|Other names||Bio 66; U-1258; 11-Oxoprogesterone; Pregn-4-ene-3,11,20-trione|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||328.452 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
11-Ketoprogesterone (brand name Ketogestin; former developmental code names Bio 66, U-1258), or 11-oxoprogesterone, also known as pregn-4-ene-3,11,20-trione, is a pregnane steroid related to cortisone (11-keto-17α,21-dihydroxyprogesterone) that was formerly used in veterinary medicine in the treatment of bovine ketosis. It was synthesized in 1940. The steroid has profound effects on carbohydrate metabolism and possesses activities associated with adrenal cortex hormones like cortisone. However, it is non-toxic even in high dosages, suggesting that it lacks conventional glucocorticoid activity, and it does not possess mineralocorticoid activity, unlike other adrenocortical hormones. 11-Ketoprogesterone may act through membrane glucocorticoid receptors.
11-Ketoprogesterone is reportedly devoid of androgenic, estrogenic, and progestogenic activity. 11β-Hydroxyprogesterone has also been reported to be devoid of progestogenic activity, but has subsequently been reported to possess about 1% of the progestogenic activity of progesterone. A halogenated derivative of 11-ketoprogesterone, 9α-bromo-11-ketoprogesterone, possesses relatively high progestogenic activity. Similarly to 11α-hydroxyprogesterone and 11β-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-ketoprogesterone is reported to act as an inhibitor of the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. It has also been found to act as a weak negative allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor.
Experimentally, it is reported that ketogestin has a profound effect upon carbohydrate metabolism, accelerating production of glucose from protein (gluconegenesis). It possesses physiological activities associated with certain hormones of the adrenal cortex. Its effect on carbohydrate metabolism is similar to that of cortisone, as proved by deposition of glycogen, increasing glycosuria, and decreasing fat metabolism. This compound, however, does not cause certain undesirable activities in ketosis and other conditions as do other adrenocortical hormones, in that it does not cause retention of the sodium ion, nor does it produce hypertension during high sodium ion intake. Ketogestin is devoid of androgenic, estrogenic, or progestational activity and is nontoxic in amounts greatly exceeding pharmacological dosage.
In addition, it had been previously reported that 11β-hydroxyprogesterone was devoid of progestational action. However, we found that it does possess about 1% of the activity of progesterone. This trace activity is substantially enhanced by fluorination, since 9α-fluoro-11β-hydroxyprogesterone is eight times as active as the non-halogenated analogue.6 Concomitantly, Fried et al.7 described the relatively high progestational activity of 9α-bromo-11-ketoprogesterone as well.
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