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1622 (MDCXXII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1622nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 622nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 22nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1620s decade. As of the start of 1622, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- January 1 – In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25.
- January 7 – The Holy Roman Empire and Transylvania sign the Peace of Nikolsburg.
- February 8 – King James I of England disbands the English Parliament.
- March 12 – Ignatius of Loyola, Francis Xavier, Teresa of Ávila, Isidore the Farmer and Philip Neri are canonized by Pope Gregory XV.
- March 22 – Jamestown massacre: Algonquian natives kill 347 English settlers outside Jamestown, Virginia (⅓ of the colony's population), and burn the Henricus settlement. This begins the American Indian Wars.
- April 22 – Hormuz is captured from the Portuguese, by an Anglo-Persian force.
- April 27 – Thirty Years' War – Skirmish at Mingolsheim: Protestant forces under Mansfeld and Georg Friedrich of Baden-Durlach defeat the Imperial forces under Tilly. The Protestants win, but afterwards Tilly links up with a Spanish army under Gonzalo de Córdoba, greatly increasing his strength.
- May – Huguenot rebellions: The Huguenot city of Royan is taken by royal forces, after a short siege.
- May 6 – Thirty Years' War: While waiting for the Protestant forces of Christian the Younger of Brunswick to join them, Mansfeld and Georg Friedrich of Baden-Durlach split up their forces as a diversion for the Imperial army of Tilly. Their plan fails, as Tilly manages to cut off Georg Friedrich at Wimpfen. At the ensuing Battle of Wimpfen, Georg Friedrich's army is almost completely destroyed.
- May 13 – The Eendracht, a VOC ship and the second recorded European ship to make landfall on Australian soil, is wrecked off the western coast of Ambon Island, Dutch East Indies.
- May 20 – Ottoman Sultan Osman II is strangled by rebelling Janissaries, who revolted when they heard rumours that Osman II was planning to move against them.
- May 25 – The English ship Tryall, which left Plymouth, England for Batavia (now Jakarta), wrecks on the Tryal Rocks, nine months later (the wreck is discovered in 1969).
- June 11 – Huguenot rebellions: The Huguenot city of Nègrepelisse is taken, after a short siege by royal forces. The entire population of the city is subsequently massacred, and the city is burned to the ground.
- June 20 – Thirty Years' War: Imperial forces under Tilly attempt to prevent Christian the Younger of Brunswick from moving his army across the Main River, to link up with Mansfeld. At the Battle of Höchst, Tilly manages to inflict considerable casualties on the Protestant forces, as well as seizing Brunswick's baggage train. Nonetheless, the bulk of Brunswick's forces manage to unite with Mansfeld.
- June 24 – Dutch–Portuguese War – Battle of Macau: The outnumbered Portuguese forces successfully defend Macau from the Dutch fleet, keeping a Portuguese foothold in the Far East.
- July 13 – Thirty Years' War: After Mansfeld fails to relieve the siege of Heidelberg, Frederick V of the Palatinate cancels Mansfeld's contract and disbands his army. The unemployed army of Mansfeld and Christian the Younger of Brunswick is subsequently hired by the Dutch.
- July 13 or July 14 – English and Dutch ships defeat the Portuguese, near Portuguese East Africa.
- July 18 – Eighty Years' War: Bergen op Zoom is besieged by a Spanish army, under the command of Ambrogio Spinola.
- August 29 – Thirty Years' War: While on their way to relieve the Siege of Bergen-op-Zoom in the Netherlands, the army of Mansfeld and Christian of Brunswick is blocked by a Spanish army, led by Gonzalo de Córdoba. In the Battle of Fleurus, Cordoba manages to fight off the Protestant assault. The next day, Cordoba surprises the retreating Protestant army with his cavalry, resulting in the destruction of most of the Protestant army.
- September 5 – Armand Jean du Plessis becomes Cardinal Richelieu.
- September 6 – Spanish treasure fleet sinks off Marquesas Keys in the straits of Florida. Atocha, Margarita, and Rosario are the most heavily laden treasure ships found in the 20th century.
- September 19 – Thirty Years' War: Heidelberg, the capital of the Electorate of the Palatinate, is taken by the Imperial army of Tilly' after a three-month siege.
- October 2 – Eighty Years' War: After a siege of 86 days, Bergen op Zoom is relieved by a Dutch army led by Maurice of Nassau and Ernst von Mansfeld.
- October 18 – Huguenot rebellions: The first Huguenot rebellion ends, with the signing of the Treaty of Montpellier.
- October 27 – Huguenot rebellions: The inconclusive Naval battle of Saint-Martin-de-Ré is fought between the Huguenot fleet of La Rochelle, commanded by Jean Guiton, and a royal fleet under the command of Charles of Guise.
- December 18 – Portuguese forces score a military victory over the Kingdom of Kongo at the Battle of Mbumbi in present-day Angola as part of the First Kongo-Portuguese War.
- December 22 – Bucaramanga, Colombia, is founded.
- January 1 – Isaac Sweers, Dutch admiral (d. 1673)
- January 3 – Sir Humphrey Winch, 1st Baronet, English Member of Parliament (d. 1703)
- January 11 – Louis, Duke of Joyeuse, younger son of Charles (d. 1654)
- January 13 – Thomas Dolman, English politician (d. 1697)
- January 15 – Molière, French playwright (d. 1673)
- January 16 – Anna Margareta von Haugwitz, Swedish countess (d. 1673)
- January 23 – Abraham Diepraam, Dutch painter (d. 1670)
- January 28
- February 7 – Vittoria della Rovere, Italian noble (d. 1694)
- February 15 – Adam Pynacker, Dutch painter (d. 1673)
- February 21 – Camillo Francesco Maria Pamphili, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1666)
- February 24 – Johannes Clauberg, German theologian and philosopher (d. 1665)
- February 25 – Christian Louis, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (d. 1665)
- February 26 – Ludovico Maria Sinistrari, Italian Franciscan priest and author (d. 1701)
- February 27 – Carel Fabritius, Dutch painter (d. 1654)
- March 4 – Thomas Fox, English lawyer and politician (d. 1666)
- March 10 – Johann Rahn, Swiss mathematician (d. 1676)
- March 28 – Ermes di Colorêt, Italian poet, political figure (d. 1692)
- April 5 – Vincenzo Viviani, Italian mathematician and scientist (d. 1703)
- April 7 – Carlo Pio di Savoia, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1689)
- April 8 – Lebrecht, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen, German prince of the House of Ascania (d. 1669)
- April 10 – Samuel Wilbur, Jr., American colonial settler of Rhode Island (d. 1697)
- April 11 – Jan van Vliet, Dutch linguist (d. 1666)
- April 12 – Johann Christian von Boyneburg, German politician (d. 1672)
- April 18 – Louise Hollandine of the Palatinate, German artist (d. 1709)
- April 23 – Sir Arthur Onslow, 1st Baronet, English politician (d. 1688)
- April 30 – Giovanni Maria Morandi, Italian painter (d. 1717)
- May 1
- May 2 – Silvius I Nimrod, Duke of Württemberg-Oels (d. 1664)
- May 4 – Juan de Valdés Leal, Spanish painter and etcher (d. 1690)
- May 8
- May 9 – Jean Pecquet, French anatomist (d. 1674)
- May 22 – Louis de Buade de Frontenac, Governor of New France (d. 1698)
- June 6 – Claude-Jean Allouez, French Jesuit missionary and explorer of North America (d. 1689)
- June 11 – Samuel Fortrey, English author (d. 1681)
- June 23 – Sir Richard Cust, 1st Baronet, English politician (d. 1700)
- June 24 – Charles Worsley, English soldier and politician (d. 1656)
- July 2 – René-François de Sluse, Walloon mathematician (d. 1685)
- July 14 – Sir William Airmine, 2nd Baronet, English politician (d. 1658)
- July 26 – Christian Augustus, Count Palatine of Sulzbach (1632-1708) (d. 1708)
- July 28 – George Montagu, English politician (d. 1681)
- August 3 – Wolfgang Julius, Count of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein, German field marshal (d. 1698)
- August 6 – Tjerk Hiddes de Vries, Dutch admiral (d. 1666)
- August 19 – James Compton, 3rd Earl of Northampton, English politician (d. 1681)
- August 24 – Samuel Lincoln, American colonial ancestor of Abraham Lincoln (d. 1690)
- August 27 – Jakob Thomasius, German philosopher (d. 1684)
- September 21 – Yamaga Sokō, Japanese philosopher (d. 1685)
- September 22 – Jacques Savary, successful French merchant (d. 1690)
- September 24 – Georg Händel, German musician (d. 1697)
- September 30 – Johann Sebastiani, German Baroque composer (d. 1683)
- January 1 – Jakob Hassler, German composer (b. 1569)
- January 9 – Alix Le Clerc, French Roman Catholic Canoness Regular, foundress and blessed (b. 1576)
- January 17 – Ernst of Schaumburg, Count of Holstein-Pinneberg and Schaumburg (1601–1622) (b. 1569)
- January 23 – William Baffin, English explorer (b. 1584)
- January 26 – Khusrau Mirza, Mughal prince (b. 1587)
- January 31 – Francis Norris, 1st Earl of Berkshire, English noble (b. 1579)
- February 11 – Alfonso Fontanelli, Italian composer (b. 1557)
- February 19
- February 20 – Juan de Valle y Arredondo, Spanish Catholic prelate, Bishop of Guadalajara (1607–1617) (b. 1567)
- March 5 – Ranuccio I Farnese, Duke of Parma (b. 1569)
- March 29 – Honda Yasutoshi, Japanese samurai (b. 1570)
- March 31 – Gonzalo Méndez de Canço, Royal Governor of La Florida (b. 1554)
- April 5 – Vincenzo Filliucci, Italian Jesuit (b. 1566)
- April 13
- April 14 – Antoine de Gaudier, French Jesuit writer (b. 1572)
- April 15 – Leandro Bassano, Italian painter (b. 1557)
- April 17 – Richard Hawkins, 17th-century English seaman (b. c. 1562)
- April 24 – Fidelis of Sigmaringen, German Roman Catholic and Capuchin friar, missionary and saint (b. 1577)
- May 15 – Petrus Plancius, Dutch-Flemish astronomer and cartographer (b. 1552)
- May 20 – Osman II, Ottoman Sultan (b. 1604)
- May 22 – Juan Beltrán Guevara y Figueroa, Spanish Catholic prelate, Archbishop of Santiago de Compostela (1603–1614) (b. 1540)
- May 25 – Pedro Páez, Spanish Jesuit missionary in Ethiopia (b. 1564)
- June 4 – Péter Révay, Hungarian historian (b. 1568)
- June 15 – David Pareus, German theologian (b. 1548)
- June 21 – Salomon Schweigger, German theologian (b. 1551)
- July 1 – William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle, British politician (b. 1575)
- August 7 – Anfiyanggū, Manchu official (b. 1559)
- August 10 – Giovanni Battista Viola, Italian painter (b. 1576)
- August 13 – Henri de Gondi, Catholic cardinal (b. 1572)
- August 29 – Duke Frederick of Saxe-Weimar, German prince and colonel on the Protestant side in the Thirty Years' War (b. 1596)
- September 7 – Denis Godefroy, French jurist (b. 1549)
- September 10 – Charles Spinola, Italian Jesuit missionary, martyr and blessed (b. 1564)
- September 14 – Alof de Wignacourt, French 54th Grandmaster of the Knights Hospitaller (b. 1547)
- September 29 – Conrad Vorstius, German-Dutch Remonstrant theologian (b. 1569)
- October 9 – John II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg (b. 1545)
- October 28 – Peter Petreius, Swedish writer and diplomat (b. 1570)
- October 31 – Ulrich, Duke of Pomerania, Bishop of Cammin and non-reigning Duke of Pomerania (b. 1589)
- November 2 – Johann Lohel, Bohemian Catholic archbishop (b. 1549)
- November 12 – Sir George Savile, 1st Baronet of England (b. 1550)
- November 14 – Miler Magrath, Irish Catholic priest (b. 1523)
- November 17 – Pierre Biard, French settler, Jesuit missionary (b. 1567)
- November – Squanto, North American (Patuxet)native
- December 1 – Edward Nevill, 8th Baron Bergavenny (b. 1550)
- December 7 – Sophie of Brandenburg, Regent of Saxony (1591–1601) (b. 1568)
- December 12 – Bartolomeo Manfredi, Italian painter (b. 1582)
- December 13 – Johannes Vodnianus Campanus, Czech humanist, composer and dramatist (b. 1572)
- December 28 – Francis de Sales, Bishop of Geneva and saint (b. 1567)