|Preferred IUPAC name
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||60.096 g·mol−1|
|Melting point||−126 °C; −195 °F; 147 K|
|Boiling point||97 to 98 °C; 206 to 208 °F; 370 to 371 K|
|Vapor pressure||1.99 kPa (at 20 °C)|
Refractive index (nD)
|Viscosity||1.959 mPa·s (at 25 °C) |
Heat capacity (C)
Std enthalpy of
Std enthalpy of
|GHS Signal word||Danger|
|H225, H318, H336|
|P210, P261, P280, P305+351+338|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
|Flash point||22 °C (72 °F; 295 K)|
|371 °C (700 °F; 644 K)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|2800 mg/kg (rabbit, oral)|
6800 mg/kg (mouse, oral)
1870 mg/kg (rat, oral)
|NIOSH (US health exposure limits):|
|TWA 200 ppm (500 mg/m3)|
|TWA 200 ppm (500 mg/m3) ST 250 ppm (625 mg/m3) [skin]|
IDLH (Immediate danger)
|Supplementary data page|
|Refractive index (n),|
Dielectric constant (εr), etc.
|UV, IR, NMR, MS|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
1-Propanol is a primary alcohol with the formula CH
2OH (sometimes represented as PrOH or n-PrOH). This colorless liquid is also known as propan-1-ol, 1-propyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, and n-propanol. It is an isomer of 2-propanol (propan-2-ol, isopropyl alcohol, isopropanol). It is formed naturally in small amounts during many fermentation processes and used as a solvent in the pharmaceutical industry, mainly for resins and cellulose esters.
1-Propanol shows the normal reactions of a primary alcohol. Thus it can be converted to alkyl halides; for example red phosphorus and iodine produce n-propyl iodide in 80% yield, while PCl
3 with catalytic ZnCl
2 gives n-propyl chloride. Reaction with acetic acid in the presence of an H
4 catalyst under Fischer esterification conditions gives propyl acetate, while refluxing propanol overnight with formic acid alone can produce propyl formate in 65% yield. Oxidation of 1-propanol with Na
7 and H
4 gives only a 36% yield of propionaldehyde, and therefore for this type of reaction higher yielding methods using PCC or the Swern oxidation are recommended. Oxidation with chromic acid yields propionic acid.
1-Propanol is manufactured by catalytic hydrogenation of propionaldehyde. The propionaldehyde is itself produced via the oxo process, by hydroformylation of ethylene using carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst such as cobalt octacarbonyl or a rhodium complex.
1-Propanol was discovered in 1853 by Gustave C. B. Chancel, who obtained it by fractional distillation of fusel oil. Indeed, 1-propanol is a major constituent of fusel oil, a by-product formed from certain amino acids when potatoes or grains are fermented to produce ethanol. This process is no longer a significant source of 1-propanol.
1-Propanol is thought to be similar to ethanol in its effects on the human body, but 2–4 times more potent. Oral LD50 in rats is 1870 mg/kg (compared to 7060 mg/kg for ethanol). It is metabolized into propionic acid. Effects include alcoholic intoxication and high anion gap metabolic acidosis. As of 2011, only one case of lethal 1-propanol poisoning was reported.
Although this method is rare, it does exist. Propanol might be much more convenient than ethanol for inhalation because of its potency with nebulizers.
1-propanol has high octane numbers and it is suitable for engine fuel usage. However, the production of propanol has been too expensive to make it a common fuel. The research octane number (RON) of propanol is 118 and anti-knock index (AKI) is 108.