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was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1609th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 609th year of the 2nd millennium, the 9th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1600s decade. As of the start of 1609, the Gregorian calendar was
10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- July – Samuel de Champlain claims the Lake Champlain area of Vermont, for the Kingdom of France.
- July 6 – Bohemia is granted freedom of religion (Letter of Majesty).
- July 10 – The German Catholic League is formed to counteract the Protestant Union.
- July 23 – A hurricane at sea separates the nine London Company's ships (600 more settlers) en route to relieve the Jamestown settlement; one ship sinks, and the Sea Venture is driven ashore at Bermuda on July 25, thus effectively first settling the colony.
- July 30 – At what is now Crown Point, New York, Samuel de Champlain participates in a battle between the Huron and Iroquois, shooting and killing two Iroquois chiefs; this helps set the tone for French–Iroquois relations for the next 100 years.
- August 25 – Galileo Galilei demonstrates his first telescope to Venetian officials.
- August 28 – Henry Hudson is the first European to see Delaware Bay.
- August – Seven ships arrive at the colony of Jamestown, Virginia, with 200–300 men, women, and children, reporting the Sea Venture wrecked near Bermuda.
- September 2 – Henry Hudson enters New York Bay, aboard the Halve Maen.
- September 10 – Jamestown: Capt. George Percy replaces Captain John Smith as president of the Council, and Smith returns to England.
- September 11 – Valencia expels all the Moriscos (see April 4).
- September 11–12 – Henry Hudson in the Halve Maen sails into Upper New York Bay, and begins a journey up the Hudson River.
- October 12 – A version of the rhyme Three Blind Mice is published in London. The editor, and possible author of the verse, is the teenage Thomas Ravenscroft.
- October 5 – Paul Fleming, German physician and poet (d. 1640)
- October 8 – John Clarke, English physician (d. 1676)
- October 9 – Thomas Weston, 4th Earl of Portland, younger son of the Richard Weston (d. 1688)
- October 14 – Ernest Günther, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein of its Sonderborg line (d. 1689)
- October 16 – Thomas Minors, English politician and merchant (d. 1677)
- October 18 – Josias von Rantzau, Marshal of France (d. 1650)
- October 19 – Gerrard Winstanley, English Protestant religious reformer (d. 1676)
- October 26 – William Sprague, English co-founder of Charlestown, Massachusetts (d. 1675)
- October 29 – Wadham Wyndham, English judge (d. 1668)
- November 1 – Matthew Hale, Lord Chief Justice of England (d. 1676)
- November 23 – Sophia Eleonore of Saxony, German duchess (d. 1671)
- November 25 – Henrietta Maria of France, queen of Charles I of England (d. 1669)
- November 26 – Henry Dunster, first President of Harvard College (d. 1659)
- December 6 – Nicholas Francis, Duke of Lorraine (d. 1670)
- December 11 – Alexander Cooper, English Baroque miniature painter (d. 1660)
- December 13 – Isbrand van Diemerbroeck, Dutch physician (d. 1674)
- December 24 – Philip Warwick, English writer and politician (d. 1683)
- December 30 – Anna Maria von Eggenberg, née Brandenburg-Bayreuth, Austrian noble (d. 1680)
Gauthier de Costes, seigneur de la Calprenède, French novelist and dramatist (d. 1663)
- April 4 – Charles de L'Ecluse, Flemish botanist (b. 1526)
- April 6 – Merkelis Giedraitis, Lithuanian bishop (b. 1536)
- April 8 – Mark Kerr, 1st Earl of Lothian, Scottish statesman (b. 1553)
- April 9 – William Overton, English bishop (b. 1525)
- April 11 – John Lumley, 1st Baron Lumley, English Baron (b. 1533)
- April 14 – Gasparo da Salò (Gasparo Bertolotti), Italian violin maker(b. 1540)
- May 15 – Giovanni Croce, Italian composer (b. 1557)
- May 19
- June 15 – Yamada Arinobu, Japanese nobleman (b. 1544)
- July 15 – Annibale Carracci, Italian Baroque painter (b. 1560)
- July 20 – Federico Zuccari, Italian painter (b. 1543)
- August 4 – Cecily Bulstrode, English courtier (b. 1584)
- August 7 – Eustache Du Caurroy, French composer (b. 1549)
- August 6 – André du Laurens, French physician (b. 1558)
- August 28 – Francis Vere, English soldier (b. c. 1560)
- September 2 – Thomas Scrope, 10th Baron Scrope of Bolton, English general (b. 1567)
- September 3 – Jean Richardot, Belgian diplomat (b. 1540)
- September 17 – Maharal of Prague, Jewish mystic and philosopher (b. 1525)
- September 29 – Ebba Lilliehöök, Swedish countess (b. 1529)
- ^ a b Hunter, Douglas (2009). Half Moon: Henry Hudson and the voyage that redrew the map of the New World. London: Bloomsbury Press. ISBN 1-59691-680-X.
- ^ Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 238–243. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- ^ Nevius, Michelle; James (September 8, 2008). "New York's many 9/11 anniversaries: the Staten Island Peace Conference". Inside the Apple: A Streetwise History of New York City. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
- ^ Juet, Robert (1625). "Juet's Journal of Hudson's 1609 Voyage". In Purchas, Samuel (ed.). Hakluytus Posthumus, or Purchas his Pilgrimes. 4.
- ^ In Deuteromelia or The Seconde part of Musicks melodie.
- ^ Opie, Iona; Peter (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 306. ISBN 0-19-860088-7.