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The Śūraṅgama Samādhi Sūtra (Sanskrit; traditional Chinese: 首楞嚴三昧經; simplified Chinese: 首楞严三昧经; pinyin: Shǒuléngyán Sānmèi Jīng; Wade–Giles: Shou-leng-yen San-mei Ching) is an early Mahayana sutra of Indian origin which focuses on the transcendental nature, supernatural powers, and transformational feats bestowed upon the meditation practitioner by the state of meditation called the "Śūraṅgama Samādhi" or the "Samādhi of the Heroic Progression."
The Śūraṅgama Samādhi Sūtra was translated from the Sanskrit into Chinese by Kumārajīva probably between 402 and 409 C.E. and was later translated into Tibetan by Sakyaprabha and Ratnaraksita at the beginning of the 9th century.
Professor Lamotte describes the nature of the Buddha in this sutra as follows:
This is Sakyamuni in Heroic Progress, a pure ray of wisdom and power, who manifests himself simultaneously in our little universe of four continents, in the Great Cosmos ... and in all the great cosmic systems ...; there, he is some divinity .... He is the same as the Buddha Vairocana.
Amongst the wonders which the Buddha can perform whilst in this state of Śūraṅgama Samādhi are:
Part of that profound and unfathomable knowledge is that all dharmas (things) have their basis in the dharma-dhatu - the Totality of all that is, the All. In this sense, there is non-duality that characterises everything, since everything is possessed of the 'one flavour' of the dharma-dhatu. The Buddha states:
The Buddha remarks in the Śūraṅgama Samādhi Sūtra that any being who cultivates this samadhi will be able to know through pratyatmajnanam, "through personal experience," through knowing directly within oneself, all the attributes of a buddha.
Amongst those attributes is sovereignty over all humans and gods. The Buddha states of great bodhisattvas and buddhas who possess this samadhi:
They possess sovereignty over all the gods and mankind, but do not fall into pride.
A bodhisattva who is immersed in this samadhi also rises beyond birth and death. The Buddha comments:
He appears to die, but he is beyond birth, death and passing on.
Even the writing down, studying and teaching of this Śūraṅgama Samādhi by a master of Dharma will bestow immense blessings, twenty in number. These include:
One of these powers is demonstrated by the future Buddha, Maitreya, who transforms himself into innumerable different types of leading spiritual personages in countless world-systems at the same time.
Commenting on the great qualities of those such as Maitreya who preside over the Śūraṅgama Samādhi, a whole host of great Bodhisattvas declare in the presence of the Buddha:
Bhagavat [Blessed One], just as gold, even if it has gone through the forge, never loses its self-nature [svabhava - essential nature], so these great Satpurusas [True Beings], wherever they may go, manifest everywhere their natures of inconceivable qualities.
This particular samadhi is equally praised in the Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra, where the Buddha explains that this samadhi is the essence of the nature of the Buddha, and is indeed the "mother of all Buddhas."
The Buddha also comments that the Śūraṅgama Samādhi additionally goes under several other names, specifically: