Political boundaries in Eastern Hemisphere at the end of the 11th century
11th century is the period from 1001 to 1100 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era, and the 1st century of the 2nd millennium.
history of Europe, this period is considered the early part of the High Middle Ages.
There was, after a brief ascendancy, a sudden decline of
Byzantine power and rise of Norman domination over much of Europe, along with the prominent role in Europe of notably influential popes.
In Northern Italy, a growth of population in urban centers gave rise to early organized capitalism and more sophisticated, commercialized culture by the late 11th century. In East Europe, there was the golden age for the principality of Kievan Rus.
Song dynasty China and the classical Islamic world, this century marked the high point for both classical Chinese civilization, science and technology, and classical Islamic science, philosophy, technology and literature.
Rival political factions at the Song dynasty court created strife amongst the leading statesmen and ministers of the empire.
Chola-era India and Fatimid-era Egypt, had reached their zenith in military might and international influence. The Western Chalukya Empire (the Chola's rival) also rose to power by the end of the century.
In this century the Turkish
Seljuk dynasty comes to power in Western Asia over the now fragmented Abbasid realm, while the first of the Crusades were waged towards the close of the century.
Japan, the Fujiwara clan continued to dominate the affairs of state.
Korea, the Goryeo Kingdom flourished and faced external threats from the Liao dynasty ( Manchuria).
Vietnam, the Lý Dynasty began, while in Myanmar the Pagan Kingdom reached its height of political and military power.
In the Americas, the
Toltec and Mixtec civilizations flourished in Central America, along with the Huari Culture of South America and the Mississippian culture of North America. The Tiwanaku Empire centered around Lake Titicaca collapsed in the first half of the century.
In European history, the 11th century is regarded as the beginning of the
High Middle Ages, an age subsequent to the Early Middle Ages. The century began while the of translatio imperii 962 was still somewhat novel and ended in the midst of the Investiture Controversy. It saw the final Christianisation of Scandinavia and the emergence of the Peace and Truce of God movements, the Gregorian Reforms, and the Crusades which revitalised a church and a papacy that had survived tarnished by the tumultuous 10th century. In 1054, the Great Schism rent the church in two, however.
Germany, the century was marked by the ascendancy of the Holy Roman Emperors, who hit their high-water mark under the Salians.
Italy, it opened with the integration of the kingdom into the empire and the royal palace at Pavia was summoned in 1024. By the end of the century, Lombard and Byzantine rule in the Mezzogiorno had been usurped by the Normans and the power of the territorial magnates was being replaced by that of the citizens of the cities in the north.
In Britain, it saw the transformation of
Scotland into a single, more unified and centralised kingdom and the Norman conquest of England in 1066. The social transformations wrought in these lands brought them into the fuller orbit of European feudal politics.
In France, it saw the nadir of the monarchy and the zenith of the great magnates, especially the dukes of Aquitaine and Normandy, who could thus foster such distinctive contributions of their lands as the pious warrior who conquered Britain, Italy, and the East and the impious peacelover, the
troubadour, who crafted out of the European vernacular its first great literary themes. There were also the first figures of the intellectual movement known as Scholasticism, which emphasized dialectic arguments in disputes of Christian theology as well as classical philosophy.
In Spain, the century opened with the successes of the last
caliphs of Córdoba and ended in the successes of the Almoravids. In between was a period of Christian unification under Navarrese hegemony and success in the Reconquista against the taifa kingdoms that replaced the fallen caliphate.
In China, there was a triangular affair of continued war and peace settlements between the
Song dynasty, the Tanguts-led Western Xia in the northwest, and the Khitans of the Liao dynasty in the northeast. Meanwhile, opposing political factions evolved at the Song imperial court of Kaifeng. The political reformers at court, called the New Policies Group (新法, Xin Fa), were led by Emperor Shenzong of Song and the Chancellors Fan Zhongyan and Wang Anshi, while the political conservatives were led by Chancellor Sima Guang and Empress Dowager Gao, regent of the young Emperor Zhezong of Song. Heated political debate and sectarian intrigue followed, while political enemies were often dismissed from the capital to govern frontier regions in the deep south where malaria was known to be very fatal to northern Chinese people (see History of the Song dynasty). This period also represents a high point in classical Chinese science and technology, with figures such as Su Song and Shen Kuo, as well as the age where the matured form of the Chinese pagoda was accomplished in Chinese architecture.
In India, the
Chola Dynasty reached its height of naval power under leaders such as Rajaraja Chola I and Rajendra Chola I, dominating southern India ( Tamil Nadu), Sri Lanka, and regions of South East Asia. They also sent raids into what is now Thailand.
In Japan, the
Fujiwara clan dominated central politics by acting as imperial regents, controlling the actions of the Emperor of Japan, who acted merely as a ' puppet monarch' during the Heian period.
In the Middle East, the
Fatimid Empire of Egypt reached its zenith only to face steep decline, much like the Byzantine Empire in the first half of the century. The Seljuks came to prominence while the Abbasid caliphs held traditional titles without real, tangible authority in state affairs.
Nigeria, formation of city states, kingdoms and empires, including Hausa kingdoms and Borno dynasty in north, Oyo and Benin kingdoms in south.
In Korea, the rulers of the
Goryeo Kingdom were able to concentrate more central authority into their own hands than in that of the nobles, and were able to fend off two Khitan invasions with their armies.
Mahmud of Ghazni, Muslim leader of Ghazni, begins a series of raids into Northern India; he finishes in 1027 with the destruction of Somnath. c. 1001:
Vikings, led by Leif Eriksson, establish small settlements in and around Vinland in North America. 1001–1008: Japanese Lady
Murasaki Shikibu writes The Tale of Genji. 1001 ± 40 years:
Baitoushan volcano on what would be the Chinese-Korean border, erupts with a force of 6.5, the fourth largest Holocene blast. 1003:
Robert II of France invades the Duchy of Burgundy, then ruled by Otto-William, Duke of Burgundy; the initial invasion is unsuccessful, but Robert II eventually gained the acceptance of the Roman Catholic Church in 1016 and annexed Burgundy into his realm. 1004: the library and university
Dar Al-Hekma is founded in Egypt under the Fatimids. 1005: the
Treaty of Shanyuan was signed between the Chinese Song dynasty and the Khitan Liao dynasty. 1006: King Dharmawangsa's Medang kingdom falls under invasion of King Wurawari from Lwaram (highly possible
Srivijayan ally in Java).  1008: the
Fatimid Egyptian sea captain Domiyat travels to the Buddhist pilgrimage site in Shandong, China, to seek out the Chinese Emperor Zhenzong of Song with gifts from his ruling Imam Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, successfully reopening diplomatic relations between Egypt and China that had been lost since the collapse of the Tang dynasty. 1009: Lý Thái Tổ overthrew the Anterior Lê Dynasty of Vietnam, establishing the Lý Dynasty.
Second Goryeo-Khitan War; the Korean king was forced to flee the capital temporarily, but unable to establish a foothold and fearing a counterattack, the Khitan forces withdrew. 1011–1021:
Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen), a famous Iraqi scientist working in Egypt, feigned madness in fear of angering the Egyptian caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, and was kept under house arrest from 1011 to 1021. During this time, he wrote his influential . Book of Optics 1014: the
Byzantine armies of Basil II are victorious over Samuil of Bulgaria in the Battle of Kleidion. 1014: the
Gaelic forces of Munster and most other Irish kingdoms under High King Brian Boru defeat a combined Leinster-Viking force in the Battle of Clontarf but Brian Boru is killed at the end of the battle. 1014–1020:
The Book of Healing, a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopaedia, is written by Avicenna, Persian scholar.  1015: in the
Battle of Nesjar in Oslofjord, Norway, the forces of Olav Haraldsson fought the forces of Sveinn Hákonarson, with a victory for Olav. 1018: the
First Bulgarian Empire is conquered by the Byzantine Empire 1018: the Byzantine armies of
Basil Boioannes are victorious at the Battle of Cannae against the Lombards under Melus of Bari. 1018: the
Third Goryeo-Khitan War; the Korean General Gang Gam-chan inflicted heavy losses to Khitan forces at the Battle of Kwiju. The Khitan withdrew and both sides signed a peace treaty. 1019: Airlangga establishes the Kingdom of Kahuripan. 
1020s: , a medical encyclopedia, is written by The Canon of Medicine Avicenna, Persian Muslim scholar. 1021: the ruling
Fatimid Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah disappears suddenly, possibly assassinated by his own sister Sitt al-Mulk, which leads to the open persecution of the Druze by Ismaili Shia; the Druze proclaimed that Al-Hakim went into hiding (ghayba), whereupon he would return as the Mahdi savior. 1025: the
Chola Dynasty of India uses its naval powers to conquer the South East Asian kingdom of Srivijaya, turning it into a vassal. 1025: ruler
Rajendra Chola I moves the capital city of the empire from Thanjavur to Gangaikonda Cholapuram 1025:
Rajendra Chola, the Chola king from Cholamandala in South India, conquered Pannai and Kadaram from Srivijaya and occupied it for some time. The Cholas continued a series of raids and conquests of parts Srivijayan empire in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula.  1028: the King of
Srivijaya appeals to the Song dynasty Chinese, sending a diplomatic mission to their capital at Kaifeng. 1030:
Stephen I of the Kingdom of Hungary defeats Conrad II of the Holy Roman Empire; after the war Conrad had ceded the lands between the rivers Leitha and Fischa to Hungary in the summer of 1031. 1030: the
Battle of Stiklestad ( Norway): Olav Haraldsson loses to his pagan vassals and is killed in the battle. He is later canonized and becomes the patron saint of Norway and Rex perpetuum Norvegiae ('the eternal king of Norway'). 1030:
Sanghyang Tapak inscription in the Cicatih River bank in Cibadak, Sukabumi, West Java, mentioned about the establishment of sacred forest and Kingdom of Sunda. (to 1579) 1035:
Raoul Glaber chronicles a devastating three-year famine induced by climatic changes in southern France 1035:
Canute the Great dies, and his kingdom of present-day Norway, England, and Denmark was split amongst three rivals to his throne. 1035:
William Iron Arm ventures to the Mezzogiorno 1037: Ferdinand I of León conquered the Kingdom of Galicia.
Samuel Aba became King of Hungary. 1041:
Airlangga divided Kahuripan into two kingdoms Janggala and Kadiri and abdicated in favour of his successors.  1042: the Normans establish
Melfi as the capital of southern Italy. 1041–1048: Chinese artisan
Bi Sheng invents ceramic movable type printing 1043: the
Byzantine Empire and Kievan Rus engage in a naval confrontation, although a later treaty is signed between two parties that included the marriage alliance of Vsevolod I of Kiev to a princess daughter of Constantine IX Monomachos. 1043: the Byzantine General
George Maniaces, who had served in Sicily back in 1038, is proclaimed emperor by his troops while he is catepan of Italy; he leads an unsuccessful rebellion against Constantine IX Monomachos and is killed in battle in Macedonia during his march towards Constantinople. 1043: the Song dynasty
Chancellor of China, Fan Zhongyan, and prominent official and historian Ouyang Xiu introduce the Qingli Reforms, which would be rescinded by the court in 1045 due to partisan resistance to reforms. 1043: the
Kingdom of Nri of West Africa is said to have started in this year with Eze Nri Ìfikuánim 1044: the Chinese
, written by Zeng Gongliang and Yang Weide, is the first book to describe Wujing Zongyao gunpowder formulas; it also described their use in warfare, such as  blackpowder-impregnated fuses for flamethrowers. It also described an early form of the  compass, a thermoremanence compass.  1044:
Henry III of the Holy Roman Empire defeats the Kingdom of Hungary in the Battle of Ménfő; Peter Urseolo captured Samuel Aba after the battle, executing him, and restoring his claim to the throne; the Kingdom of Hungary then briefly becomes a vassal to the Holy Roman Empire. 1045: The Zirids, a Berber dynasty of North Africa, break their allegiance with the Fatimid court of Egypt and recognize the Abbasids of Baghdad as the true caliphs.
Fujiwara no Yorimichi converts the rural villa at Byōdō-in into a famous Japanese Buddhist temple. 1053: the Norman commander
Humphrey of Hauteville is victorious in the Battle of Civitate against the Lombards and the papal coalition led by Rudolf of Benevento; Pope Leo IX himself is captured by the Normans. 1054: the
Great Schism, in which the Western ( Roman Catholic) and Eastern Orthodox churches separated from each other. Similar schisms in the past had been later repaired, but this one continues after nearly 1000 years. 1054: a large
supernova is observed by astronomers, the remnants of which would form the Crab Nebula. 1054: the
Battle of Atapuerca is fought between García V of Navarre and Ferdinand I of León 1055: the Seljuk Turks capture
Baghdad, taking the Buyid Emir Al-Malik al-Rahim prisoner. 1056:
Ferdinand I of León, King of Castile and King of León, is crowned Imperator totius Hispaniae (Emperor of All Hispania). 1057:
Anawrahta, ruler of the Pagan Kingdom, defeated the Mon city of Thaton, thus unifying all of Myanmar. 1057:
Macbeth, king of Scotland, dies in battle against the future king Malcolm III. 1057: Invasion of the Banu Hilal, Kairouan destroyed, Zirids reduced to tiny coastal strip, remainder fragments into petty Bedouin emirates. 
Norman conquest of Sicily in the Mediterranean Sea 1065:
Seljuks first invasion to Georgia under leadership of Alp Arslan 1065: independence of the Kingdom of
Galicia and Portugal under the rule of Garcia 1066: in the
Battle of Stamford Bridge, the last Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson defeated his brother Tostig Godwinson and Harold III of Norway. 1066:
Edward the Confessor dies; Harold Godwinson is killed in the Battle of Hastings, while the Norman William the Conqueror is crowned king of England. 1066: the
Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and many others are killed in the 1066 Granada massacre. 1068–1073: the reign of Japanese
Emperor Go-Sanjō brings about a brief period where central power is taken out of the hands of the Fujiwara clan. 1068:
Virarajendra Chola begins sending military raids into Malaysia and Indonesia. 1068:
Seljuks destroyed Georgia for the second time 1069–1076: with the support of Emperor Shenzong of Song, Chancellor Wang Anshi of the Chinese Song dynasty introduces the 'New Policies', including the Baojia system of societal organization and militias, low-cost loans for farmers, taxes instead of corvée labor, government monopolies on tea, salt, and wine, reforming the land survey system, and eliminating the poetry requirement in the imperial examination system to gain bureaucrats of a more practical bent.
Song dynasty of China and the Lý Dynasty of Vietnam fight a border war, with Vietnamese forces striking first on land and with their navy, and afterwards Song armies advancing as far as modern-day Hanoi, the capital, but withdraw after Lý makes peace overtures; in 1082, both sides exchange the territories that they had captured during the war, and later a border agreement is reached. 1076: the
Ghana Empire is attacked by the Almoravids, who sack the capital of Koumbi Saleh, ending the rule of king Tunka Manin 1076: the Chinese
Song dynasty places strict government monopolies over the production and distribution of sulfur and saltpetre, in order to curb the possibility of merchants selling gunpowder formula components to enemies such as the Tanguts and Khitans. 1076: the Song Chinese allied with southern Vietnamese
Champa and Cambodian Chenla to conquer the Lý Dynasty, which was an unsuccessful campaign. 1077: the
Walk to Canossa by Henry IV of the Holy Roman Empire. 1077: Chinese official
Su Song is sent on a diplomatic mission to the Liao dynasty and discovers that the Khitan calendar is more mathematically accurate than the Song calendar; Emperor Zhezong later sponsors Su Song's astronomical clock tower in order to compete with Liao astronomers. 1078:
Oleg I of Chernigov is defeated in battle by his brother Vsevolod I of Kiev; Oleg escaped to Tmutarakan, but was imprisoned by the Khazars, sent to Constantinople as a prisoner, and then exiled to Rhodes. 1078: the revolt of
Nikephoros III against Byzantine ruler Michael VII 1079:
Malik Shah I reforms the Iranian Calendar. 1079: Franks start to settle around the Way of Saint James (Today, modern North Spain)
1080–1081: The Chinese statesman and scientist
Shen Kuo is put in command of the campaign against the Western Xia, and although he successfully halts their invasion route to Yanzhou (modern Yan'an), another officer disobeys imperial orders and the campaign is ultimately a failure because of it. 1081: birth of
Urraca of León and Castile future Queen of Castille and León. 1084: the enormous Chinese historical work of the
is compiled by scholars under Chancellor Zizhi Tongjian Sima Guang, completed in 294 volumes and included 3 million written Chinese characters 1085:
Alfonso VI of Castile captures the Moorish Muslim city of Toledo, Spain. 1085: the
Katedralskolan, Lund school of Sweden is established by Canute IV of Denmark 1086: compilation of the
Domesday Book by order of William I of England; it was similar to a modern-day government census, as it was used by William to thoroughly document all the landholdings within the kingdom that could be properly taxed. 1086: the
Battle of az-Zallaqah between the Almoravids and Castilians 1087: a new office at the Chinese international
seaport of Quanzhou is established to handle and regulate taxes and tariffs on all mercantile transactions of foreign goods coming from Africa, Arabia, India, Sri Lanka, Persia, and South East Asia. 1087: the Italian cities of Genoa and Pisa engage in the African Mahdia campaign
1095: Pope Urban II calls upon Western Europeans to take up the cross and reclaim the Holy Lands, officially commencing the
First Crusade. c. 1095–1099: earliest extant manuscript of the
Song of Roland 1096:
University of Oxford in England holds its first lectures 1097: the
Siege of Nicaea during the First Crusade 1097: Diego Rodriguez, a son of
El Cid, dies in the Battle of Consuegra, an Almoravid victory 1098: the
Siege of Antioch during the First Crusade 1098:
Pope Urban II makes an appearance at the Siege of Capua 1098: the
Dongpo Academy of Hainan, China is built in honor of the Song dynasty Chinese official and poet Su Shi, who was exiled there for criticizing reforms of the New Policies Group. 1098: the birth of
Hildegard of Bingen, Doctor of the Church, abbess, monastic leader, mystic, prophetess, medical, German composer and writer, polymath. 1099: the
Siege of Jerusalem by European Crusaders. 1099: after the
Kingdom of Jerusalem was established, the Al-Aqsa Mosque was made into the residential palace for the kings of Jerusalem. 1099: death of the great Spanish hero
Rodrigo Díaz "El Cid Campeador". 1099: after building considerable strength,
David IV of Georgia discontinues tribute payments to the Seljuk Turks. King
Anawrahta of Myanmar made a pilgrimage to Ceylon, returning to convert his country to Theravada Buddhism. The
Tuareg migrate to the Aïr region.
Kanem-Bornu expands southward into modern Nigeria. The first of seven
Hausa city-states are founded in Nigeria. The Hodh region of Mauritania becomes desert.
, German Queen who became regent of the Holy Roman Empire
– columns in the form of
Abhinavagupta, Indian philosopher, logician, musician, poet and dramatist from the Kashmir region
Abraham bar Hiyya, Jewish philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician from Catalonia
Abu al-Hasan 'Ali abi Sa'id 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Ahmad ibn Yunus al-Sadafi al-Misri, Egyptian mathematician and astronomer
Abū 'Alī al-Haṣan ibn al-Haytham (also known as Alhazen), Iraqi mathematician, astronomer, and physicist
Abū 'Alī al-Husayn ibn Sīnā (also known as Avicenna), Persian polymath: physician, philosopher, astronomer, and logician
Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (also known as Abulcasis), Arab physician and surgeon from Al-Andalus
Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (also known as Arzachel), Arab mathematician and astronomer from Al-Andalus
Abu Nasr Mansur, Iraqi mathematician
Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Persian polymath
Adalbold II of Utrecht, Dutch Bishop of Utrecht and mathematician
Adémar de Chabannes, French monk, writer, historian, and musical composer
Aelgifu of Northampton, wife of Canute the Great
Agnes, Empress, regent of the Holy Roman Empire
Anawrahta, ruler of the Pagan Kingdom
Anselm of Laon, French theologian
Al-Ghazali (also known as Algazel), celebrated Muslim scholar
Al-Karaji, Persian mathematician and engineer
Al-Ma'arri, secular Arab, ascetic thinker and early advocate of veganism.
Al-Muqtadi, Abbasid Caliph
Al-Qadir, Abbasid Caliph
Al-Qa'im, Abbasid Caliph
Al-Sijzi, Persian mathematician and astronomer
Alexander II, Pope
Alexios I Komnenos, Byzantine Emperor
Alfonso VI of Castile, ruler of Leon and Castile
Alī ibn Ahmad al-Nasawī, Persian mathematician who commented on Greek works by Archimedes
Alp Arslan, Seljuk ruler
Alusian, ruler of Bulgaria
Anno II, Archbishop of Cologne
Saint Anselm, reputed founder of scholasticism and creator of the ontological argument Atisha, influential Buddhist teacher to Tibet
Bagrat III, king of Georgia
Bagrat IV, king of Georgia
Bao Zheng, Chinese judge and mayor of Kaifeng
Basil II, Byzantine Emperor
Benedict VIII, Pope
Benedict IX, Pope
Berengar of Tours, French theologian
Bernard II Tumapaler of Gascony, Duke of Gascony
Bhoja, a philosopher king and polymath of Malwa in India
Bilhana, a Kashmiri language poet from India
Bohemond I of Antioch, Crusader commander from Calabria
Bolesław I Chrobry, king of Poland
Brian Boru, High king of Ireland
Burchard II, Bishop of Halberstadt Byrhtferth, English monk and philosopher
Cai Jing, Chinese chancellor of the Song dynasty
Cai Xiang, Chinese poet, scholar, calligrapher, structural engineer, and official
Canute the Great, ruler of England, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden
Clement II, Pope
Clement III, Antipope
Constantine VIII, Byzantine Emperor
Constantine X, Byzantine Emperor
Constantine the African, Carthaginian Christian physician and translator of ancient Greek medicine
Conrad II, of the Holy Roman Empire
Constantine IX Monomachos, Byzantine Emperor
Cheng Yi, Chinese philosopher
Chongzong Emperor, ruler of Northwest China ( Western Xia)
Damasus II, Pope
Daozong Emperor, ruler of Northeast China ( Liao dynasty)
Demetrius Zvonimir of Croatia, ruler of Croatia Deokjong of Goryeo, king of Korea
Edith of Wessex, Queen of Wessex
Edward the Confessor, King of England
Eight Deer Jaguar Claw, ruler of the Mixtecs in Mesoamerica
Eilmer of Malmesbury, a Benedictine monk who attempted flight with mechanical wings
El Cid (Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar), Castilian nobleman
Emma of Normandy, wife of Canute the Great
Ephraim of Pereyaslavl, Eastern Orthodox saint and bishop of Pereyaslav
Ethelred the Unready, king of England
Fan Kuan, Chinese landscape painter
Fan Zhongyan, Song Chinese chancellor
Ferdinand I of León, Emperor of All Hispania
Fujiwara Michinaga, powerful regent of Japan Fujiwara no Yorimichi, Japanese court noble and regent
Gang Gam-chan, Korean general of the Goryeo Dynasty
Gang Jo, Korean general of the Goryeo Dynasty
George I, king of Georgia
George II, king of Georgia
George Maniaces, Greek Byzantine general
Gilbert de la Porrée, French scholastic logician and theologian
Giorgi Mtatsmindeli, Georgian elesiastic figure
Go-Ichijō, Emperor of Japan
Go-Reizei, Emperor of Japan
Go-Sanjō, Emperor of Japan
Go-Suzaku, Emperor of Japan
Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of Lower Lorraine and a Crusader
Godfrey III, Duke of Lower Lorraine
Godwin, Earl of Wessex
Gregory VII, Pope (Hildebrand)
Gavril Radomir, Emperor of Bulgaria
Guido of Arezzo, Italian music theorist
Guo Xi, a literati Chinese landscape painter
Guy I of Ponthieu, Count of Ponthieu
Gytha Thorkelsdóttir, wife of Godwin, Earl of Wessex Gytha of Wessex, wife of Vladimir II Monomakh
Hamid al-Din al-Kirmani, a Persian missionary da'i to the Fatimid Caliphate
Harald Hardrada, king of Norway and claimnant to the thrones of Denmark and England
Han Shizhong, Chinese military general
Harold Godwinson, King of England
Henry I of England, king
Henry I of France, king
Henry III, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
Henry IV, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
Hereward the Wake, English outlaw
Heribert of Cologne, Archbishop of Cologne
Hermann of Reichenau, German composer, music theorist, mathematician, and astronomer
Hilarion of Kiev, first non-Greek Metropolitan bishop of Kiev
Hisham II, Caliph of Córdoba
Hisham III, Caliph of Córdoba
Honorius II, Antipope
Horikawa, Emperor of Japan
Huang Tingjian, Chinese calligrapher and painter
Hugh of Châteauneuf, French theologian, Bishop of Grenoble, and partisan of the Gregorian reform
Hugh of St Victor, philosopher from Saxony
Hugh of Vermandois, Count of Vermandois, Crusader
Huizong Emperor, ruler of Northwest China ( Western Xia) Hyeonjong of Goryeo, king of Korea
Ichijō, Emperor of Japan
Isaac I Komnenos, Byzantine Emperor
Isaac ibn Ghiyyat, rabbi from Spain
Ísleifur Gissurarson, first Bishop of Iceland
Ivan Vladislav, Emperor of Bulgaria
Jayasimha II, ruler of the Western Chalukya Empire
Jeongjong II of Goryeo, king of Korea
Jia Xian, Chinese mathematician
Jingzong Emperor, ruler of Northwest China ( Western Xia)
Jōchō, famous Japanese sculptor
John the Eunuch, chief court eunuch under Byzantine emperor Romanos III
John Doukas, Caesar, younger brother and counsellor to Constantine X of Byzantium
John Italus, Greek Byzantine philosopher
John Skylitzes, Byzantine historian
Joseph ibn Naghrela, Jewish vizier of Andalusia
Kim Bu-sik, Korean historian of the Goryeo Dynasty who compiled the historical text Samguk Sagi
Kim Mu-che, Korean scholar of the Goryeo Dynasty who opened up educational facilities which rivaled the Gukjagam, or National University Kushyar ibn Labban, Persian mathematician, astronomer, and geographer
Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah, Fatimid Caliph
Magnus Barefoot, king of Norway 1093–1103, tried to conquer Ireland. Killed during an ambush in Ulster.
Magnus the Good, king of Norway 1035–1047 and Denmark 1042–1047
Macbeth, ruler of Scotland
Malik Shah I, Seljuk ruler
Mansur ibn Nasir, ruler of the Hammadid in Algeria
Mariam of Vaspurakan, Queen dowager and regent of the Kingdom of Georgia
Maslamah Ibn Ahmad al-Majriti, Arab astronomer, chemist, mathematician, and scholar
Matilda of Tuscany, militant Italian noblewoman
Mei Yaochen, Chinese poet and official
Melus of Bari, Lombard nobleman
Mi Fu, Chinese painter, poet, and calligrapher
Michael I Cerularius, the Patriarch of Constantinople who was involved in the East-West Schism
Michael IV, Byzantine Emperor
Michael V, Byzantine Emperor
Michael VI, Byzantine Emperor
Michael VII, Byzantine Emperor
Michael Psellos, Byzantine writer, philosopher, official, and historian
Milarepa, Tibetan poet, yogi, and member of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism
Minamoto no Yorimitsu, a governor and commander loyal to the Fujiwara clan
Minamoto no Yorinobu, a samurai of the Minamoto clan
Mokjong of Goryeo, king of Korea
Moses ibn Ezra, Jewish philosopher, poet, and linguist from Spain
Mu'ayyad fi'l-Din al-Shirazi, Persian theologian serving the Fatimid court
Muhammad Ibn Abbad Al Mutamid, last Abbadid ruler
Munjong of Goryeo, king of Korea Murasaki Shikibu, female Japanese writer
, wrote her
about life in the Japanese court
Nasir Khusraw, Persian poet, theologian, philosopher, and traveler
Nicholas II, Pope
Nikephoros III, Byzantine Emperor
Notker Labeo, mathematician, first medieval commentator on Aristotle, and Benedictine monk from St. Gallen, Switzerland
Odo of Bayeux, Norman English bishop and earl
Olaf II, King of Norway
Omar Khayyám, Persian poet, mathematician, philosopher and astronomer
Otrok, khan of the Kipchaks
Ouyang Xiu, Chinese statesman, historian, archaeological epigrapher, essayist, and poet
Paschal II, Pope
Peter Abelard, French philosopher and logician
Peter Damian, cardinal and Doctor of the Church
Peter Delyan, leader of a Bulgarian uprising against the Byzantine Empire
Peter Krešimir IV of Croatia, King of Croatia and Dalmatia
Peter the Hermit, Crusader
Peter Urseolo, king of Hungary Philip I of France
Rajaraja Chola I, ruler of Tamil Nadu (southern India) and Sri Lanka
Rajendra Chola I, ruler of Tamil Nadu (southern India) and Sri Lanka
Rajadhiraja Chola, ruler of the Cholas
Rajendra Chola II, ruler of the Cholas
Ramanuja, Chola Indian theologian, philosopher, and spiritual leader
Rashi, French rabbi and author of a comprehensive commentary on the Talmud and commentary on the Tanakh
Raymond IV of Toulouse, Duke of Narbonne and a Crusader
Renzong Emperor, ruler of China
Richard II, Duke of Normandy
Rober, Saint, founder of the Cistercians
Robert II, Count of Flanders, Crusader
Robert II of France, king
Robert of Jumièges, Archbishop of Canterbury
Robert Guiscard, Norman conqueror of Southern Italy and Sicily
Romanos III, Byzantine Emperor Romanos IV, Byzantine Emperor
Samuel Aba, king of Hungary
Samuil, Emperor of Bulgaria
Sancho III, king of Navarre
Sanjō, Emperor of Japan
Sei Shōnagon, writer, a Japanese lady of the royal court
Seonjong of Goryeo, king of Korea
Shao Yong, Chinese historian, poet, and philosopher
Shen Kuo, Chinese polymath, scientist and statesman
Shengzong Emperor, ruler of Northeast China ( Liao dynasty)
Shenzong Emperor, ruler of China
Shirakawa, Emperor of Japan
Samuel ibn Naghrela, Jewish scholar
Sigrid the Haughty, wife of Sweyn I of Denmark
Sima Guang, Song Chinese chancellor and court historian
Solomon ibn Gabirol, Jewish philosopher and poet from Spanish Al-Andalus
Someshvara I, ruler of the Western Chalukya Empire
Someshvara II, ruler of the Western Chalukya Empire
Sripati, Indian mathematician and astronomer
Stephen I, king of Hungary
Stephen IX, Pope
Su Shi, famous Chinese poet, calligrapher, painter, travel writer, pharmacologist, and statesman
Su Song, Chinese polymath: engineer, astronomer, and pharmacologist
Sukjong of Goryeo, king of Korea
Suleiman II, Caliph of Córdoba,
Sveinn Hákonarson, King of Norway
Sweyn I of Denmark, king of Denmark, Norway, and England Sylvester II, Pope, a French astronomer, mathematician, orator, musician, and philosopher.
Tāriqu l-Ḥakīm bi Amr al-Lāh, sixth caliph of the Fatimid dynasty in Egypt
Empress Theodora, Byzantine Empress
Tostig Godwinson, earl of Northumbria
Tunka Manin ruler of the Ghana Empire
Urban II, Pope
Victor II, Pope
Victor III, Pope
Vikramaditya VI, ruler of the Western Chalukya Empire
Virarajendra Chola, ruler of the Cholas
Vladimir I of Kiev, ruler of Kievan Rus
Vladimir II Monomakh, ruler of Kievan Rus
Vsevolod I of Kiev, ruler of Kievan Rus
Wang Anshi, Song Chinese chancellor
Wei Pu, Chinese astronomer and mathematician
Wen Tong, Chinese painter
William of Champeaux, French philosopher and theologian
William the Conqueror, ruler of Normandy and England
William Iron Arm, prominent member of the Norman Hauteville family
Wulfstan II, Archbishop of York
Xingzong Emperor, ruler of Northeast China ( Liao dynasty) Xu Daoning, Chinese landscape painter
Yaroslav I the Wise, ruler of Kievan Rus
Yingzong Emperor, ruler of China
Yizong Emperor, ruler of Northwest China ( Western Xia)
Yusuf ibn Tashfin, Berber Almoravid ruler
Yusuf Balasaghuni, a Karakhanid scribe
Zhezong Emperor, ruler of China
Zhenzong Emperor, ruler of China
Zaynab an-Nafzawiyyat, wife of Almoravid ruler Abu-Bakr Ibn-Umar
Zeng Gong, Chinese historian, travel writer, and poet
Zhang Zeduan, Chinese landscape painter
Zhou Dunyi, Chinese philosopher Zoe, Empress, Byzantine Empress
Svetitskhoveli Cathedral, Georgia, is totally renewed in 1029 The
St Albans Cathedral of Norman-era England is completed in 1089. The
Al-Hakim Mosque of Fatimid Egypt is completed in 1013. The
Iron Pagoda of Kaifeng, China is built in 1049. The
Phoenix Hall of Byōdō-in, Japan, is completed in 1053. The
Brihadeeswarar Temple of India is completed in 1010 during the reign of Rajaraja Chola I. The
Fruttuaria of San Benigno Canavese, Italy is completed in 1007. The Kedareshwara Temple of
Balligavi, India, is built in 1060 by the Western Chalukyas. Construction work begins in 1059 on the
Parma Cathedral of Italy. The
Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod is completed in 1052, the oldest existent church in Russia. Construction begins on the
Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev, Kievan Rus, in 1037. The Byzantine Greek
Hosios Loukas monastery sees the completion of its (main church), the earliest extant Katholikon domed- octagon church from 1011–1012. The
Lingxiao Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei province, China, is built in 1045. The
Pagoda of Fogong Temple of Shanxi province, China, is completed under the Liao dynasty in 1056. The
Nikortsminda Cathedral of Georgia is completed in 1014. The
Speyer Cathedral in Speyer, Germany is completed in 1061. The Chinese official
Cai Xiang oversaw the construction of the Wanan Bridge in Fujian. The
Imam Ali Mosque in Iraq is rebuilt by Malik Shah I in 1086 after it was destroyed by fire. The
Pizhi Pagoda of Lingyan Temple, Shandong, China is completed in 1063. Reconstruction of the
San Liberatore a Maiella in Italy begins in 1080.
Westminster Abbey, London, England, is completed in 1065. The
Ananda Temple of the Myanmar ruler King Kyanzittha is completed in 1091. The
Văn Miếu, or Temple of Literature, in Vietnam is established in 1070. Construction of
Richmond Castle in England begins in 1071. The tallest
pagoda tower in China's pre-modern history, the Liaodi Pagoda, is completed in 1055, standing at a height of 84 m (275 ft). The
Tower of Gonbad-e Qabus in Iran is built in 1006. Construction begins on the
Sassovivo Abbey of Foligno, Italy, in 1070. The Palace of
Aljafería is built in Zaragoza, Spain, during the Al-Andalus period. The
Rotonda di San Lorenzo is built in Mantua, Lombardy, Italy, during the late 11th century. Construction of the
Ponte della Maddalena bridge in the Province of Lucca, Italy begins in 1080. The domes of the
Jamé Mosque of Isfahan, Iran are built in 1086 to 1087. 11th–18th century – Courtyard,
Jamé Mosque of Isfahan, Isfahan, Persia ( Iran), is built. The
Chester Castle in England was built in 1069. Construction begins on the
Bagrati Cathedral in Georgia in 1003. The
St. Michael's Church, Hildesheim in Germany is completed in 1031. The
Basilica of Sant'Abbondio of Lombardy, Italy is completed in 1095. Construction begins on the
Great Zimbabwe National Monument, sometime in the century. Construction begins on the
San Pietro in Vinculis in Pisa, Italy, in 1072. The
Tower of London in England is founded in 1078. The St. Grigor's Church of
Kecharis Monastery in Armenia is built in 1003. The
Martin-du-Canigou monastery on Mount Canigou in southern France is built in 1009. The
St. Mary's Cathedral, Hildesheim in Germany is completed in 1020. The
One Pillar Pagoda in Hanoi, Vietnam, is constructed in 1049. The
St Michael at the Northgate, Oxford's oldest building, is built in Saxon England in 1040. The
Oxford Castle in England is built in 1071. The
Florence Baptistry in Florence, Italy is founded in 1059. The
Kandariya Mahadeva temple in India is built in 1050. The
St Mark's Basilica in Venice, Italy is rebuilt in 1063. The
Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, England is completed by 1077. Construction begins on the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Spain in 1075.
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
Science and technology
List of 11th century inventions Early 11th century -
Fan Kuan paints Travelers among Mountains and Streams. Northern Song dynasty. It is now kept at National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan (Republic of China). c. 1000–
Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) of al-Andalus publishes his influential 30-volume Arabic medical encyclopedia, the Al-Tasrif c. 1000–
Ibn Yunus of Egypt publishes his astronomical treatise Al-Zij al-Hakimi al-Kabir. c. 1000
Abu Sahl al-Quhi (Kuhi) c. 1000 –
Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi c. 1000–
Law of sines is discovered by Muslim mathematicians, but it is uncertain who discovers it first between Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi, Abu Nasr Mansur, and Abu al-Wafa. c. 1000 – Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili
Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī of Persia writes more than a hundred books on many different topics.  1001–1100 – the demands of the Chinese
iron industry for charcoal led to a huge amount of deforestation, which was curbed when the Chinese discovered how to use bituminous coal in smelting cast iron and steel, thus sparing thousands of acres of prime timberland.  1003 –
Pope Sylvester II, born Gerbert d'Aurillac, dies; however, his teaching continued to influence those of the 11th century; his works included a book on  arithmetic, a study of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system, a  hydraulic-powered organ, the reintroduction of the  abacus to Europe, and a possible treatise on the  astrolabe that was edited by Hermann of Reichenau five decades later. The contemporary monk Richer from Rheims described Gerbert's contributions in reintroducing the armillary sphere that was lost to European science after the Greco-Roman era; from Richer's description, Gerbert's placement of the tropics was nearly exact and his placement of the equator was exact.  He reintroduced the  liberal arts education system of trivium and quadrivium, which he had borrowed from the educational institution of Islamic Córdoba. Gerbert also studied and taught  Islamic medicine.   1013 – One of the
, the Four Great Books of Song compiled by 1013 was the largest of the Song Chinese Prime Tortoise of the Record Bureau encyclopedias. Divided into 1000 volumes, it consisted of 9.4 million written Chinese characters. 1020 – Ibn Samh of
Al-Andalus builds a geared mechanical astrolabe. 1021 –
Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen) of Basra, Iraq writes his influential from 1011 to 1021 (while he was under Book of Optics house arrest in Egypt), 1024 – The world's first
paper-printed money can be traced back to the year 1024, in Sichuan province of Song dynasty China. The Chinese government would step in and overtake this trend, issuing the central government's official banknote in the 1120s. 1025 –
Avicenna of Persia publishes his influential treatise, , which remains the most influential The Canon of Medicine medical text in both Islamic and Christian lands for over six centuries, and , a scientific The Book of Healing encyclopedia. 1027 – The Chinese engineer Yan Su recreates the mechanical
compass-vehicle of the south-pointing chariot, first invented by Ma Jun in the 3rd century.  1028–1087 –
Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Arzachel) builds the equatorium and universal latitude-independent astrolabe. 1031 –
Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī writes Kitab al-qanun al-Mas'udi 1031–1095 – Chinese scientist
Shen Kuo creates a theory for land formation, or geomorphology, theorized that climate change occurred over time, discovers the concept of true north, improves the design of the astronomical sighting tube to view the pole star indefinitely, hypothesizes the retrogradation theory of planetary motion, and by observing lunar eclipse and solar eclipse he hypothesized that the sun and moon were spherical.     Shen Kuo also experimented with  camera obscura just decades after Ibn al-Haitham, although Shen was the first to treat it with quantitative attributes.  He also took an  interdisciplinary approach to studies in archaeology.  1041–1048 – Artisan
Bi Sheng of Song dynasty China invents movable type printing using individual ceramic characters.  Mid 11th century –
Harbaville Triptych, is made. It is now kept at Musée du Louvre, Paris. Mid-11th century -
Xu Daoning paints Fishing in a Mountain Stream. Northern Song dynasty. 1068 – First known use of the
drydock in China.  1070 – With a team of scholars, the Chinese official
Su Song also published the Ben Cao Tu Jing in 1070, a treatise on pharmacology, botany, zoology, metallurgy, and mineralogy.  Some of the drug concoctions in Su's book included  ephedrine, mica minerals, and linaceae.    1075 – the Song Chinese innovate a partial decarbonization method of repreated forging of cast iron under a cold blast that Hartwell and Needham consider to be a predecessor to the 18th century
Bessemer process.  1077 –
Constantine the African introduces ancient Greek medicine to the Schola Medica Salernitana in Salerno, Italy. c. 1080 – the
, a compendium of Liber pantegni Hellenistic and Islamic medicine, is written in Italy by the Carthaginian Christian Constantine the African, paraphrasing translated passages from the Kitab al-malaki of Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi as well as other Arabic texts.  1088 – As written by
Shen Kuo in his , the earlier 10th-century invention of the Dream Pool Essays pound lock in China allows large ships to travel along canals without laborious hauling, thus allowing smooth travel of government ships holding cargo of up to 700 tan (49½ tons) and large privately owned-ships holding cargo of up to 1600 tan (113 tons).  1094 – The Chinese mechanical engineer and astronomer
Su Song incorporates an escapement mechanism and the world's first known chain drive to operate the armillary sphere, the astronomical clock, and the striking clock jacks of his clock tower in Kaifeng.  In Europe, the introduction of the horizontal loom operated by foot-treadles makes weaving faster and more efficient.
is written by The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī. c. 1000 – The
is written by the Andalusian physician and scientist Al-Tasrif Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis). c. 1000 – The
Zij al-Kabir al-Hakimi is written by the Egyptian astronomer Ibn Yunus. 1000–1037 –
is written by Hayy ibn Yaqdhan Avicenna. 1008 – The
, one of the oldest full manuscripts of the Leningrad Codex Hebrew Bible, is completed. c. 1010 – The oldest known copy of the epic poem
was written around this year. Beowulf 1013 – The
, a Chinese encyclopedia, is completed by a team of scholars including Wang Qinruo. Prime Tortoise of the Record Bureau 1020 – The
commissioned by Bamberg Apocalypse Otto III is completed. 1021 – Lady
Murasaki Shikibu writes her Japanese novel, . The Tale of Genji 1021 – The
by Book of Optics Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen or Alhacen) is completed. 1025 –
by The Canon of Medicine Avicenna (Ibn Sina) is completed. 1027 –
is published by The Book of Healing Avicenna. 1037 – The
, a Chinese Jiyun rime dictionary, is published by Ding Du and expanded by later scholars. 1037 – Birth of the Chinese poet
Su Shi, one of the renowned poets of the Song dynasty, who also penned works of travel literature. 1044 – The
military manuscript is completed by Chinese scholars Zeng Gongliang, Ding Du, and Yang Weide. Wujing Zongyao 1048–1100 – The
is written by Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam Omar Khayyam sometime after 1048. 1049 –
is written by Chinese official The Record of Tea Cai Xiang 1052 – The
, a collection of stories allegedly penned by Uji Dainagon Monogatari Minamoto-no-Takakuni, is written sometime between now and 1077. 1053 – The
by Chinese official New History of the Five Dynasties Ouyang Xiu is completed. 1054 – Russian
legal code of the Russkaya Pravda is created during the reign of Yaroslav I the Wise. 1057 – The
of Novgorod are written. Ostromir Gospels 1060 – compilation of the
, edited by Chinese official New Book of Tang Ouyang Xiu, is complete. 1060 – the
Mugni Gospels of Armenia are written in illuminated manuscript form. 1068 – The
is written by Book of Roads and Kingdoms Abū 'Ubayd 'Abd Allāh al-Bakrī. 1070 –
William I of England commissioned the Norman monk William of Jumièges to extend the chronicle. Gesta Normannorum Ducum 1078 – The
is written by Proslogion Anselm of Canterbury. 1080 – The Chinese poet
Su Shi is exiled from court for writing poems criticizing the various reforms of the New Policies Group. c. 1080 – the
is written by Liber pantegni Constantine the African. 1084 – The
history is completed by Chinese official Zizhi Tongjian Sima Guang. 1086 – The
is initiated by Domesday Book William I of England. 1088 – The
is completed by Dream Pool Essays Shen Kuo of Song China. The roots of European
Scholasticism are found in this period, as the renewed spark of interest in literature and Classicism in Europe would bring about the Renaissance. In the 11th century, there were early Scholastic figures such as Anselm of Canterbury, Peter Abelard, Solomon ibn Gabirol, Peter Lombard, and Gilbert de la Porrée. The works of
Aristotle and some early Muslim scientists are translated into Latin from Arabic, shortly before the Latin translations of the 12th century. Troubadours appear in what is now southern France.
^ Soekmono, R, Drs., Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed. Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988 p.52
ABU ‘ALI AL-HUSAYN
^ Soekmono, R, Drs., Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed. Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988 p.56
Epigraphia Carnatica, Volume 10, Part 1, page 41
^ Soekmono, R, Drs., Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed. Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988 p.57
^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 120–124.
^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 81–84.
^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 1, 252.
^ On the Banu Hillal invasion, see Ibn Khaldoun (v.1).
^ Bowman, 599.
^ Mohn, 1.
^ Kennedy, 152.
^ Ebrey et al. (2006), 158.
^ Darlington, 474–475.
^ Seife, 77.
^ Darlington, 473.
^ Tester, 131–132.
^ Darlington, 467–468.
^ Tester, 130–131, 156.
^ Salhab, 51.
^ Darlington, 475.
^ Holmes, 646.
^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 291.
^ Needham, Volume 3, 603 – 604, 614, 618.
^ Sivin, III, 23.
^ Chan, Clancey, & Loy, 15.
^ Sivin, III, 16–19.
^ Needham, Volume 3, 415 – 416.
^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 1, 98.
^ Sivin, III, 34.
^ Fraser & Haber, 227.
^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 1, 201.
^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 3, 660.
^ Wu (2005), 5.
^ Unschuld, 60.
^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 446.
^ Needham, Volume 6, Part 1, 174, 175.
^ Needham, Volume 3, 648.
^ Hartwell, 54.
^ Prioreschi, 193–195.
^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 3, 352.
^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 111, 165, 145–148.
Abattouy, Mohammed. (2002), "The Arabic Science of weights: A Report on an Ongoing Research Project",
The Bulletin of the Royal Institute for Inter-Faith Studies 4, pp. 109–130: Bowman, John S. (2000).
Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. New York: Columbia University Press. Chan, Alan Kam-leung and Gregory K. Clancey, Hui-Chieh Loy (2002).
Historical Perspectives on East Asian Science, Technology and Medicine. Singapore: Singapore University Press. ISBN 9971-69-259-7 Darlington, Oscar G. "Gerbert, the Teacher",
The American Historical Review (Volume 52, Number 3, 1947): 456 – 476. Ebrey, Patricia Buckley, Anne Walthall, James B. Palais (2006).
East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-13384-4. Fraser, Julius Thomas and Francis C. Haber. (1986).
Time, Science, and Society in China and the West. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 0-87023-495-1. Hartwell, Robert. "Markets, Technology, and the Structure of Enterprise in the Development of the Eleventh-Century Chinese Iron and Steel Industry",
The Journal of Economic History (Volume 26, Number 1, 1966): 29–58. Holmes, Jr., Urban T. "The Idea of a Twelfth-Century Renaissance",
Speculum (Volume 26, Number 4, 1951): 643 – 651. Kennedy, E. S. (1970–80). "Bīrūnī, Abū Rayḥān al-".
II. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Dictionary of Scientific Biography ISBN 0-684-10114-9. Mohn, Peter (2003).
Magnetism in the Solid State: An Introduction. New York: Springer-Verlag Inc. ISBN 3-540-43183-7. Needham, Joseph (1986).
Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 1, Physics. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd. Needham, Joseph (1986).
Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 2, Mechanical Engineering. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd. Needham, Joseph (1986).
Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 3, Civil Engineering and Nautics. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd. Needham, Joseph (1986).
Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 1: Paper and Printing. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd. Needham, Joseph (1986).
Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 7, Military Technology; the Gunpowder Epic. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd. Needham, Joseph (1986).
Science and Civilization in China: Volume 6, Biology and Biological Technology, Part 1, Botany. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd. Prioreschi, Plinio. (2003).
A History of Medicine. Omaha: Horatius Press. ISBN 1-888456-05-1.
Rashed, Roshdi, ed. (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-02063-8 Abdus Salam (1984), "Islam and Science". In C. H. Lai (1987),
Ideals and Realities: Selected Essays of Abdus Salam, 2nd ed., World Scientific, Singapore, pp. 179–213. Salhab, Walid Amine. (2006).
The Knights Templar of the Middle East: The Hidden History of the Islamic Origins of Freemasonry. San Francisco: Red Wheel/Weiser LLC. ISBN 1-57863-346-X. Seife, Charles. (2000)
. New York: Penguin Books. Zero: The Biography of a Dangerous Idea ISBN 0-670-88457-X. Sivin, Nathan (1995).
Science in Ancient China: Researches and Reflections. Brookfield, Vermont: VARIORUM, Ashgate Publishing. Tester, S. Jim. (1987).
A History of Western Astrology. Rochester: Boydell & Brewer Inc. ISBN 0-85115-446-8. Unschuld, Paul U. (2003).
Nature, Knowledge, Imagery in an Ancient Chinese Medical Text. Berkeley: University of California Press. Wu, Jing-nuan (2005). An Illustrated Chinese Materia Medica. New York: Oxford University Press.