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STUDIES ON THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF THE SUBSTANCE INDUCING TRANSFORMATION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL TYPES

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PMC

US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health J Exp Med. 1944 Feb 1; 79(2): 137–158. PMCID: PMC2135445 PMID: 19871359

STUDIES ON THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF THE SUBSTANCE INDUCING TRANSFORMATION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL TYPES

INDUCTION OF TRANSFORMATION BY A DESOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID FRACTION ISOLATED FROM PNEUMOCOCCUS TYPE III Oswald T. Avery, Colin M. MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer From the Hospital of The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research Received 1943 Nov 1 Copyright © Copyright, 1944, by The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research New York This article is distributed under the terms of an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike–No Mirror Sites license for the first six months after the publication date (see [www.rupress.org]). After six months it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 4.0 Unported license, as described at [creativecommons.org]). This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract

1. From Type III pneumococci a biologically active fraction has been isolated in highly purified form which in exceedingly minute amounts is capable under appropriate cultural conditions of inducing the transformation of unencapsulated R variants of Pneumococcus Type II into fully encapsulated cells of the same specific type as that of the heat-killed microorganisms from which the inducing material was recovered. 2. Methods for the isolation and purification of the active transforming material are described. 3. The data obtained by chemical, enzymatic, and serological analyses together with the results of preliminary studies by electrophoresis, ultracentrifugation, and ultraviolet spectroscopy indicate that, within the limits of the methods, the active fraction contains no demonstrable protein, unbound lipid, or serologically reactive polysaccharide and consists principally, if not solely, of a highly polymerized, viscous form of desoxyribonucleic acid. 4. Evidence is presented that the chemically induced alterations in cellular structure and function are predictable, type-specific, and transmissible in series. The various hypotheses that have been advanced concerning the nature of these changes are reviewed.

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Dawson MH. THE TRANSFORMATION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL TYPES : II. THE INTERCONVERTIBILITY OF TYPE-SPECIFIC S PNEUMOCOCCI. J Exp Med. 1930 Jan 1;51(1):123–147. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
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