – Cardinal Mazarin becomes the first adviser to French potentate Richelieu, on the death of Leclerc du Tremblay. December 21 – The full moon is in total eclipse from 1:12 to 2:47 UT, and the solstice occurs later in the day, at 16:05 UT.
Covenanters meet at Muchalls Castle, to compose responses to the Bishops of Aberdeen.
Pedro Teixeira makes the first ascent of the Amazon River, from its mouth to Quito, Ecuador (the same trip had been made in the opposite direction, in 1541).
Dutch merchant Willem Kieft is appointed Director of New Amsterdam, by the Dutch West India Company. The Netherlands colonizes
Mauritius. The Dutch settle in
Ceylon. The Finnish
postal service, , is founded. Suomen Posti
New Haven, the first planned city in America, is founded.
Sultan Murad IV captures Baghdad.
Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and his sons capture the city of Kandahar, from the Safavids. Shipwrecked English
buccaneer Peter Wallace, called Ballis by the Spanish, settles near and perhaps gives his name to the Belize River, the first known European settlement in Belize. The Beijing makes an official switch in its production process of newspapers, from Gazette woodblock printing to movable type printing (private newspapers in Ming Dynasty China were first mentioned in 1582).
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