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Tracing the origins of Hakka and Chaoshanese by mitochondrial DNA analysis - Wang - 2009 - American Journal of Physical Anthropology - Wiley Online Library

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Research Article

Tracing the origins of Hakka and Chaoshanese by mitochondrial DNA analysis

Authors

  • Wen-Zhi Wang,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, People's Republic of China
    2. KIZ / UHK Joint Laboratory of Bioresources and Molecular Research in Common Diseases, Kunming 650223, People's Republic of China
    3. Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, People's Republic of China
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  • Cheng-Ye Wang,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, People's Republic of China
    2. KIZ / UHK Joint Laboratory of Bioresources and Molecular Research in Common Diseases, Kunming 650223, People's Republic of China
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  • Yao-Ting Cheng,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, People's Republic of China
    2. KIZ / UHK Joint Laboratory of Bioresources and Molecular Research in Common Diseases, Kunming 650223, People's Republic of China
    3. Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, People's Republic of China
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  • An-Long Xu,

    1. College of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou, 510275, People's Republic of China
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  • Chun-Ling Zhu,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, People's Republic of China
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  • Shi-Fang Wu,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, People's Republic of China
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  • Qing-Peng Kong,

    Corresponding author
    1. State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, People's Republic of China
    2. KIZ / UHK Joint Laboratory of Bioresources and Molecular Research in Common Diseases, Kunming 650223, People's Republic of China
    • State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China
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  • Ya-Ping Zhang

    Corresponding author
    1. State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, People's Republic of China
    2. KIZ / UHK Joint Laboratory of Bioresources and Molecular Research in Common Diseases, Kunming 650223, People's Republic of China
    3. Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resource, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, People's Republic of China
    • State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China
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Abstract

Hakka and Chaoshanese are two unique Han populations residing in southern China but with northern Han (NH) cultural traditions and linguistic influences. Although most of historical records indicate that both populations migrated from northern China in the last two thousand years, no consensus on their origins has been reached so far. To shed more light on the origins of Hakka and Chaoshanese, mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of 170 Hakka from Meizhou and 102 Chaoshanese from Chaoshan area, Guangdong Province, were analyzed. Our results show that some southern Chinese predominant haplogroups, e.g. B, F, and M7, have relatively high frequencies in both populations. Although median network analyses show that Hakka/Chaoshanese share some haplotypes with NH, interpopulation comparison reveals that both populations show closer affinity with southern Han (SH) populations than with NH. In consideration of previous results from nuclear gene (including Y chromosome) research, it is likely that matrilineal landscapes of both Hakka and Chaoshanese have largely been shaped by the local people during their migration southward and/or later colonization in southern China, and factors such as cultural assimilation, patrilocality, and even sex-bias in the immigrants might have played important roles during the process. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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Article Information

DOI

10.1002/ajpa.21124

Format Available

Full text: PDF

Copyright © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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Keywords

  • mtDNA;
  • origin;
  • Han Chinese;
  • Hakka;
  • Chaoshanese

Publication History

  • Issue online: 9 December 2009
  • Version of record online: 9 July 2009
  • Manuscript Received: 7 November 2008
  • Manuscript Accepted: 19 May 2008

Funded by

  • Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC). Grant Number: 30621092
  • The Chinese Academy of Sciences Special Grant for the President Scholarship Winner and Special Grant for Young Researcher Kunming Institute of Zoology, CAS

Supporting Information

Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article.

FilenameDescriptionAJPA_21124_sm_SupFigure1.tif2666K Supplemental Figure1. AJPA_21124_sm_SupFigure2.tif3396K Supplemental Figure2. AJPA_21124_sm_SupFigure3.tif3569K Supplemental Figure3. AJPA_21124_sm_SupFigure4.tif3390K Supplemental Figure4. AJPA_21124_sm_SupFigure5.tif2908K Supplemental Figure5. AJPA_21124_sm_SupTable1.xls91K Supplementary Table 1 - mtDNA variation of the 170 Hakka and 102 Chaoshanese analyzed in the present study AJPA_21124_sm_SupTable2.xls40K Supplementary Table 2 - Frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups in Han Chinese

Please note: Wiley-Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.

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