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1620s decade ran from January 1, 1620, to December 31, 1629.
July 3 – Under the terms of the Treaty of Ulm, the Protestant Union declares neutrality, and ceases to support Frederick V of Bohemia.
July 15 – The ship departs Speedwell Delfshaven, with the Leiden colonists and Pilgrims.
August 5 ( O.S.) – and Mayflower depart together from Speedwell Plymouth, England, but Speedwell starts to leak again and must stop.
August 8 – A mysterious rain of frogs occurs in Weil der Stadt.
September 6 ( O.S.) – departs from Mayflower Plymouth, England, on its 3rd attempt without , arriving on Speedwell November 11 ( Old Style date) at Cape Cod (named from the Concord voyage of 1602).
September 17– October 7 – Battle of Cecora: The Ottoman Empire defeats Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth– Moldavian troops.
October 6 – Battle of Amedamit in Gojjam, Ethiopia: The Roman Catholic Ras Sela Kristos, half-brother of Emperor Susenyos, crushes a group of rebels, who were opposed to Susenyos' pro-Catholic beliefs.
November 3 – The Great Patent is granted to Plymouth Colony.
November 8 – Thirty Years' War – Battle of White Mountain: Catholic forces are victorious in only two hours near Prague.
November 11 - The Mayflower Compact is signed in what is now Provincetown Harbor near Cape Cod.
November 21 (November 11 O.S.) – The arrives inside the tip of Mayflower Cape Cod, at what becomes known as Provincetown Harbor, with the Pilgrims and Planters; 41 Plymouth Colony settlers sign the Mayflower Compact, the first governing document of the colony, onboard the ship.
November 25 – The Wedding of Gustav II Adolf and Maria Eleonora takes place. December 21 – Plymouth Colony: William Bradford and the Mayflower Pilgrims land on what becomes known as Plymouth Rock, in Plymouth, Massachusetts.
February 9 – Papal Conclave of 1621: Pope Gregory XV succeeds Pope Paul V, as the 234th pope.
February 17 – Myles Standish is appointed as the first commander of Plymouth Colony. 
March 16 – Samoset, a Mohegan, visits the settlers of Plymouth Colony and greets them: "Welcome, Englishmen! My name is Samoset."
March 22 – The Pilgrims of Plymouth Colony sign a peace treaty with Massasoit of the Wampanoags.
March 31 – King Philip IV of Spain begins his 44-year rule.
April – The Twelve Years' Truce between the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Empire expires, and both sides prepare to resume the Eighty Years' War.
April 1 – The Plymouth, Massachusetts colonists create the first treaty with native Americans.
April 5 – The sets sail from Mayflower Plymouth, on a return trip to England.
May 2 – The Panama earthquake affects the Isthmus of Panama, with an estimated magnitude of 6.9, and a maximum Mercalli intensity of VII ( Very strong).
May 24 – The Protestant Union is formally dissolved.
June 3 – The Dutch West India Company is founded.
June 21 – Thirty Years' War: Twenty-seven Czech lords are executed on the Old Town Square in Prague, as a consequence of the Battle of White Mountain. June 24 – Huguenot rebellions: Saint-Jean-d'Angély is taken, after a 26-day siege by Royal forces.
The Venezuelan city of
Petare is founded by Spanish conquistadors, as San Jose de Guanarito. The Swedish city of
Gothenburg is founded by King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. The king also grants city rights to Luleå, Piteå and Torneå ( Tornio). Riga falls under the rule of Sweden. The Dutch mathematician and astronomer,
Willebrord Snel van Royen (1580–1626), discovers the famous law of refraction, also known as Snellius' law.
Tamblot starts the Tamblot Uprising, in the Philippines. The Dutch East India Company sends 2,000 soldiers, under the command of Jan Pieterszoon Coen, to the Banda Islands, in order to force the local inhabitants to accept the Dutch trade monopoly on the lucrative nutmeg, grown almost exclusively on those islands. The soldiers proceed to massacre most of the 15,000 indigenous inhabitants.
January 1 – In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25.
January 7 – Germany and Transylvania sign the Peace of Nikolsburg.
February 8 – King James I of England disbands the English Parliament.
March 12 – Ignatius of Loyola, Francis Xavier, Teresa of Ávila, Isidore the Farmer and Philip Neri are canonized by Pope Gregory XV.
March 22 – Jamestown massacre: Algonquian natives kill 347 English settlers outside Jamestown, Virginia (1/3 of the colony's population), and burn the Henricus settlement. This begins the American Indian Wars.
April 22 – Hormuz is captured from the Portuguese, by an Anglo-Persian force.
April 27 – Thirty Years' War – Skirmish at Mingolsheim: Protestant forces under Mansfeld and Georg Friedrich of Baden-Durlach defeat the Imperial forces under Tilly. The Protestants win, but afterwards Tilly links up with a Spanish army under Gonzalo de Córdoba, greatly increasing his strength.
May – Huguenot rebellions: The Huguenot city of Royan is taken by royal forces, after a short siege.
May 6 – Thirty Years' War: While waiting for the Protestant forces of Christian the Younger of Brunswick to join them, Mansfeld and Georg Friedrich of Baden-Durlach split up their forces as a diversion for the Imperial army of Tilly. Their plan fails, as Tilly manages to cut off Georg Friedrich at Wimpfen. At the ensuing Battle of Wimpfen, Georg Friedrich's army is almost completely destroyed.
May 13 – The , a Eendracht VOC ship and the second recorded European ship to make landfall on Australian soil, is wrecked off the western coast of Ambon Island, Dutch East Indies.
May 20 – Ottoman Sultan Osman II is strangled by rebelling Janissaries, who revolted when they heard rumours that Osman II was planning to move against them.
May 25 – The English ship , which left Tryall Plymouth, England for Batavia (now Jakarta), wrecks on the Tryal Rocks, 9 months later (the wreck is discovered in 1969).
June 11 – Huguenot rebellions: The Huguenot city of Nègrepelisse is taken, after a short siege by royal forces. The entire population of the city is subsequently massacred, and the city is burned to the ground.
June 20 – Thirty Years' War: Imperial forces under Tilly attempt to prevent Christian the Younger of Brunswick from moving his army across the Main River, to link up with Mansfeld. At the Battle of Höchst, Tilly manages to inflict considerable casualties on the Protestant forces, as well as seizing Brunswick's baggage train. Nonetheless, the bulk of Brunswick's forces manage to unite with Mansfeld. June 24 – Dutch–Portuguese War – Battle of Macau: The outnumbered Portuguese forces successfully defend Macau from the Dutch fleet, keeping a Portuguese foothold in the Far East.
July 13 – Thirty Years' War: After Mansfeld fails to relieve the siege of Heidelberg, Frederick V of the Palatinate cancels Mansfeld's contract and disbands his army. The unemployed army of Mansfeld and Christian the Younger of Brunswick is subsequently hired by the Dutch.
July 13 or July 14 – English and Dutch ships defeat the Portuguese, near Portuguese East Africa.
July 18 – Eighty Years' War: Bergen op Zoom is besieged by a Spanish army, under the command of Ambrogio Spinola.
August 29 – Thirty Years' War: While on their way to relieve the Siege of Bergen-op-Zoom in the Netherlands, the army of Mansfeld and Christian of Brunswick is blocked by a Spanish army, led by Gonzalo de Córdoba. In the Battle of Fleurus, Cordoba manages to fight off the Protestant assault. The next day, Cordoba surprises the retreating Protestant army with his cavalry, resulting in the destruction of most of the Protestant army.
September 5 – Armand Jean du Plessis becomes Cardinal Richelieu. 
September 6 – Spanish treasure fleet sinks off Marquesas Keys in the straits of Florida. , Atocha , and Margarita Rosario are the most heavily laden treasure ships found in the 20th century.
September 19 – Thirty Years' War: Heidelberg, the capital of the Electorate of the Palatinate, is taken by the Imperial army of Tilly' after a three-month siege.
October 2 – Eighty Years' War: After a siege of 86 days, Bergen op Zoom is relieved by a Dutch army led by Maurice of Nassau and Ernst von Mansfeld.
October 18 – Huguenot rebellions: The first Huguenot rebellion ends, with the signing of the Treaty of Montpellier. 
October 27 – Huguenot rebellions: The inconclusive Naval battle of Saint-Martin-de-Ré is fought between the Huguenot fleet of La Rochelle, commanded by Jean Guiton, and a royal fleet under the command of Charles of Guise.
December 18 - Portuguese forces score a military victory over the Kingdom of Kongo at the Battle of Mbumbi in present-day Angola. December 22 - Bucaramanga, Colombia, is founded.
February – France, Savoy, and Venice sign the Treaty of Paris, agreeing to cooperate in removing Spanish forces from the strategic Alpine pass of Valtelline.
February 25 – Thirty Years' War: Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria becomes Elector of the Electorate of the Palatinate.
March 5 – The first American temperance law is enacted, in Virginia.
March 9 – Amboyna massacre: Ten men in the service of the British East India Company, nine Japanese and one Portuguese, are executed by the Dutch East India Company.
March 20 – Richard Frethorne begins writing a letter to his parents from Jamestown, Virginia.
April 11 – King Gwanghaegun of Joseon is deposed in a coup. He is succeeded by King Injo.
April 29 – A fleet of 11 Dutch ships depart for the coast of Peru, seeking to seize Spanish treasure.
June 14 – The first breach-of-promise lawsuit: Rev. Gerville Pooley, in Virginia, files against Cicely Jordan, but loses.  June 29 – Première of Pedro Calderón de la Barca's first play, Amor, honor y poder, at the Court of Habsburg Spain.
Safavids recapture Baghdad. England first colonizes
Saint Kitts and Nevis.
Wilhelm Schickard invents his Calculating Clock, an early mechanical calculator.
Zildjian begins the commercial manufacture of cymbals in Turkey. The company will still be operating, from Massachusetts, in the 21st century.
Procopius' long-lost Secret History is rediscovered, in the Vatican Library.
Giambattista Marini publishes his long poem Adone.
Tommaso Campanella publishes . The City of the Sun
Johannes Rudbeck founds Rudbeckianska gymnasiet, the first gymnasium in Sweden. The second
Thanksgiving is celebrated at Plymouth Plantation.
Erotomania is first mentioned, in a psychiatric treatise.  On the coast of Massachusetts Bay, the settlement that will become the City of
Gloucester, Massachusetts is first inhabited by men from Dorchester, England. On the coast of New Hampshire, the settlement of Hilton's Point that will become Dover is established by men from London, England, the first European settlers in the state.
January 14 – After 90 years of Ottoman occupation, the Safavid Empire recaptures Baghdad.
January 24 – Afonso Mendes, appointed by Pope Gregory XV as Prelate of Ethiopia, arrives at Massawa from Goa.
April 15 – The University of Saint Francis Xavier is founded in Bolivia.
April 29 – Louis XIII of France appoints Cardinal Richelieu chief minister of the Royal Council.
May 8 – Capture of Bahia: A Dutch West India Company fleet captures the Brazilian city of Salvador, Bahia from the Portuguese Empire (at this time in the Iberian Union).
May 24 – After years of unprofitable operation, Virginia's charter is revoked, and it becomes a royal colony.
May 25 – The Scottish city of Dunfermline is destroyed by fire, but The Abbey, The Palace, the Abbot House and many other buildings survive.
June – The first Dutch settlers arrive in New Netherland; they disembark at Governors Island. June 10 – Treaty of Compiègne is signed, between the Kingdom of France and the Dutch Republic.
January 17 – Led by the Duke of Soubise, the Huguenots launch a second rebellion against King Louis XIII, with a surprise naval assault on a French fleet being prepared in Blavet.
February – Huguenot forces under the Duke of Soubise capture the Island of Ré.
March 21 – James Ussher is appointed Archbishop of Armagh (Church of Ireland) and Primate of All Ireland.
March 28– April 24 – First Savoine War – Relief of Genoa: The Spanish fleet aids the Republic of Genoa, by overcoming the Franco- Savoyard occupation of the city of Genoa.
March 25 – Battle of Martqopi: The Safavids are defeated in Georgia.
March 27 – Charles Stuart ( Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland) succeeds to the throne on the death of his father, King James I of England.
April 4 – Frederick Henry of Nassau marries Amalia, Countess von Solms-Braunfels.
April 7 – Albrecht von Wallenstein is appointed German supreme commander.
April 23 – Stadtholder Maurice of Nassau of the Dutch Republic dies, and is succeeded by his younger brother, Frederick Henry.
May 1 – A Portuguese-Spanish expedition recaptures Salvador, Bahia ( Bahia) from the Dutch.
May 15– 16 – Rebellious farmers are hanged in Vocklamarkt, Upper Austria.
June 2 – Prince Frederick Henry is sworn in as the stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland.
June 5 – Eighty Years' War: Spanish troops under Ambrogio Spinola conquer Breda, after a yearlong siege.
June 13 – King Charles I of England marries Catholic princess Henrietta Maria of France and Navarre, at Canterbury. June 18 – The English Parliament refuses to vote Charles I the right to collect customs duties for his entire reign, restricting him to one year instead.
July – The Barbary pirates first attack south-western England. In August they enslave about 60 people from  Mount's Bay in Cornwall. 
August 6 – Ernest Casimir of Nassau-Dietz is appointed as stadtholder of Groningen.
August 16 – Ernest Casimir of Nassau-Dietz is appointed stadtholder of Drenthe.
September 8 – The Treaty of Southampton makes an alliance between England and the Dutch Republic, against Spain. 
September 13 – A total of 16 rabbis (including Isaiah Horowitz) are imprisoned in Jerusalem.
September 15 – After several skirmishes in the preceding days, troops under the Marquis of Toiras successfully recapture the island of Ré, forcing the Duke of Soubise to flee to England, and ending the second Huguenot rebellion.
September 24 – A Dutch fleet attacks San Juan, Puerto Rico.
October 25 – A Dutch fleet attacks the Portuguese garrison at Elmina castle at modern-day Elmina, Ghana, but is defeated with heavy casualties. This defeat, along with the defeats at Bahia and Puerto Rico, causes a 5-year-long lull in Dutch attacks on Spanish and Portuguese colonies.
November 1– 7 – Cádiz Expedition: English forces commanded by Admiral George Villiers (which set out from Plymouth on October 8) are decisively defeated by the Spanish at Cádiz. December 9 – Thirty Years' War: The Netherlands and England sign the Treaty of The Hague, a military peace treaty for providing economical aid to King Christian IV of Denmark, during his military campaigns in Germany.
Dutch settle Manhattan, founding the town of New Amsterdam. The town will transform into a piece of what is now New York City.  The capital of
Madagascar, Antananarivo, is founded by King Andrianjaka. In England, a very high tide occurs, the highest ever known in the
Thames, and the sea walls in Kent, Essex, and Lincolnshire are overthrown, thus great desolation is caused to the lands near the sea.  An English colony is established in
Barbados.  The first members of the Society of Jesus move to Quebec, Canada.
January 7 – Polish-Swedish War – Battle of Wallhof, Latvia: Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden defeats a Polish army.
January 9 – Peter Minuit sails from Texel Island, for America's New Netherland colony, with 2 ships of Dutch emigrants.
February 2 – King Charles I of England is crowned, but without his wife, Henrietta Maria, who declines to participate in a non-Catholic ceremony.
February 5 – The Huguenot rebels and the French government sign the Treaty of Paris, ending the second Huguenot rebellion.
February 11 – Emperor Susenyos of Ethiopia and Patriarch Afonso Mendes declare the primacy of the Roman See over the Ethiopian Church, and Roman Catholicism the state religion of Ethiopia.
April 25 – Thirty Years' War – Battle of Dessau Bridge: Albrecht von Wallenstein defeats Ernst von Mansfelds army.
May 4 – Peter Minuit becomes director-general of New Netherland, for the Dutch West India Company.
May 24 – Peter Minuit buys Manhattan from a Native American tribe ( Lenape or Shinnecock) for trade goods, valued at 60 guilders ( $24.00). June 15 – King Charles I of England dissolves the English Parliament.
July 30 – The Naples earthquake causes severe damage, and may have killed up to 70,000.
August 1 – Eighty Years' War: Ernst Casimir of Nassau-Dietz retakes Oldenzaal, forcing Spain to withdraw from Overijssel.
August 27 – Thirty Years' War – Battle of Lutter: Tilly defeats King Christian IV of Denmark's army.
September 30 – Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty, dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji.
November 6 – ( O.S.) The ship Arms of Amsterdam arrives in Europe from New Netherland (left September 23) with the news: "They have purchased the Island Manhattes [ ] from the Indians for the value of 60 guilders." (from P. Schagen letter dated Manhattan November 7).
November 18 – The new St Peter's Basilica in the Vatican is consecrated, on the 1,300th anniversary of the previous church in 326.
December 1 – Pasha Muhammad ibn Farukh, tyrannical Governor of Jerusalem, is forced out. December 20 – Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor and Transylvanian monarch Bethlen Gabor sign the Peace of Pressburg.
Battle of Ningyuan in Xingcheng, Liaoning, China: With a much smaller force, the Ming Dynasty commander Yuan Chonghuan defeats the Manchu tribal leader Nurhaci, who dies soon after and is succeeded by Huang Taiji. When
Quebec was first established, its settlers depended on supplies sent from France. However, Samuel de Champlain wants the settlement at Quebec to be able to survive on its own. In 1626, Champlain decides to build a farm to raise livestock, or animals to provide food for the people living in the habitation. Champlain describes the construction of Cap tourmente (Kap toor-mont) Farm, in one of his journals. The Würzburg witch trial, which will lead to the mass executions of hundreds of people until 1631, begins.
January – The Dutch ship , skippered by 't Gulden Zeepaert François Thijssen, makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia.
February 17 – England lands the first European settlers on Barbados.
March 3 – After the First Manchu invasion of Korea, the Joseon Dynasty of Korea becomes a tributary state of the Manchus, but still pays respects to the Ming Dynasty of China. After rejecting a Manchu alteration to the original diplomatic terms in 1636, the Manchus invade again in 1637.
June 20 – Hinchingbrooke House is sold by Oliver Cromwell, to Sidney Montagu.
July 4– July 19 – Turkish Abductions: The Barbary pirates raid Iceland.
July 20– August 19 – Eighty Years' War: Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, lays siege to Grol, the last Spanish stronghold in the eastern Netherlands, and captures it after a siege that lasted a month.
July 22 – The English, under the Duke of Buckingham, invade Ré Island in support of the Huguenots in La Rochelle; the invasion fails.
July 27 – An earthquake destroys the cities of San Severo and Torremaggiore in southern Italy.
September – The Siege of La Rochelle begins.
November 20 – Thirty Years' War: Bogislaw XIV, Duke of Pomerania, signs the Capitulation of Franzburg, in which Pomerania is forced to pay for the Imperial army that Wallenstein sent to occupy it. Nonetheless, despite the treaty, Pomerania is devastated by the Imperial troops. November 28 – Polish-Swedish War – Battle of Oliwa: A Polish-Lithuanian fleet defeats a Swedish fleet.
August 4 – Thirty Years' War: With the help of Danish and Swedish reinforcements, Stralsund is able to resist Wallenstein's siege until the landing of a Danish army, led by Christian IV of Denmark, forces Wallenstein to raise the siege, and move his army to confront the new threat.
August 10 – The Swedish 64-gun sailing ship sinks on her maiden voyage, in Vasa Stockholm Harbor.
August 23 – George Villiers, the first Duke of Buckingham, is assassinated by John Felton.
September 2 – Thirty Years' War – Battle of Wolgast: Wallenstein defeats Christian IV of Denmark's army.
September 6 – Puritans settle Salem, which will later become part of Massachusetts Bay Colony.
September 7– September 8 – Eighty Years' War – Battle in the Bay of Matanzas: Dutch admiral Piet Hein captures 16 ships of the Spanish treasure fleet. The immense booty taken brings in over 11 million guilders, part of which is used to fund the entire army of the Dutch Republic for 8 months long.
October 22 – Abaza Mehmed Pasha surrenders to Ottoman forces, ending the Abaza rebellion. October 28 – The Siege of La Rochelle ends, with the surrender of the Huguenots.
February 11– June 19 – Puritan migration to New England (1620–40): Around 350 English Puritans on six ships, led by Francis Higginson in the , sail from Lyon's Whelp Yarmouth, Isle of Wight, to Salem, to settle in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in America. 
March 4 – Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal Charter, and the county is the first to be created in the United States. The area covers almost all of the present-day state.
March 6 – Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor issues the Edict of Restitution, ordering all Catholic properties lost to Protestantism since 1552 to be restored. The Edict further provides that Catholics and Lutherans (but not Calvinists, Hussites or members of other sects) are to be allowed to practice their faith.
March 10 – Charles I of England dissolves Parliament, starting the Eleven Years' Tyranny, in which there is no parliament.
April 30 – Eighty Years' War: Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange lays siege to 's-Hertogenbosch, one of Spain's most important fortresses along the Spanish–Dutch border.
May 14– May 28 – Huguenot rebellions: After a 15-day siege, Louis XIII of France captures Privas.
May 22 – Thirty Years' War: Christian IV of Denmark and Albrecht von Wallenstein sign the Treaty of Lübeck, ending Denmark's involvement in the Thirty Years' War.
May 29 – Thirty Years' War: Prince Frederick of Denmark, the Lutheran administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Verden, is expelled by the Catholic League as a result of the Edict of Restitution. He is replaced by the staunch catholic Francis of Wartenberg.
June 4 – The Dutch East India Company ship is wrecked on a reef near Batavia Beacon Island, off Western Australia, on her maiden voyage to the Indies. Following mutiny among the survivors, two exiled murderers become the first Europeans to settle in Australia. Their subsequent fate is unknown. 
June 7 – The Dutch States-General ratifies the Dutch West India Company's Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions, making it more attractive to invest in the colony of New Netherland in North America.
June 17 – Huguenot rebellions: Alès surrenders after an intense siege. As a result, the leader of the Huguenot Rebellions, the Duke of Rohan, surrenders.
June 17 – Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30): A Spanish expedition, led by Fadrique de Toledo, wipes out the English colony on Nevis. June 28 – Huguenot rebellions: Louis XIII of France signs in his camp at Lédignan the Peace of Alès, ending the Huguenot rebellions. The Huguenots are allowed religious freedom, but lose their political, territorial and military rights.
August 19 – Eighty Years' War: The Spanish garrison of Wesel is surprised by a small Dutch army, and the city is taken by the Dutch Republic. As Wesel functioned as the principal supply base of Hendrik van den Bergh's army, the loss of supply forces him to retreat to the Spanish Netherlands, leaving him unable to intervene in the ongoing siege of 's-Hertogenbosch.
August 21 – Huguenot rebellions: Montauban, one of the last Huguenot strongholds, surrenders without a fight to Richelieu's troops.
August 29 – As a result of the Cambridge Agreement, the Massachusetts Bay Colony becomes a self-governing entity.
September 7 – Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30): A Spanish expedition, led by Fadrique de Toledo, wipes out the English colony on St. Kitts.
September 14 – Eighty Years' War: After a 5 month long siege, 's-Hertogenbosch surrenders to Frederick Henry. As a result of the capture of this key fortress, Spain's situation along the Spanish–Dutch border worsens greatly.
September 25 – Polish–Swedish War (1626–29): Sweden and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth sign the Truce of Altmark, ending the war in highly favourable terms for Sweden.
October – 1629–31 Italian plague: the plague arrives in Milan. November 8 – Emperor Go-Mizunoo of Japan abdicates the throne in favour of his daughter, who becomes Empress Meishō.
Antonio Maria Abbatini of Rome (c.1595–1680), composer
George Abbot of England (1562–1633), Archbishop of Canterbury, held position 1611–1633
Diego Sarmiento de Acuña, conde de Gondomar of Spain (1567–1626), Spanish ambassador to England-Wales
Thomas Adams of England (1566–1620), publisher
Niccolò Alamanni of Rome (1583–1626), Catholic priest, antiquarian, and custodian of the Vatican Library
Albert VII (1559–1621), Archduke of Austria and governor (1596–1598) and Co-sovereign of the Spanish Netherlands (modern-day Belgium and Luxembourg) with Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain, held position (as Co-sovereign) 1598–1621
William Alexander, 1st Earl of Stirling of Scotland (1570–1640), Scottish colonial organizer of Nova Scotia and Secretary for Scotland
Alexander of Imereti (1609–1660), Imeretian Prince and future King of Imereti
Manuel de Almeida of Portugal (1580–1646), Jesuit Missionary and ambassador to the Emperor of Ethiopia
Emilio Bonaventura Altieri of Rome (1590–1676), Catholic bishop and future Pope
Giambattista Andreini of Tuscany (1576–1654), actor and playwright
Giovanni Andrea Ansaldo of Genoa (1584–1638), painter Sir
Samuel Argall (1580–1626), former deputy governor of Virginia and current naval officer in the English navy
Abdul Hasan Asaf-Khan of Persia (?-1641), Grand Vizer of the Mughal Empire (and brother of Nur Jahan), in office c.1611–1632
Sir Thomas Aylesbury, 1st Baronet of England (1576–1657), Baronet and Surveyor of the English Royal Navy
Francis Bacon of England (1561–1626), philosopher, jurist, scientist, writer, and politician; specifically Member of Parliament, Attorney General for England and Wales (1613–1617), and Lord Chancellor (1617–1621)
Nathaniel Bacon of England (1585–1627), painter (not to be confused with the leader of the same name of Bacon's Rebellion)
William Baffin of England (?–1622), navigator and explorer
Francesco Barberini, seniore of Florence (1597–1679), Cardinal and diplomat
Jakob Bartsch of Lusatia (1600–1633), astronomer
François de Bassompierre of France (1579–1646), courtier and Marshal of France
Robert Bellarmine (1542–1621), Italian Jesuit and Cardinal
Bernard of Saxe-Weimar (1604–1639), nobleman and general
Pierre de Bérulle of France (1575–1629), Cardinal and diplomat
Maximilien de Béthune, duc de Sully of France (1560–1641), Favourite and minister under Henry IV and Louis XIII
Andries Bicker of the Netherlands (1586–1652), administrator of the Dutch East India Company, Mayor of Amsterdam, and diplomat
Willem Blaeu of the Netherlands (1571–1638), cartographer and publisher
Abraham Bloemaert of the Netherlands (1566–1651), painter and printmaker
Jakob Böhme of Görlitz (1575–1624), Christian mystic
Juan Pablo Bonet of Spain (c.1573-1633), Catholic priest and inventor of the sign language alphabet
François de Bonne, duc de Lesdiguières of France (1543–1626), Constable of France
Sidonia von Borcke of Pomerania (1548–1620), noblewoman and Witch-hunt victim (as well as a figure of later legends)
Federico Borromeo of Milan (1564–1631), Cardinal and Archbishop of Milan
Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork (1566–1643), Anglo-Irish politician
William Bradford (1590–1657), Prominent Leader and Governor of the Plymouth colony, in office 1621–1633, 1635–1636, 1637–1638, 1639–1644, 1645–1657
Jean de Brébeuf of France (1593–1649), Jesuit missionary
William Brewster (c.1566-1644), Puritan preacher and Plymouth leader
Henry Briggs of England (1561–1630), mathematician
Étienne Brûlé of France (1592?–1633), explorer
John Bull of England (1562?-1628), composer and musician
Karel Bonaventura Buquoy of France (1571–1621), general in the service of the Holy Roman Empire
Robert Burton of England (1577–1640), scholar
Estêvão Cacella of Portugal (1585–1630), Jesuit missionary
Pedro Calderón de la Barca of Spain (1600–1681), playwright and poet
George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore of England (1579–1632), nobleman, Member of Parliament, Secretary of State, and English colonizer of the North America (most notably the founder of the Province of Avalon in Newfoundland and future founder of Maryland)
William Camden of England (1551–1623), historian and topographer
Tommaso Campanella (1568–1639), Italian philosopher, theologian, astrologer, and poet
John Carver (1576?-1621), Leader and First Governor of the Plymouth Colony, in office 1620–1621
Henry Cary, 1st Viscount Falkland of England (1575–1633), military officer, colonizer, and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
Ernst Casimir of the Netherlands (1573–1632), nobleman and military commander
Aodh Mac Cathmhaoil of Ireland (1571–1626), Catholic theologian and Archbishop of Armagh
Samuel de Champlain (1570?–1635), French explorer, administrator of New France, and founder of Quebec City
Charles I of Gonzaga-Nevers (1580–1637), Duke of Nevers and Mantua (claim for the later supported by France)
Charles Emmanuel I of Savoy (1562–1630), Duke of Savoy and Papal backed candidate to the throne of the Duchy of Mantua
Ivan Cherkassky of Russia (1580?-1642), boyar and head of the Treasury, Streletsky Prikaz and Aptekarsky Prikaz, in office 1621–1622 (as Treasurer), 1622–23 (as head of the Streletsky Prikaz and Aptekarsky Prikaz)
Jan Karol Chodkiewicz of Poland (1560–1621), military commander
Christian the Younger of Brunswick (1599–1626), Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Protestant Commander
Antonio Cifra of Rome (1584–1629), composer
Jan Pieterszoon Coen of the Netherlands (1587–1629), Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies Sir
Edward Coke of England (1552–1634), Jurist and Member of Parliament Sir
John Coke of England (1563–1644), Member of Parliament and Secretary of State
Nicolò Contarini of Venice (1553–1631), politician and future Doge of Venice
Diego Fernández de Córdoba, Marquis of Guadalcázar of Spain (1578–1630), nobleman and Viceroy of New Spain and Peru, in office 1612–1621 (New Spain), 1622–1629 (Peru)
Gregorio Nuñez Coronel of Portugal (1548–1620), Augustinian theologian, writer, and preacher
Adam de Coster of Flanders (1586–1643), painter
Nathaniel Courthope of England (1585–1620), merchant navy officer
Thomas Coventry, 1st Baron Coventry of England (1578–1640), Judge, Member of Parliament, and politician (specifically Soliticar General (1617–1621), Attorney General (1621–1625), and Lord Chancellor (1625–1640))
Oliver Cromwell of England (1599–1658), Member of Parliament, general, and future ruler of England-Wales, Scotland, and Ireland
Sir Sackville Crowe, 1st Baronet of England (1595–1671), baronet, Treasurer of the Navy, Member of Parliament, and future ambassador
Alfonso de la Cueva, marqués de Bedmar of Spain (1572–1655), diplomat and Catholic theologian
Robert Cushman of England (1578–1625), Plymouth colony organizer
Cyril I (1572–1638), Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, held position in 1612, 1620–1623, 1623–1633, 1633–1634, 1634–1635, 1637–1638
Daišan of Manchuria (1583–1648), Manchurian prince (brother of Huang Taiji) and military commander
Mir Damad of Persia (?–1631), philosopher
John Danvers of England (1588–1655), courtier and politician
Date Masamune of Japan (1567–1636), Daiymo of Sendai
John Davies of England (1569–1626), lawyer, poet, and politician (specifically Attorney General of Ireland, Member of Parliament, and Judge)
John Davies (AKA Mallwyd) of Wales (1567–1644), scholar, translator, and Anglican priest
Dawar of India (?–1628), Mughal Prince
Thomas Dekker of England (1572–1632), playwright and poet
Joseph Solomon Delmedigo (1591–1655), Italian rabbi, author, physician, mathematician, and music theorist
Thomas Dempster of Scotland (1579–1625), scholar and historian
Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex of England (1591–1646), nobleman and military commander
Kenelm Digby of England (1603–1665), courtier, diplomat, privateer, and philosopher
John Donne of England (1571?–1631), Anglican priest, poet, and philosopher
Michael Drayton of England (1563–1631), poet
Cornelius Drebbel of the Netherlands (1572–1633), inventor
Jeremias Drexel of Bavaria (1581–1638), Catholic theologian and Court Preacher at the court of Prince-Elector Maximilian I
Robert Dudley of England (1574–1649), explorer and geographer
Pierre Dupuy of France (1582–1651), scholar Mar Elia Shimun X,
Patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church (Patriarchate then based in Salamas, in modern-day Iran. However a later Patriarch, Mar Shimun XIII Dinkha, broke the union with the Catholic Church, thus he and other Patriarchs of the Shimun line are sometimes list as Patriarchs of the Assyrian Church of the East), held position 1600–1653  Sir
John Eliot of England (1592–1632), Vice-Admiral of Devon and Member of Parliament Mar Eliyya IX,
Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East (Patriarchate then based in Alqosh, in modern-day Iraq), held position in 1617–1660 
John Endecott (1588?–1665), founder and first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
Alonso Fajardo de Entenza of Spain (?-1624), governor-general of the Philippines, in office 1618–1624
Francesco Erizzo of Venice (1566–1646), diplomat and future Doge of Venice
Thomas van Erpe of the Netherlands (1584–1624), Orientalist Scholar
Fakhr-al-Din II (1572–1635), Lebanese prince and governor of the Ottoman province of Syria, in office (as governor) 1624–1632
Francis Fane, 1st Earl of Westmorland of England (1580–1629), nobleman and statesman
John Felton of England (1595–1628), soldier and assassin of George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham
Nicholas Felton of England (1556–1626), academic and Anglican cleric
Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria (1609–1641), nobleman, Spanish Prince (Infante), and Cardinal
Ferdinand IV, Archduke of Austria (1608–1657), Habsburg Prince and future Holy Roman Emperor
Domenico Fetti of Rome (1589–1623), painter
Fidelis of Sigmaringen (1578–1622), Capuchin friar and Martyr
William Fiennes, 1st Viscount Saye and Sele of England (1582–1662), nobleman and statesman
Filaret (AKA Feodor Romanov) of Russia (1553–1633), Patriarch of Moscow and statesman, held position (as Patriarch) 1612–1629
John Fletcher of England (1579–1625), playwright
John Ford of England (1586-1640?), playwright and poet
Frederick of Denmark (1609–1670), Danish Prince and future King of Denmark and Norway
Frederick V of the Palatinate/I of Bohemia (1596–1632), Prince-Elector of the Palatinate and King of Bohemia (a sub-state of the Holy Roman Empire), r. 1610–1623 (as Prince-Elector of the Palatinate) and r. 1619–1620 (as King of Bohemia)
Frederick Ulrich (1591–1634), Duke of Brunswick-Calenberg, held position 1613–1634
Galileo Galilei of Tuscany (1564–1642), astronomer and physicist
Gang Hong-rip of Korea, treasonous general who aided the Manchus
Gaston, Duke of Orléans of France (1608–1660), French Prince (brother of Louis XIII) and commander of the aristocratic revolt at Les Ponts-de-Cé
Artemisia Gentileschi of Rome (1593–1656), painter
George William (1595–1640), Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia
Johann Gerhard (1582–1637), German Lutheran theologian
Hessel Gerritsz of the Netherlands (1581–1632), cartographer
Orlando Gibbons of England (1583–1625), composer and organist
Thomas Goffe of England (1591–1629), playwright
Luis de Góngora of Spain (1561–1627), poet, playwright, and writer
Roque González (1576–1628), Spanish- American Jesuit missionary and martyr Sir
Ferdinando Gorges of England (1565–1647), colonial entrepreneur in North America and founder of Maine
Ivan Tarasievich Gramotin of Russia (?–1638), diplomat and head of the , held position 1619–1626 Posolsky Prikaz
Orazio Grassi (1583–1654), Italian mathematician, astronomer, and architect
Richard Grenville of England (1600–1658), Anglo-Cornish soldier, Member of Parliament, and future Baronet and Royalist Commander
Fulke Greville, 1st Baron Brooke of England (1554–1628), nobleman, statesman, and writer
Hugo Grotius of the Netherlands (1583–1645), philosopher and writer
Jan Gruter of the Netherlands (1560–1627), scholar
Mario Guiducci of Tuscany (1585–1646), lawyer and associate of Galileo Galilei during the dispute with Orazio Grassi
Jean Guiton of France (1585–1654), Huguenot rebel and Admiral
Edmund Gunter of England (1581–1626), mathematician
John Guy (?-1629), former governor of Newfoundland and current Member of the Parliament of England
Gaspar de Guzmán, Count-Duke of Olivares of Spain (1587–1645), nobleman and Chief Minister under Philip III and Philip IV, held position 1618–1643
John Hampden of England (1595–1643), Member of Parliament and future Parliamentarian commander during the English Civil War
Kryštof Harant of Bohemia (1564–1621), nobleman, traveller, humanist, soldier, writer and composer
William Harvey of England (1578–1657), physician who discovered the systematic circulation of blood
Hasekura Tsunenaga of Japan (1571–1622), diplomat
Richard Hawkins of England (1562–1622), explorer and privateer
George Hay, 1st Earl of Kinnoull of Scotland (1572–1634), nobleman, judge and Lord Chancellor of Scotland, held position (as chancellor) 1622–1634
James Hay, 1st Earl of Carlisle of Scotland (c.1590–1636), nobleman and diplomat
Piet Pieterszoon Hein of the Netherlands (1577–1629), Vice-Admiral of the Dutch West India Company
Henrietta Maria of France (1609–1669), French princess and Queen Consort of England-Wales and Scotland
Edward Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Cherbury of Wales (1583–1648), diplomat, poet, and philosopher
George Herbert of Wales (1593–1633), poet, orator and Anglican priest
Philip Herbert of England (1584–1649), nobleman (future Earl of Pembroke) and politician
William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke of England (1580–1630), nobleman, Lord Lieutenant of Cornwall County and Chancellor of the University of Oxford, held position 1601-1630 (as Earl), 1604-1630 (as Lord Lietuent) and 1616-1630 (as Chancellor)
Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas of Spain (1559–1625), historian
Thomas Heywood of England (1570?-1641), playwright, actor, and author
Thomas Hobbes of England (1588–1679), philosopher
Heinrich Holk (1599–1633) Danish-German mercenary and commander
Henricus Hondius II of the Netherlands (1597–1651), cartographer and publisher
Isaiah Horowitz (1565–1630), Rabbi and Jewish mystic
Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Berkshire of England (1587–1669), nobleman
Constantijn Huygens of the Netherlands (1596–1687), poet, composer, and secretary under Stadtholders Frederick Henry and William II
Im Gyeong Eop of Korea (1594–1646), general
Sigismondo d'India (1582–1629), Italian composer
Nicholas Iquan (AKA Zheng Zhilong) of China (1604–1661), pirate and Ming Dynasty admiral
Menasseh Ben Israel of Portugal (1604–1657), rabbi, kabbalist, scholar, writer, diplomat, printer, and publisher
William Jaggard of England (1568–1623), printer and publisher
Jan Janszoon of the Netherlands (1570? – c.1641), Barbary Pirate
Willem Janszoon of the Netherlands (1570–1630), explorer and colonial governor
Juan Martínez de Jáuregui y Aguilar of Spain (1583–1641), poet, scholar, and painter
Jörg Jenatsch of Switzerland (1596–1639), politician and military commander
Jirgalang of Manchuria (1599–1655), nobleman, general, and statesman
Johann Ernst I (1594–1626), Duke of Saxe-Weimar, r. 1605–1620
Inigo Jones of England (1573–1652), architect
Ben Jonson of England (1572–1637), playwright, poet, and Poet Laureate, held post in 1619–1637
Johannes Junius of Bamberg (1573–1628), Mayor of Bamberg and Bamberg witch trial suspect and victim
Madam Ke of China (?–1627), adviser to the Tianqi Emperor
Johannes Kepler (1571–1630), German mathematician and astronomer
Hendrick de Keyser of the Netherlands (1565–1621), sculptor and architect
Thomas de Keyser of the Netherlands (1596–1667), painter and architect
Khosro Mirza of Kartli (1565–1658), Georgian Prince, general in the Persian army, and future King of Kartli
Robert Killigrew of England (1580–1633), Member of Parliament and English Ambassador to the Netherlands
Athanasius Kircher (1601?–1680), German Catholic theologian and scholar
David Kirke of England (1597–1654), adventurer and English colonizer of Canada
Stanisław Koniecpolski of Poland (1594?-1646), nobleman and military commander
Thomas Lake of England (1567–1630), Member of Parliament and former Secretary of State
Giovanni Lanfranco of Parma (1582–1647), painter
William Laud of England (1573–1645), Anglican theologian and future Archbishop of Canterbury
François Leclerc du Tremblay of France (1577–1638), friar and agent and adviser of Cardinal Richelieu.
Marc Lescarbot of France (1570–1641), author and lawyer
Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven of Scotland (1582–1661), nobleman and general in the service of Sweden
Christopher Levett of England (1586–1630), explorer and naval captain
Johann Liss (1590?-1629), German painter
Jerónimo Lobo of Portugal (1593–1678), Jesuit missionary
Lobsang Gyatso of Tibet (1617–1682), Dalai Lama and future ruler of Tibet, r. 1618–1682 (as Dalai Lama), 1642–1682 (as ruler of Tibet)
Adam Loftus, 1st Viscount Loftus of Ireland (1568–1643), Lord Chancellor of Ireland, in office 1619-1639
Christen Sørensen Longomontanus of Denmark (1562–1647), astronomer
Hendrick Lucifer (1583–1627), Dutch Buccaneer
Charles de Luynes of France (1578–1621), Constable of France and first Duke of Luynes
Randal MacDonnell, 1st Earl of Antrim of Ireland (?-1636), nobleman and Scots-Irish politician Sir
Henry Mainwaring of England (1587?–1653), pirate and English naval officer
François de Malherbe of France (1555–1628), poet and literary critic
Man Gui of China (?–1629), general and main commander of the Chinese army following the death of Yuan Chonghuan
George Manners, 7th Earl of Rutland of England (1580–1641), Member of Parliament and nobleman
Ernst von Mansfeld (1580–1626), German soldier
Mao Wenlong of China (1579–1629), military commander
Juan de Mariana of Spain (1536–1624), Catholic priest, historian, and Monarchomach political theorist
Maria Anna of Spain (1606–1646), Infanta and future Empress consort of the Holy Roman Empire
Marie de' Medici (1575–1642), Queen dowager of France and former regent with her son Louis XIII
Michel de Marillac of France (1563–1632), Minister of Justice under Louis XIII
Giambattista Marino of Naples (1569–1625), poet
Gervase Markham of England (1568–1637), poet and writer
Tristano Martinelli of Mantua (1555–1630), actor
Enrico Martínez of Spain (?–1632), hydraulic engineer
John Mason of England (1586–1635), sailor, explorer, cartographer, colonizer, and founder of New Hampshire
Isaac Massa of the Netherlands (1586–1643), merchant, traveller, and diplomat
Massasoit (1580?–1661), Chief of the Wampanoag
Philip Massinger of England (1583–1640), playwright
Tobie Matthew of England (1577–1655), Member of Parliament
Maximilian I of Bavaria (1573–1651), Prince-Elector of Bavaria
Cornelis Jacobszoon May of the Netherlands, explorer and first Director-general of New Netherland
Cardinal Mazarin of Sicily (1602–1661), Cardinal, diplomat, and future Prime Minister of France
Domenico Mazzocchi (1592–1665), Italian composer
Afonso Mendes, Prelate of Ethiopia and Catholic Patriarch of Ethiopia, held position (as Catholic Patriarch) 1622–1632
Diego Carrillo de Mendoza, 1st Marquis of Gelves of Spain (1570?-1631), nobleman and Viceroy of New Spain, in office 1621–1624
Adriaan Metius of the Netherlands (1571–1635), mathematician and astronomer
Thomas Middleton of England (1580–1627), playwright and poet
Daniël Mijtens of the Netherlands (1590–1648), painter
Peter Minuit of the Netherlands (1589–1638), Director-General of New Netherland, in office 1626–1632
Francis Mitchell of England, Knight and Extortionist
Miyamoto Musashi of Japan (1584?–1645), prominent samurai
Francesco Molin of Venice (1575–1655), Naval commander and future Doge of Venice
Giles Mompesson of England (1584–1663), corrupt politician
Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester of England (1602–1671), Royalist Member of parliament and future Royalist commander during the English Civil War
Richard Montagu of England (1577–1641), controversial Cleric and prelate
Antoine de Montchrestien of France (1575–1621), soldier, dramatist, poet, and economist
Claudio Monteverdi (1567–1643), Italian composer
Mumtaz Mahal of India (1593–1631), Empress Consort of India (Wife of Shah Jahan)
Jens Munk of Norway (1579–1628), navigator, explorer, and naval captain
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo of Spain (1617–1682), painter
Hugh Myddelton of Wales (1560–1631), entrepreneur, engineer, Baronet, and Member of Parliament
Thomas Myddelton the Younger of Wales (1586–1666), Member of Parliament and future Parliamentary officer during the English Civil War
Nemattanew (?–1622), Powhatan military commander and architect of the Jamestown Massacre
Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên of Vietnam (1563–1635), Nguyễn Lord (subnational ruler of southern Vietnam), held position 1613–1635
Nheçu, Chief of the Guaraní
Nur Jahan of Persia (1577–1645), Empress Consort of India (Wife of Jahangir and Stepmother of Shah Jahan)
John Nutt of England, pirate
Pieter Nuyts of the Netherlands (1598–1655), Governor of the Dutch colony on Formosa (modern-day Taiwan) and ambassador to Japan, held position (as governor) 1627–1629
Oldman of the Misquito Coast (?-1687), first King of the Miskito Kingdom (a British Protectorate on the eastern coasts of modern-day Nicaragua and Honduras), r. 1625–1687
Opchanacanough (1554?-1644), Chief of the Powhatan Confederacy, held position 1618–1644
Martin Opitz of Silesia (1597–1639), poet
William Oughtred of England (1575–1660), mathematician
Owaneco (?–1626), Chief of the Mohegans
John Owen of Wales (1564–1622), Epigrammatist
Axel Oxenstierna of Sweden (1583–1654), Lord High Chancellor of Sweden
Rodrigo Pacheco, 3rd Marquis of Cerralvo of Spain (1565?-1652), nobleman, Inquisitor, and Viceroy of New Spain, in office 1624–1635 (as Viceroy)
Pedro Páez of Portugal (1564–1622), Jesuit missionary who converted Malak Sagad III
Cardinal Pamphili of Rome (1574–1655), Cardinal, Nuncio, and future Pope
Gottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheim (1594–1632), German field marshal
Hortensio Félix Paravicino of Spain (1580–1633), Court Preacher and poet
Richard Parry of Wales (1560–1623), Bishop of St Asaph and translator of the Bible into Welsh Language
Vincent de Paul of France (1581–1660), Catholic Priest
Pecksuot (?–1624), Massachusett Chief
Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc of France (1580–1637), astronomer and antiquarian
Algernon Percy, 10th Earl of Northumberland of England (1602–1668), Member of Parliament and future soldier during the English Civil War
George Percy of England (1580–1632?), explorer, author, soldier, and former governor of Virginia
Richard Perkins of England (1585?-1650), actor
Peter Philips of England (1560–1628), composer
Michael Praetorius (1571–1621), German composer and organist
Samuel Purchas of England (1575?–1626), travel writer
John Pym of England (1584–1643), Member of Parliament and future Roundhead supporter during the English Civil War
Francisco de Quevedo of Spain (1580–1645), nobleman, politician, and writer
Albrycht Stanisław Radziwiłł of Lithuania (1595–1656), Grand Chancellor of Lithuania (part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), in office 1623–1656
Rembrandt of the Netherlands (1606–1669), painter and etcher
Kiliaen van Rensselaer of the Netherlands (1596?–1642), merchant, member of the Dutch West India Company, and Patroon of the Manor of Rensselaerswyck  Sir
Thomas Roe of England (c.1581–1644), diplomat
Henri de Rohan of France (1579–1638), nobleman, soldier, writer, and leader of the Huguenots.
William Rowley of England (1585?-1626), playwright
Peter Paul Rubens of Flanders (1577–1640), painter
Johannes Rudbeckius of Sweden (1581–1646), Lutheran bishop
Mulla Sadra of Persia (1571–1636), philosopher and Shiite Islamic theologian
Samoset (1590?–1655), Mohegan Sagamore and first Native American to encounter with the Settlers of the Plymouth Colony. Sir
Edwin Sandys (1561–1629), Colonial organizer of Virginia
George Sandys (1577–1644), English traveller, colonist, and poet
Lew Sapieha of Lithuania (1557–1633), Grand Chancellor of Lithuania (part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), in office 1589–1623
Johann Schein (1586–1630), German composer
Christoph Scheiner (1573?-1650), German Jesuit priest, physicist and astronomer
Wilhelm Schickard (1592–1635), German inventor and mathematician
Julius Schiller of Bavaria (1580–1627), astronomer
Heinrich Schütz of Köstritz (1585–1672), composer and organist
Adam von Schwarzenberg (1583–1641), nobleman and Chancellor of Brandenburg-Prussia
Alexander Seaton of Scotland (?–1649?), Mercenary in the Service of Denmark
Pierre Séguier of France (1588–1672), president and mortier in the parlement of Paris and future chancellor of France
Alvaro Semedo of Portugal (1585?-1658), Jesuit missionary in China
Juan Pérez de la Serna (1573–1631), Archbishop of Mexico, held position 1613–1627
Alexander Seton, 1st Earl of Dunfermline of Scotland (1555–1622), lawyer, judge, and Lord Chancellor of Scotland
Shahaji of Bijapur (1594–1664), Bijapurtan army chieftain
Shahryar of India (1605–1638), Mughal Prince and Nur Jahan's (his stepmother) candidate to the throne of India
Shimazu Tadatsune (1576–1638), Daimyo of Satsuma
Robert Shirley of England (1581–1628), traveller, adventurer, and diplomat
García de Silva Figueroa of Spain (1550–1624), Spanish ambassador to Persia
John Smith (1580?–1631), English soldier, adventurer, and leader of the colonists of Jamestown in the Virginia Colony.
Willebrord Snellius of the Netherlands (1580–1626), astronomer and mathematician
Jakub Sobieski of Poland (1590–1646), nobleman, parliamentarian, and military leader
Luis Sotelo of Spain (1574–1624), Franciscan friar and martyr
Henri de Sourdis of France (1593–1645), Archbishop of Bordeaux and military commander
John Speed of England (1552–1627), historian and cartographer
Ambrogio Spinola of Genoa (1569–1630), general in the service of Spain
John Spottiswoode of Scotland (1565–1639), Archbishop of St. Andrews, historian, and future Lord Chancellor of Scotland
Squanto (1585?–1622), assist to and interpreter for the Pilgrims of the Plymouth colony who helped them stamp out the treaty between them and the Wampanoag.
Myles Standish (1584–1656), English military advisor at the Plymouth Colony
James Stanley, 7th Earl of Derby of England (1607–1651), nobleman and future Royalist commander during the English Civil War
Oliver St John, 5th Baron St John of Bletso (1603–1642), English politician and future Parliamentarian Army officer
Nicholas Stone of England (1587–1647), sculptor and architect Sir
John Suckling of England (1569–1627), Member of Parliament
Sun Chengzong of China, Grand Secretary and Commander-in-chief of Chinese Forces
Joachim Swartenhondt of the Netherlands (c.1566–1627), admiral
Tamblot of the Philippines (?–1622), Pagan priest and leader of the Tamblot Uprising
Alessandro Tassoni of Modena (1565–1635), poet and writer
Hendrick ter Brugghen of the Netherlands (1588–1629), painter
François Thijssen of the Netherlands (?–1638), explorer
Thomas Tomkins of Wales (1572–1656), Cornish-Welsh composer
Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne of France (1611–1675), soldier and future Marshal of France
Sir John Trevor Jr. of Wales (1596–1673), Puritan Member of Parliament and future member of the Council of State during the Commonwealth of England
Sir Richard Trevor of Wales (1558–1638), landowner, soldier and politician.
Sir Sackville Trevor of Wales (1565–1633), Sea Captain and Member of Parliament
Thomas Trevor of England (1586–1656), Anglo-Welsh lawyer, Member of Parliament, and judge
Nicolas Trigault of France (1577–1628), Jesuit missionary in China
Trịnh Tùng of Vietnam (1549–1623), Trinh Lord (subnational ruler of Northern Vietnam), held position 1570–1623
Trịnh Tráng of Vietnam (1571–1654), Trinh Lord (subnational ruler of Northern Vietnam), held position 1623–1654
Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly (1559–1632), German nobleman and co-Supreme commander of the forces of the Holy Roman Empire
Uncas (c.1588–1683), Chief of the Mohegans, held position 1626–1683
Honoré d'Urfé of France (1568–1625), writer
James Ussher of Ireland (1581–1656), Anglican theologian, Archbishop of Armagh, and Primate of All Ireland
Bernard de Nogaret de La Valette d'Épernon of France (1592–1661), nobleman and military commander
Jean Louis de Nogaret de La Valette of France (1554–1642), nobleman
Pietro Della Valle of Rome (1586–1652), traveller
Anthony van Dyck of Flanders (1599–1641), painter
Władysław Vasa of Poland (1595–1648), Polish Prince, self-proclaimed Grand Duke of Moscow, and future King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Sir Henry Vaughan the Elder of Derwydd, Wales (1587?–1659?), Royalist Member of Parliament
William Vaughan of Wales (1575–1641), colonial investor and writer
Salomo de Veenboer of the Netherlands (?–1620), Barbary pirate
Lope de Vega of Spain (1562–1635), playwright and poet
Diego Velázquez of Spain (1599–1660), painter
Horace Vere, 1st Baron Vere of Tilbury of England (1565–1635), military leader
Cornelius Vermuyden of the Netherlands (1590–1677), engineer
George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham of England (1592–1628), nobleman, statesman, and military commander
Mutio Vitelleschi of Rome (1563–1645), Superior General of the Society of Jesus, held post 1615-1645
Joost van den Vondel of the Netherlands (1587–1679), writer and playwright
Luke Wadding of Ireland (1588–1657), Franciscan friar, historian, and founder of the Pontifical Irish College
Albrecht von Wallenstein of Bohemia (1583–1634), co-Supreme commander of the forces of the Holy Roman Empire
Edmund Waller of England (1606–1687), Member of Parliament and poet Sir
James Ware of Ireland (1594–1666), historian and politician
John Webster of England (1580–1634), playwright
Wei Zhongxian of China (1568–1627), Eunuch
Thomas Wentworth Sr., 1st Earl of Strafford of England (1593–1641), statesman (specifically Member of Parliament and future Lord deputy and lieutenant of Ireland)
John White of England (1575–1648), Anglican priest and colonial organizer of the Massachusetts Bay Colony (not to be confused with John White the governor of the Roanoke Colony)
Wilhelm (1598–1662), Duke of Saxe-Weimar, r. 1620–1662
John Williams of England (1582–1650), Lord Chancellor and future Archbishop of York
John Winthrop (1588–1649), Founder and future Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony (governor-elect in 1629) Sir
Henry Wotton of England (1568–1639), author and diplomat
Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton of England (1573–1624), nobleman, patron of the theater, and colonial investor
Sir Richard Wynn of Wales (1588–1649), Baronet, courtier, and Member of Parliament
Xu Guangqi of China (1562–1633), Ming Dynasty bureaucrat, agricultural scientist, astronomer, and mathematician
Yamada Nagamasa of Japan (1590–1630), adventurer, pirate, and military commander
George Yeardley (1587–1627), Plantation owner and Governor of the Virginia Colony, held office in 1616–1617, 1619–1621, 1626–1627
Sir Henry Yelverton of England (1566–1629), Attorney General for England and Wales, in office 1617-1621
Yi Gwal of Korea (1587–1624), general
Yuan Chonghuan of China (1584–1630), military commander
Jakub Zadzik of Poland (1582–1642), Grand Chancellor of Poland
Krzysztof Zbaraski of Poland (1580–1627), nobleman and Polish-Lithuanian ambassador to the Ottoman Empire
Stanisław Żółkiewski of Poland (1547–1620), nobleman, military commander, and Grand Chancellor of Poland Zu Dashou of China (?–1656), general
The voyage of the
Pilgrims, their first years of inhabitance in the New World, and the first Thanksgiving are often the subject of Thanksgiving themed specials and short films. One of the most notable examples is the episode "The Mayflower voyagers" of the 1988 mini-series , which This is America, Charlie Brown ABC has often aired on Thanksgiving Day (except in 2006 and 2007) along with . However, Thanksgiving would not become established as a national holiday until 1863 when President A Charlie Brown Thanksgiving Abraham Lincoln proclaimed that it would be celebrated on the final Thursday in November. However, it did not become a federal holiday until 1941 by an act of legislation by the U.S. Congress. The voyage and struggles of the Pilgrims have also been the subject of some pieces of literature including
by Of Plymouth Plantation William Bradford, who himself was an important figure of the 1620s, and Felicia Hemans' classic poem, "The Landing of the Pilgrim Fathers."  The classic novel
by The Three Musketeers Alexandre Dumas, père takes place in 1628. The story includes fictionalized versions of actual historical events of this year, such as the siege of La Rochelle and the assassination of the Duke of Buckingham.
, a children's adventure novel by British writer The Angel's Command Brian Jacques, is set in the year 1628. The
, though set during the 1632 series succeeding decade, features many characters, such as Louis XIII and Prime Minister Cardinal Richelieu of France, Gustavus II of Sweden, and Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II, who were active during the 1620s and uses events from the 1620s and early 1630s as a backdrop, most notably the Thirty Years' War. The Doctor Who audio drama takes place during the year 1626. The Church and the Crown
Stratton, J.M. (1969). Agricultural Records. John Baker. ISBN 0-212-97022-4.
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