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As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 through December 31, 1300 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages, and after its conquests in Asia the Mongol Empire stretched from Eastern Asia to Eastern Europe.
, recognized as the most influential Western medieval legal scholar and theologist.
- 1291 – The Swiss Confederation of Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden forms.
- 1291 – Mamluk Sultan of Egypt al-Ashraf Khalil captures Acre, thus ending the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem (the final Christian state remaining from the Crusades).
- 1292 – Jayakatwang, duke of Kediri, rebelled and killed Kertanegara, ended the Singhasari kingdom.
- 1292 – Marco Polo, on his voyage from China to Persia, visited Sumatra and reported that, on the northern part of Sumatra, there were six trading ports, including Ferlec, Samudera and Lambri.
- 1293 – Mongol invasion of Java, Kublai Khan of Yuan dynasty China, sent punitive attack against Kertanegara of Singhasari. The Mongol forces were repelled.
- 1293 – In 10 November the coronation of Nararya Sangramawijaya as the monarch of Majapahit kingdom, marked the foundation of Hindu Majapahit kingdom in eastern Java.
- 1297 – Membership in the Mazor Consegio or the Great Council of Venice of the Venetian Republic is sealed and limited in the future to only those families whose names have been inscribed therein.
- 1299 – Ottoman Empire is established under Osman I.
- 1300 – Islam is thought to have become established in the Aceh region.
- 1300 – Aji Batara Agung Dewa Sakti founded Kingdom of Kutai Kartanegara|Sultanate of Kutai in the Tepian Batu or Kutai Lama.
- Abu Bakr, relative of Sundiata Keita who reclaimed the throne from his nephew and restored order to Mali
- Albertus Magnus, German philosopher and theologian
- Alexander of Hales, Franciscan friar and theologian
- Alexander Nevsky, grand prince of Novgorod and Vladimir
- Alexios III Angelos, Byzantine emperor
- Andrea of Grosseto, Italian writer
- Anthony of Padua, Portuguese Franciscan friar, bishop
- Baibars, Mameluk sultan of Egypt
- Batu Khan, Mongol ruler and the founder of the Golden Horde
- Béla IV of Hungary rebuilder of Hungary after the devastating Mongol invasion
- Birger Jarl, Swedish statesman, earl, and founder of Stockholm
- Bonaventure, Franciscan theologian, bishop, and cardinal
- Kwaja Moinuddin Chishti, scholar, poet and descendant of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
- Cimabue, Florentine painter
- Dante Alighieri, Florentine writer and poet
- Dōgen, priest, writer, poet, philosopher, and founder of the Sōtō school of Zen
- Dominic Guzman, Spanish Catholic friar and founder of the Order of Preachers
- Edward I of England, English king
- Elisabeth of Hungary, Hungarian princess of the Kingdom of Hungary
- Enrico Dandolo, doge of the Republic of Venice
- Fibonacci, the most talented Western mathematician of the Middle Ages
- Francis of Assisi, Umbrian founder of the Franciscan order
- Frederick II, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
- Genghis Khan, founder of Mongol Empire
- Gertrude the Great, German Catholic nun and spiritual writer
- Giotto di Bondone, Italian painter
- Gregory X, pope
- Haakon Haakonsson, king of Norway from 1217 to 1263
- Henry III of England, king
- Ibn Taymiyyah, famous Hanbali, Salafi scholar of Islam
- Innocent III, pope
- Ivan Asen II, emperor of Bulgaria
- Kaloyan, emperor of Bulgaria
- Ken Arok (or Ken Angrok), Rajasa (died c. 1227), founder and first ruler of the Singhasari (also Singasari) Kingdom.
- Kublai Khan, Khan ruler, founder of Yuan Dynasty in China
- Jalal Uddin Muhammad Rumi, scholar and famous poet
- Lasha Giorgi, King Giorgi IV of Georgia
- Lembitu, Estonian ruler
- Louis IX of France, St. Louis, French king and crusader
- Nachmanides, leading medieval Jewish scholar, Sephardic rabbi, philosopher, physician, kabbalist, and biblical commentator
- Madhvacharya, Indian philosopher and chief proponent of the Dvaita school of Vaishnavism and Tattvavada, "the philosophy of reality"
- Manco Cápac, first governor and founder of the Inca civilization in Cusco
- Marco Polo, Venetian trader and explorer
- Mevlana, philosopher and poet
- Petrus Peregrinus, scientist
- Oduduwa, first king of the Yorubaland
- Osman I, Sultan, founder of Ottoman Empire
- Ottokar II of Bohemia, king of Bohemia
- Ramon Llull, Majorcan philosopher
- Robert Grosseteste, English statesman, theologian, and scientist
- Roger Bacon, Franciscan friar, philosopher, and scientist
- Rusudan, queen regnant of Georgia
- Sundiata Keita founder of the Manden Kurufaba (Mali Empire)
- Mansa Sakura, deposed Abubakari I of the Malian throne who then led an expansionist campaign
- Saadi Persian poet
- Sinchi Roca Second Sapa Inca of the Kingdom of Cusco
- Snorri Sturluson, historian and saga-writer
- Sri Indraditya, credited as founder of first historical Siamese dynasty
- Tamara, ruler of Georgia
- Thomas Aquinas, Neapolitan Catholic friar and theologian
- William Marshal, knight and statesman
- William Wallace, Scottish national leader
- Yunus Emre, Turkish poet and Sufi mystic
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
- List of 13th century inventions
- Early 13th century – Xia Gui paints Twelve Views from a Thatched Hut. Southern Song dynasty. It is now kept at The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri.
- The motet form originates out of the Ars antiqua tradition of Western European music.
- Manuscript culture develops out of this time period in cities in Europe, which denotes a shift from monasteries to cities for books.
- Pecia system of copying books develops in Italian university-towns and was taken up by the University of Paris in the middle of the century.
- Wooden movable type printing invented by the Chinese governmental minister Wang Zhen in 1298.
- The earliest known rockets, landmines, and handguns are made by the Chinese for use in warfare.
- The Chinese adopt the windmill from the Islamic world.
- Guan ware vase is made. Southern Song dynasty. It is now kept at Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art, London.
- 1280s – Eyeglasses are invented in Venice, Italy.
- Late 13th century – "Night Attack on the Sanjo Palace" is made. Kamakura period. It is now kept at Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
- Late 13th century – Descent of the Amida Trinity, raigo triptych, is made. Kamakura period. It is now kept at The Art Institute of Chicago.
- ^ "Ken Angrok". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
- ^ Grousset, Rene (1988), Empire of steppes, Wars in Japan, Indochina and Java, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, p. 288, ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.
- ^ page 243
- ^ History of Aceh Archived August 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ Weatherford, Jack (2004). Genghis khan and the making of the modern world. New York: Random House. p. 239. ISBN 0-609-80964-4.