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Çayönü

Çayönü
Çayonu.jpg
The site of Çayönü, in southeastern Turkey
Çayönü is located in Near East
Çayönü
Shown within Near East
Çayönü is located in Turkey
Çayönü
Çayönü (Turkey)
LocationDiyarbakır Province, Turkey
Coordinates38°12′59″N 39°43′35″E / 38.21639°N 39.72639°E / 38.21639; 39.72639
TypeSettlement
History
Founded8,630 BC[1]
Abandoned6,800 BC[1]
PeriodsNeolithic

Çayönü Tepesi is a Neolithic settlement in southeastern Turkey which prospered from circa 8,630 to 6,800 BC.[1] It is located forty kilometres north-west of Diyarbakır, at the foot of the Taurus mountains. It lies near the Boğazçay, a tributary of the upper Tigris River and the Bestakot, an intermittent stream.

Archaeology

Cayönü ruins.
So-called skull building
Grill architecture

The site was excavated for 16 seasons between 1964 and 1991, initially by Robert John Braidwood and Halet Çambel and later by Mehmet Özdoğan and Aslı Erim Özdoğan.[2][3] The settlement covers the periods of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA), the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB), and the Pottery Neolithic (PN).

The stratigraphy is divided into the following subphases according to the dominant architecture:[4]

  • round, PPNA
  • grill, PPNA
  • channeled, Early PPNB
  • cobble paved, Middle PPNB
  • cell, Late PPNB
  • large room, final PPNB

An analysis of blood found at the site suggested that human sacrifice occurred there.[5]

Origin of domestication

Animal life - domestication of pigs and cattle

Çayönü is possibly the place where the pig (Sus scrofa) was first domesticated.[6]

Farming - cultivation of cereals

Genetic studies of emmer wheat, the precursor of most current wheat species, show that the slopes of Mount Karaca (Karaca Dağ), which is located in close vicinity to Çayönü, was the location of first domestication. A different DNA approach pointed to Kartal Daği.[7]

Robert Braidwood wrote that "insofar as unit HA can be considered as representing all of the major pre-historic occupation at Cayonu, cultivated emmer along with cultivated einkorn was present from the earliest sub-phase."[8]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Collins, Andrew (2014). Gobekli Tepe: Genesis of the Gods: The Temple of the Watchers and the Discovery of Eden. Simon and Schuster. p. 93. ISBN 9781591438359.
  2. ^ Çambel, H., Braidwood, R.J. (Eds.), The Joint Istanbul-Chicago Universities’ Prehistoric Research in Southeastern Anatolia. Istanbul University Publications 2589, Istanbul, 1980
  3. ^ Özdoğan A. Çayönü In: Özdoğan M., Başgelen N., editors. Neolithic in Turkey: The Cradle of Civilization, New Discoveries. EGE Yayınları; Istanbul, pp. 35–64, 1999
  4. ^ Pearson, J; Grove, M; Ozbek, M; Hongo, H (2013). "Food and social complexity at Çayönü Tepesi, southeastern Anatolia: Stable isotope evidence of differentiation in diet according to burial practice and sex in the early Neolithic". J Anthropol Archaeol. 32: 180–189. doi:10.1016/j.jaa.2013.01.002. PMC 4066944. PMID 24976671.
  5. ^ Thomas H. Loy and Andrée R. Wood, Blood Residue Analysis at Çayönü Tepesi, Turkey, Journal of Field Archaeology, vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 451-460, (Winter, 1989)
  6. ^ Ervynck A , Dobney K , Hongo H , Meadow R, Born Free? New Evidence for the Status of Sus scrofa at Neolithic Çayönü Tepesi (Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey), Paléorient, vol. 27, pp. 47–73, 2002
  7. ^ [1] Peter Civáň, Zuzana Ivaničová, Terence A. Brown, Reticulated Origin of Domesticated Emmer Wheat Supports a Dynamic Model for the Emergence of Agriculture in the Fertile Crescent, PLOS One, November 29, 2013
  8. ^ Beginnings of Village-Farming Communities in Southeastern Turkey, 1972 by Braidwood et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 71, No. 2, pp. 568-572, February 1974

External links


  Pre-Pottery Neolithic   Pottery Neolithic
BC
11000
Europe Egypt Syria
Levant
Anatolia Khabur Sinjar Mountains
Assyria
Middle Tigris Low
Mesopotamia
Iran
(Khuzistan)
Iran Indus/
India
China
10000 Pre-Pottery Neolithic A
Gesher[2]
Mureybet
(10,500 BC)
 
Early Pottery
(18,000 BC)[3]
9000 Jericho
Tell Abu Hureyra
(Agriculture)[4]
8000 Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
Jericho
Tell Aswad
Göbekli Tepe
Çayönü
Aşıklı Höyük
Initial Neolithic
(Pottery)
Nanzhuangtou
(8500–8000 BC)
7000 Egyptian Neolithic
Nabta Playa
(7500 BC)
Çatalhöyük
(7500-5500)
Hacilar
(7000 BC)
Tell Sabi Abyad
Bouqras
Jarmo Ganj Dareh
Chia Jani
Ali Kosh
Mehrgarh I[2]
6500 Neolithic Europe
Franchthi
Sesklo
(Agriculture)[5]
Pre-Pottery Neolithic C
('Ain Ghazal)
Pottery Neolithic
Tell Sabi Abyad
Bouqras
Pottery Neolithic
Jarmo
Chogha Bonut Teppe Zagheh Pottery Neolithic
Peiligang
(7000-5000 BC)
6000 Pottery Neolithic
Sesklo
Dimini
Pottery Neolithic
Yarmukian
(Sha'ar HaGolan)
Pottery Neolithic
Ubaid 0
(Tell el-'Oueili)
Pottery Neolithic
Chogha Mish
Pottery Neolithic
Sang-i Chakmak
Pottery Neolithic
Lahuradewa


Mehrgarh II






Mehrgarh III
5600 Faiyum A
Amuq A

Halaf






Halaf-Ubaid
Umm Dabaghiya
Samarra
(6000-4800 BC)
Tepe Muhammad Djafar Tepe Sialk
5200 Linear Pottery culture
(5500-4500 BC)

Amuq B
Hacilar

Mersin
24-22
 

Hassuna

Ubaid 1
(Eridu 19-15)

Ubaid 2
(Hadji Muhammed)
(Eridu 14-12)

Susiana A
Yarim Tepe
Hajji Firuz Tepe
4800 Pottery Neolithic
Merimde
(Agriculture)[6]

Amuq C
Hacilar
Mersin
22-20
Hassuna Late

Gawra 20

Tepe Sabz
Kul Tepe Jolfa
4500
Amuq D
Gian Hasan
Mersin
19-17
Ubaid 3 Ubaid 3
(Gawra)
19-18
Ubaid 3 Khazineh
Susiana B

3800
Badarian
Naqada
Ubaid 4


  1. ^ Liverani, Mario (2013). The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. Routledge. p. 13, Table 1.1 "Chronology of the Ancient Near East". ISBN 9781134750917.
  2. ^ a b Shukurov, Anvar; Sarson, Graeme R.; Gangal, Kavita (7 May 2014). "The Near-Eastern Roots of the Neolithic in South Asia". PLOS ONE. 9 (5): 1-20 and Appendix S1. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095714. ISSN 1932-6203.
  3. ^ Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Arpin, Trina; Pan, Yan; Cohen, David; Goldberg, Paul; Zhang, Chi; Wu, Xiaohong (29 June 2012). "Early Pottery at 20,000 Years Ago in Xianrendong Cave, China". Science. 336 (6089): 1696–1700. doi:10.1126/science.1218643. ISSN 0036-8075.
  4. ^ Thorpe, I. J. (2003). The Origins of Agriculture in Europe. Routledge. p. 14. ISBN 9781134620104.
  5. ^ Price, T. Douglas (2000). Europe's First Farmers. Cambridge University Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780521665728.
  6. ^ Jr, William H. Stiebing; Helft, Susan N. (2017). Ancient Near Eastern History and Culture. Routledge. p. 25. ISBN 9781134880836.