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1525 ( ) was a MDXXV common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
January 21 – The Swiss Anabaptist Movement is born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptize each other in the home of Manz's mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union.
February 24 – Battle of Pavia: Spanish forces under Charles de Lannoy and the Marquis of Pescara defeat the French army, and capture Francis I of France, after his horse is wounded by Cesare Hercolani. While Francis is imprisoned in Madrid, the first attempts to form a Franco-Ottoman alliance with Suleiman the Magnificent against the Habsburg Empire are made.
February 28 – The last Aztec Emperor, Cuauhtémoc, is killed by Hernán Cortés.
March 20 – In the German town of Memmingen, the pamphlet The is published, the first human rights related document written in Europe. Twelve Articles: The Just and Fundamental Articles of All the Peasantry and Tenants of Spiritual and Temporal Powers by Whom They Think Themselves Oppressed
April 4 – German Peasants' War in the Holy Roman Empire: Battle of Leipheim – Peasants retreat.
April 10 – Albert, Duke of Prussia commits Prussian Homage.
May 14– 15 – German Peasants' War: Battle of Frankenhausen – Insurgent peasants led by radical pastor Thomas Müntzer are defeated.
June 13 – Martin Luther marries ex-nun Katharina von Bora. The painter Lucas Cranach the Elder is one of the witnesses.
June 16 – Henry VIII of England appoints his six-year old illegitimate son Henry FitzRoy Duke of Richmond and Somerset. June 23– 24 – German Peasants' War: Battle of Pfeddersheim – Peasants defeated in the last significant action of the war, in which over 75,000 peasants have been killed.
January 6 – Caspar Peucer, German reformer (d. 1602)
January 29 – Lelio Sozzini, Italian Renaissance humanist and anti-Trinitarian reformer (d. 1562)
February 5 – Juraj Drašković, Croatian Catholic cardinal (d. 1587)
March 19 – Caspar Cruciger the Younger, German theologian (d. 1597)
March 25 – Richard Edwardes, English choral musician, playwright and poet (d. 1566)
March 26 – Katharina of Hanau, Countess of Wied, German noblewoman (d. 1581)
June 29 – Peter Agricola, German Renaissance humanist, educator, classical scholar, theologian, diplomat and statesman (d. 1585)
September 1 – Christoffer Valkendorff, Danish politician (d. 1601)
September 11 – John George, Elector of Brandenburg (d. 1598)
September 25 – Steven Borough, English explorer (d. 1584)
November 7 – Georg Cracow, German lawyer and politician (d. 1575)
December 1 – Tadeáš Hájek, Czech astronomer (d. 1600)
December 23 – John Albert I, Duke of Mecklenburg (d. 1576)
January 24 – Franciabigio, Florentine painter (b. 1482)
February 24 (in action at the Battle of Pavia)
April 3 – Giovanni di Bernardo Rucellai, Italian Renaissance man of letters (b. 1475)
May 5 – Frederick III, Elector of Saxony (b. 1463)
May 12 – Anna of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Mecklenburgian royal (b. 1485)
May 18 – Pietro Pomponazzi, Italian philosopher (b. 1462)
May 27 – Thomas Müntzer, German pastor and rebel leader (b. 1489) (executed)
July 5 – Johann of Brandenburg-Ansbach, Viceroy of Valencia, German noble (b. 1493)
July 22 – Richard Wingfield, English diplomat (b. c. 1456)
August 4 – Andrea della Robbia, Italian artist (b. 1435)
October 24 – Thomas Dacre, 2nd Baron Dacre, Knight of Henry VIII of England (b. 1467)
November 17 – Eleanor of Viseu, queen of João II of Portugal (b. 1458)
December 30 – Jakob Fugger, German banker (b. 1459)