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English | Ethnologue

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Ethnologue

English

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A language of United Kingdom

ISO 639-3 eng Autonym English Population

58,100,000 in United Kingdom, all users. L1 users: 56,600,000 (2011 census). England and Wales 49,800,000, Scotland 5,118,000, Northern Ireland 1,681,000. L2 users: 1,500,000 (Crystal 2003a). Total users in all countries: 1,121,806,280 (as L1: 378,250,540; as L2: 743,555,740).

Language Maps Cook Islands Ireland and United Kingdom Liberia Lesotho, South Africa and Swaziland South Africa: Enlarged area El Salvador and Honduras Language Status

1 (National). De facto national language.

Classification Indo-European, Germanic, West, English Dialects

Cockney, Scouse, Geordie, West Country, East Anglia, Birmingham (Brummie, Brummy), South Wales, Edinburgh, Belfast, Cornwall, Cumberland, Central Cumberland, Devonshire, East Devonshire, Dorset, Durham, Bolton Lancashire, North Lancashire, Radcliffe Lancashire, Northumberland, Norfolk, Newcastle Northumberland, Tyneside Northumberland, Lowland Scottish, Somerset, Sussex, Westmorland, North Wiltshire, Craven Yorkshire, North Yorkshire, Sheffield Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, Glaswegian. Many local English varieties around the world. Lexical similarity: 60% with German, 27% with French, 24% with Russian.

Typology

SVO; prepositions; genitives after noun heads; articles, adjectives, numerals before noun heads; question word initial; word order distinguishes subject, object, indirect objects, given and new information, topic and comment; active and passive; causative; comparative; consonant and vowel clusters; 24 consonants, 13 vowels, 8 diphthongs; non-tonal; free stress; phrasal verbs.

Language Use

Some also use French [fra] (European Commission 2006). A few also use Spanish [spa] (European Commission 2006), Standard German [deu] (European Commission 2006).

Language Development Fully developed. Bible: 1382–2002. Language Resources OLAC resources in and about English Writing

Braille script [Brai]. Deseret Alphabet [Dsrt], developed in 1854 with limited usage until 1877. Latin script [Latn], primary usage. Shavian (Shaw) script [Shaw], no longer in use.

Other Comments

Christian.

Also spoken in:

Expand All Collapse All American SamoaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full67,180 in American Samoa, all users. L1 users: 2,180 (2010). L2 users: 65,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of American Samoa AnguillaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full12,250 in Anguilla, all users. L1 users: 950 (2004). It is difficult to substantiate the number of Creole speakers and English speakers. L2 users: 11,300 (2003 UNSD). Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Anguilla Antigua and BarbudaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full89,000 in Antigua and Barbuda, all users. L1 users: 86,400 (2011). It is difficult to substantiate the number of Creole speakers and English speakers. L2 users: 2,600 (2011). Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Antigua and Barbuda ArgentinaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full2,850,000 in Argentina, all users. L1 users: 100,000 (1985 New York Times). L2 users: 2,750,000 (2006). LocationWidespread, mostly in Buenos Aires. Alternate NamesInglés Status5 (Dispersed). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. The British came to build the railroads in Argentina in the early 1800s. View other languages of Argentina ArubaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full42,000 in Aruba, all users. L1 users: 7,000 (2009 UNSD). L2 users: 35,000 (Crystal 2003a). LocationWidespread. Status3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Aruba AustraliaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full21,900,000 in Australia, all users. L1 users: 18,400,000 (2015). L2 users: 3,500,000 (Crystal 2003a). DialectsAustralian Standard English, Aboriginal English, Neo-Nyungar (Noogar, Noonga, Noongar). Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. Minor regional dialect differences. Neo-Nyungar is the community dialect of the Nyungar people. View other languages of Australia AustriaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full6,418,600 in Austria, all users. L1 users: 58,600 (2003 UNSD). L2 users: 6,360,000 (European Commission 2012). LocationWidespread. Status4 (Educational). Language DevelopmentTaught in primary and secondary schools. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Austria BahamasLanguage nameEnglish Population Full385,200 in Bahamas, all users. L1 users: 351,000 (2013 UNSD). L2 users: 34,200 (2014). Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. When Creole languages exist alongside their lexifier language, as in the Bahamas, a continuum forms of variations between the Creole and the lexifier language. It is therefore difficult to substantiate the number of Creole speakers and English speakers. View other languages of Bahamas BahrainLanguage nameEnglish Population Full16,600 (2013). LocationWidespread. Status3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Language UseUsed for most business communication. Many Bahraini children learn English before Arabic [arb] because it is easier to learn (2004). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Bahrain BarbadosLanguage nameEnglish Population Full275,000 in Barbados, all users. L1 users: 262,000 (Crystal 2003a). L2 users: 13,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. When Creole languages exist alongside their lexifier language, as in Barbados, a continuum forms of variations between the Creole and the lexifier language. It is therefore difficult to substantiate the number of Creole speakers and English speakers. Christian. View other languages of Barbados BelizeLanguage nameEnglish Population Full240,000 in Belize, all users. L1 users: 184,000 (2014 UNSD). L2 users: 56,000 (Crystal 2003a). LocationWidespread. Status1 (National). De facto national language. Language UseEducation, government, commerce. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. When Creole languages exist alongside their lexifier language, as in Belize, a continuum forms of variations between the Creole and the lexifier language It is therefore difficult to substantiate the number of Creole speakers and English speakers. View other languages of Belize BermudaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full63,000 (Crystal 2003a). DialectsBermudan English. Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. Colloquial English may not be a creole but a regional variety of uncreolized English. View other languages of Bermuda BhutanLanguage nameEnglish LocationWidespread. Status3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Language UseEducation, government, commerce, media. Used as L2 by Khengkha [xkf]. Language DevelopmentTaught in primary and secondary schools. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Bhutan BotswanaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full682,900 in Botswana, all users. L1 users: 52,900 (2015 UNSD). L2 users: 630,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). De facto national working language. Language UseInternational trade, the medium of western influence. Language DevelopmentLanguage of instruction from fifth grade. Taught from the beginning of primary school as a required subject. Taught in primary and secondary schools. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Botswana British Indian Ocean TerritoryLanguage nameEnglish Population Full4,000 (2004 census). Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. The indigenous population no longer resides in the islands. Current residents include members of the United States military, a small detachment of British officials, and support staff, mainly of Mauritian and Philippine origin. View other languages of British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin IslandsLanguage nameEnglish Population Full20,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. When Creole languages exist alongside their lexifier language, as in the British Virgin Islands, a continuum forms of variations between the Creole and the lexifier language. It is therefore difficult to substantiate the number of Creole speakers and English speakers. View other languages of British Virgin Islands BruneiLanguage nameEnglish Population Full144,000 in Brunei, all users. L1 users: 10,000 (Crystal 2003a). L2 users: 134,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). Statutory national working language (1984, Constitution, Article 82(2)). Language UseGovernment, education, and by the educated as L1 or L2. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Brunei CambodiaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full3,502,360 in Cambodia, all users. L1 users: 2,360 (2009 UNSD). L2 users: 3,500,000 (2016 R. Salin). LocationMajor cities. Status3 (Wider communication). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. English [eng] has surpassed French [fra] as the more commonly spoken international language in Cambodia. View other languages of Cambodia CameroonLanguage nameEnglish Population Full7,500,000 in Cameroon (Pinyon, R. and J. Haydon 2010), L2 users. LocationMainly North West and South West regions. Alternate NamesAnglais Status1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 1(3)). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Cameroon CanadaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full26,400,000 in Canada, all users. L1 users: 19,400,000 (2016 census). L2 users: 7,000,000 (Crystal 2003a). Alternate NamesAnglais DialectsNewfoundland English. Status1 (National). Statutory national language (1988, Official Languages Act, Ch. 38, Articles 1, 34). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Canada Caribbean NetherlandsLanguage nameEnglish Population Full3,390 (2001 census). Bonaire 300, Sint Eustatius 1,900, Saba 1,190. Status1 (National). Statutory national language (2010, Provisional Official Languages Law, BWBR0028827, Article 2). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. When Creole languages exist alongside their lexifier language, a continuum forms of variations between the Creole and the lexifier language. It is therefore difficult to substantiate the number of Creole speakers and English speakers. View other languages of Caribbean Netherlands Cayman IslandsLanguage nameEnglish Population Full50,000 (2012 UNSD). DialectsCayman Islands English. Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. Local colloquial English seemingly borrowed creole features similar to Jamaica and Central America without undergoing creolization (Holm 1989:479–480). View other languages of Cayman Islands China–Hong KongLanguage nameEnglish Population Full3,750,000 in China–Hong Kong, all users. L1 users: 300,000 (2016 census), increasing. L2 users: 3,450,000 (2016 census). LocationWidespread. Status2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Hong Kong (1997, Basic Law, Article 9). Language UsePositive attitudes. Language DevelopmentTaught in primary and secondary schools. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of China–Hong Kong Christmas IslandLanguage nameEnglish Population Full440 (2016). Status1 (National). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) IslandsLanguage nameEnglish Population Full100 (2012 World Factbook). LocationWest island. Status1 (National). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Cocos (Keeling) Islands ColombiaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full1,910,000 in Colombia (2015), L2 users. LocationSan Andrés y Providencia department; scattered elsewhere. Status5 (Dispersed). Language UseUsed as L2 by Islander Creole English [icr]. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Colombia Cook IslandsLanguage nameEnglish Population Full17,680 in Cook Islands, all users. L1 users: 680 (2011 SIL). L2 users: 17,000 (2012 M. Salisbury). LocationWidespread. Status1 (National). Statutory national language (1965, Constitution, Article 35). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. All the residents of Palmerston Island speak a distinctive dialect of English and have close family connections to Penrhyn. The Palmerston residents are descendants of an Englishman with several Cook Islands wives who settled on Palmerston in the 19th century (2012 M. Salisbury). View other languages of Cook Islands CuracaoLanguage nameEnglish Population Full4,440 (2014). LocationWidespread. Status5 (Dispersed). Language UseUsed as L2 by Papiamentu [pap]. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Curacao DenmarkLanguage nameEnglish Population Full4,913,100 in Denmark, all users. L1 users: 23,100 (2007 I. Larsen). L2 users: 4,890,000 (European Commission 2012). LocationWidespread. Alternate NamesEngelsk Status4 (Educational). Language UseUsed as L2 by Danish [dan]. Language DevelopmentTaught in primary and secondary schools. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Denmark DominicaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full63,000 in Dominica, all users. L1 users: 3,000 (Crystal 2003a). L2 users: 60,000 (Crystal 2003a). DialectsDominican English. Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. When Creole languages exist alongside their lexifier language, as in Dominica, a continuum forms of variations between the Creole and the lexifier language. It is therefore difficult to substantiate the number of Creole speakers and English speakers. View other languages of Dominica Dominican RepublicLanguage nameEnglish Population Full8,000 (Holm 1989). LocationCibao Nordeste and Samaná regions, northeastern peninsula. Alternate NamesInglés DialectsSamaná English. Status6b (Threatened). Language UseAlso use Haitian Creole [hat], Spanish [spa]. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. Descendants of ex-slaves from the United States settled in 1824. Reportedly a settlement of African slaves existed here in the early 1500s. Includes features of creolization and archaic Black English. View other languages of Dominican Republic EritreaLanguage nameEnglish LocationWidespread. Status3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Language DevelopmentTaught in primary and secondary schools. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. Language of higher education and many technical fields. View other languages of Eritrea EstoniaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full660,880 in Estonia, all users. L1 users: 880 (2013 UNSD). L2 users: 660,000 (European Commission 2012). LocationWidespread. Status4 (Educational). Language UseUsed as L2 by Standard Estonian [ekk]. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Estonia EthiopiaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full171,870 in Ethiopia, all users. L1 users: 1,870 (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 170,000. LocationWidespread. Status3 (Wider communication). Language UseLanguage of higher education, many technical fields, and international communication. Language DevelopmentTaught in secondary schools throughout Ethiopia. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Ethiopia Falkland IslandsLanguage nameEnglish Population Full2,610 (2012 World Factbook). LocationWidespread. Status1 (National). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. Christian, secular. View other languages of Falkland Islands FijiLanguage nameEnglish Population Full176,000 in Fiji, all users. L1 users: 6,000 (Crystal 2003b). L2 users: 170,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). Statutory national language (2000, Constitution, Article 4(1)), dominant language in commerce, education, government. Language UseAlso used by many urban Chinese (4,652 in 1976), Rotuman, occasionally by Indians, rarely by Fijians (Geraghty and Pawley 1981). Reportedly a Fijian Pidgin English. Main language of commerce, education, government. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Fiji FinlandLanguage nameEnglish Population Full3,852,900 in Finland, all users. L1 users: 12,900 (2011 UNSD). L2 users: 3,840,000 (European Commission 2012). LocationWidespread. Alternate NamesEnglanti Status4 (Educational). Language UseUsed as L2 by Finnish [fin]. Language DevelopmentTaught in primary and secondary schools. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Finland GambiaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full41,000 in Gambia, all users. L1 users: 1,000 (2004). L2 users: 40,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Gambia GermanyLanguage nameEnglish Population Full45,846,000 in Germany, all users. L1 users: 246,000 (2016 census). L2 users: 45,600,000 (European Commission 2012). LocationWidespread. Alternate NamesEnglisch Status4 (Educational). Language UseUsed as L2 by German Sign Language [gsg], Northern Frisian [frr], Standard German [deu]. Language DevelopmentTaught in primary and secondary schools. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Germany GhanaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full9,800,000 in Ghana (2010 census), L2 users. Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Ghana GibraltarLanguage nameEnglish Population Full30,000 in Gibraltar, all users. L1 users: 28,000 (Crystal 2003a). L2 users: 2,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Gibraltar GrenadaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full5,350 (2015). DialectsGrenadian English. Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. When Creole languages exist alongside their lexifier language, as in Grenada, a continuum forms of variations between the Creole and the lexifier language. In such situations, a continuum forms of variations between the Creole and the acrolect. It is therefore difficult to substantiate the number of Creole speakers and English speakers. Post-creole English with French Creole influences (Alleyne 1985). View other languages of Grenada GuamLanguage nameEnglish Population Full163,200 in Guam, all users. L1 users: 63,200 (2013 census). L2 users: 100,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). Statutory national language (1974, Guam Code Annotated, Chapter 7, Section 706, amended), dominates in administration, education and media. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. United States military and dependents. View other languages of Guam GuernseyLanguage nameEnglish Population Full62,500. LocationWidespread. Status1 (National). Statutory national language (2006, Amendment 2, Royal Court Rules). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Guernsey GuyanaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full680,000 in Guyana, all users. L1 users: 650,000 (Crystal 2003a). L2 users: 30,000 (Crystal 2003a). DialectsGuyanese English. Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. When Creole languages exist alongside their lexifier language, as in Guyana, a continuum forms of variations between the Creole and the lexifier language. It is therefore difficult to substantiate the number of Creole speakers and English speakers. View other languages of Guyana HondurasLanguage nameEnglish Population Full31,500 (2000 J. Leclerc). 22,500 Bay Islands English speakers on the north coast. LocationIslas de la Bahía department: large cities along north mainland coast. Alternate NamesInglés DialectsBay Islands English. Status5 (Dispersed). Language UseUsed as L2 by Garifuna [cab]. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. Some creole influence. View other languages of Honduras IndiaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full200,350,000 in India, all users. L1 users: 350,000 (Crystal 2003a). L2 users: 200,000,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). Statutory national working language (1950, Constitution, Articles 343 and 348(1)). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. Neither British nor American English but a distinct Indian dialect with its own unique vocabulary and style. View other languages of India IrelandLanguage nameEnglish Population Full4,652,000 in Ireland, all users. L1 users: 4,370,000 (European Commission 2012). L2 users: 282,000 (European Commission 2012). DialectsSouth Hiberno English, North Hiberno English. Status1 (National). Statutory national language (1937, Constitution, Article 8(2)). Language UseSome also use French [fra] (European Commission 2006). A few also use Standard German [deu] (European Commission 2006). View other languages of Ireland Isle of ManLanguage nameEnglish Population Full88,000 (2015). LocationWidespread. Status3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Language UseUsed as L2 by Manx [glv]. View other languages of Isle of Man IsraelLanguage nameEnglish Population Full125,000 (2016). LocationWidespread. Status3 (Wider communication). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Israel JamaicaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full50,000 in Jamaica (Crystal 2003a), L2 users. Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. When Creole languages exist alongside their lexifier language, a continuum forms of variations between the Creole and the lexifier language. It is therefore difficult to substantiate the exact number of Creole speakers and speakers of the lexifier language. View other languages of Jamaica JerseyLanguage nameEnglish Population Full93,000 (2016 World Factbook). LocationWidespread. Status1 (National). Statutory national language (2006, Amendment 2, Royal Court Rules). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Jersey KenyaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full2,700,000 in Kenya (Crystal 2003a), L2 users. LocationWidespread. Status1 (National). Statutory national language (2010, Constitution, Article 7(2)). Language UseOfficial language in most transactions. All ages. Positive attitudes. Also use Swahili [swh]. Language DevelopmentTaught in primary and secondary schools. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Kenya KiribatiLanguage nameEnglish Population Full25,500 in Kiribati, all users. L1 users: 2,500 (2015). L2 users: 23,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). De facto national language, should official texts conflict in interpretation, English prevails over Kiribati. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Kiribati LebanonLanguage nameEnglish Population Full1,715,170 in Lebanon, all users. L1 users: 5,170 (2004 J. Leclerc). L2 users: 1,710,000 (Ramaswami et al 2012). LocationScattered. Status3 (Wider communication). Language UseUsed to some extent since American University of Beirut founded in 1866. Many English language publications. Language of instruction in some schools and universities. Not spoken on the street or in Lebanese homes. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Lebanon LesothoLanguage nameEnglish Population Full500,000 in Lesotho (Crystal 2003a), L2 users. Status1 (National). Statutory national language (1993, Constitution, Article 7(2)). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Lesotho LiberiaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full2,500,000 in Liberia (Crystal 2003a), L2 users. DialectsLiberian Standard English. Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Liberia MadagascarLanguage nameEnglish LocationScattered. Alternate NamesAnglisy Status3 (Wider communication). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Madagascar MalawiLanguage nameEnglish Population Full540,000 in Malawi (Crystal 2003a), L2 users. Status1 (National). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Malawi MalaysiaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full7,380,000 in Malaysia, all users. L1 users: 380,000 (Crystal 2003a), increasing. L2 users: 7,000,000 (Crystal 2003a). LocationWidespread: Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Kuala Lumpur, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Putrajaya, Selangor, and Terengganu states. Status1 (National). Statutory national working language (1957, Constitution, Articles 152(2) through 152(5)). Language UseNearly all domains. All ages. Positive attitudes. Language DevelopmentTaught in primary and secondary schools. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Malaysia MaldivesLanguage nameEnglish LocationWidespread. Status3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Language UseUsed as L2 by Maldivian [div]. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Maldives MaltaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full385,600 in Malta, all users. L1 users: 16,600 (European Commission 2012). L2 users: 369,000 (European Commission 2012). Alternate NamesIngliż Status1 (National). Statutory national working language (1964, Constitution, Article 5(2)). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Malta Marshall IslandsLanguage nameEnglish Population Full83,200 in Marshall Islands, all users. L1 users: 23,200 (2001 UNSD). L2 users: 60,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Marshall Islands MauritiusLanguage nameEnglish Population Full205,900 in Mauritius, all users. L1 users: 5,900 (2012 UNSD). L2 users: 200,000 (Crystal 2003a). Alternate NamesAnglais Status1 (National). Statutory national language (1992, Constitution, Articles 33,46,49), used in education. Language UseCourts, road signs. Language DevelopmentTaught in secondary schools. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Mauritius MicronesiaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full61,320 in Micronesia, all users. L1 users: 1,320 (2005 UNSD). L2 users: 60,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Micronesia MonacoLanguage nameEnglish Population Full3,230 (2014). LocationWidespread. Status5 (Dispersed). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Monaco MontserratLanguage nameEnglish Population Full100 (2011 J. Leclerc). Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. When Creole languages exist alongside their lexifier language, as in Montserrat, a continuum forms of variations between the Creole and the lexifier language. In such situations, a continuum forms of variations between the Creole and the acrolect. It is therefore difficult to substantiate the number of Creole speakers and English speakers. View other languages of Montserrat NamibiaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full350,200 in Namibia, all users. L1 users: 50,200 (2014 UNSD). L2 users: 300,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). Statutory national language (1990, Constitution, Article 3(1)). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Namibia NauruLanguage nameEnglish Population Full11,600 in Nauru, all users. L1 users: 900 (Crystal 2003a). L2 users: 10,700 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Nauru NepalLanguage nameEnglish Population Full7,002,030 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 2,030 (2011 census). L2 users: 7,000,000 (Crystal 2003a). LocationMajor cities. Status4 (Educational). Language UseUsed as L2 by Gurung [gvr], Maithili [mai], Mugom [muk], Newar [new], Nyeshangte [nmm], Sherpa [xsr], Southern Ghale [ghe]. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. Second most widespread language in Nepal in popularity, education, and use. Spoken at all socio-economic levels, by both literate and non-literate. View other languages of Nepal NetherlandsLanguage nameEnglish Population Full15,376,500 in Netherlands, all users. L1 users: 76,500 (2016). L2 users: 15,300,000 (European Commission 2012). LocationWidespread. Alternate NamesEngels Status4 (Educational). Language UseUsed as L2 by Dutch [nld]. Language DevelopmentTaught in primary and secondary schools. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Netherlands New ZealandLanguage nameEnglish Population Full3,970,000 in New Zealand, all users. L1 users: 3,820,000 (2013 census). L2 users: 150,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of New Zealand NigeriaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full60,000,000 in Nigeria (Crystal 2003a), L2 users. Status1 (National). De facto national language. Language UseGovernment and education. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Nigeria NiueLanguage nameEnglish Population Full860 in Niue, all users. L1 users: 220 (2015 World Factbook). L2 users: 640 (2015 World Factbook). Status1 (National). Statutory national working language (1974, Constitution, Articles 23 and 71). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Niue Norfolk IslandLanguage nameEnglish Population Full1,680 (2011 census). Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Norfolk Island Northern Mariana IslandsLanguage nameEnglish Population Full71,820 in Northern Mariana Islands, all users. L1 users: 6,820 (2005 UNSD). L2 users: 65,000 (Crystal 2003a). LocationWidespread. Status1 (National). Statutory national language (1978, Constitution, Article 22(3)), co-official with Chamorro [cha], Carolinian [cal]. Language UseVigorous. All domains. All ages. Neutral to positive attitudes. Language DevelopmentMany students from Asia, particularly Korea, come to Saipan specifically to study English. Taught in primary and secondary schools. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Northern Mariana Islands NorwayLanguage nameEnglish Population Full4,344,800 in Norway, all users. L1 users: 24,800 (2017 census). Based on immigrant population. L2 users: 4,320,000 (2012). LocationWidespread. Alternate NamesEngelsk Status4 (Educational). Language DevelopmentTaught in primary and secondary schools. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Norway OmanLanguage nameEnglish LocationWidespread. Status3 (Wider communication). Language UseWidely spoken in the business community. All official road signs and virtually all shop signs are bilingual Standard Arabic [arb] and English, though the number of L1 English speakers is relatively low. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Oman PakistanLanguage nameEnglish Population Full17,012,500 in Pakistan, all users. L1 users: 12,500 (2004 J. Leclerc). L2 users: 17,000,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). Statutory national language (1973, Constitution, Article 251(2)). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Pakistan PalauLanguage nameEnglish Population Full22,010 in Palau, all users. L1 users: 4,010 (2015 World Factbook). L2 users: 18,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). Statutory national language (1979, Constitution, Article 13(1)). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Palau Papua New GuineaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full3,150,000 in Papua New Guinea, all users. L1 users: 150,000 (Crystal 2003a). L2 users: 3,000,000 (Crystal 2003a). LocationWidespread. Status1 (National). De facto national language. Used as LWC in the southern part of the country. Language DevelopmentTaught in primary and secondary schools. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Papua New Guinea PhilippinesLanguage nameEnglish Population Full40,028,700 in Philippines, all users. L1 users: 28,700 (2005 UNSD). L2 users: 40,000,000 (Crystal 2003a). LocationWidespread. Status1 (National). Statutory national working language (1987, Constitution, Article 14(7)). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Philippines PitcairnLanguage nameEnglish Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Pitcairn Puerto RicoLanguage nameEnglish Population Full1,999,000 in Puerto Rico, all users. L1 users: 159,000 (2015 UNSD). L2 users: 1,840,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). Statutory national working language (1993, Official Languages Act No. 1, Article 1). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Puerto Rico RwandaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full1,525,440 in Rwanda, all users. L1 users: 5,440 (2011 UNSD). L2 users: 1,520,000 (Pinyon, R. and J. Haydon 2010). Status1 (National). Statutory national working language (2003, Constitution, Article 5). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. May be more users of English [eng] than French [fra]. View other languages of Rwanda Saint BarthélemyLanguage nameEnglish Population Full100 (2011 SIL). LocationSaint Barthelemy island: Gustavia port town on west coast. Alternate NamesAnglais DialectsGustavia English. Status7 (Shifting). Language UseFew youth still speak it. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. English with some creole influence. View other languages of Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da CunhaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full5,900 (2016 census). LocationWidespread. Status1 (National). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. Christian, secular. View other languages of Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and NevisLanguage nameEnglish Population Full1,000 (2015). Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. When Creole languages exist alongside their lexifier language, as in St. Kitts and Nevis, a continuum forms of variations between the Creole and the lexifier language. It is therefore difficult to substantiate the number of Creole speakers and English speakers. View other languages of Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint LuciaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full41,600 in Saint Lucia, all users. L1 users: 1,600 (2004). L2 users: 40,000 (Crystal 2003a). DialectsSaint Lucian English. Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. An emerging English vernacular on Saint Lucia in a rural area is significantly restructured, heavily French Creole [acf] influenced, English lexicon (1998 P. Garrett). View other languages of Saint Lucia Saint MartinLanguage nameEnglish Population Full5,000 (2011 SIL). LocationWidespread. Alternate NamesAnglais Status3 (Wider communication). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. When Creole languages exist alongside their lexifier language, as in Saint Martin, a continuum forms of variations between the Creole and the lexifier language. It is therefore difficult to substantiate the number of Creole speakers and English speakers. View other languages of Saint Martin Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesLanguage nameEnglish Population Full400 (2004). Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. When Creole languages exist alongside their lexifier language, as in St. Vincent and the Grenadines, a continuum forms of variations between the Creole and the lexifier language. It is therefore difficult to substantiate the number of Creole speakers and English speakers. View other languages of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines SamoaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full110,800 in Samoa, all users. L1 users: 17,800 (2015). L2 users: 93,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). Statutory national language (1960, Constitution, Article 54). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Samoa SeychellesLanguage nameEnglish Population Full34,590 in Seychelles, all users. L1 users: 4,590 (2014 World Factbook). L2 users: 30,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). Statutory national language (1993, Constitution, Article 4(1)). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. Principal language of the schools. View other languages of Seychelles Sierra LeoneLanguage nameEnglish Population Full4,900,000 in Sierra Leone, all users. L1 users: 500,000 (Crystal 2003a). L2 users: 4,400,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). De facto national language. Language UseAdministration, law, education, commerce. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Sierra Leone SingaporeLanguage nameEnglish Population Full3,650,000 in Singapore, all users. L1 users: 1,650,000 (2015 World Factbook). L2 users: 2,000,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). Statutory national working language (1963, Constitution (amended), Article 153A(1)). Language UseHome, office, church, public institutions. Language DevelopmentTaught in primary and secondary schools. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Singapore Sint MaartenLanguage nameEnglish Population Full5,000 (2011 SIL). Alternate NamesEngels Status1 (National). Statutory national language (2010, Constitution, Article 1(2)). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. When Creole languages exist alongside their lexifier language, as in Sint Maarten, a continuum forms of variations between the Creole and the lexifier language. It is therefore difficult to substantiate the number of Creole speakers and English speakers. View other languages of Sint Maarten Solomon IslandsLanguage nameEnglish Population Full175,000 in Solomon Islands, all users. L1 users: 10,000 (Crystal 2003a). L2 users: 165,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Solomon Islands SomaliaLanguage nameEnglish LocationScattered. Status4 (Educational). Language UseOlder adults. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Somalia South AfricaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full15,890,000 in South Africa, all users. L1 users: 4,890,000 (2013 UNSD). L2 users: 11,000,000 (Crystal 2003a). LocationGauteng province: Cape Town area; KwaZulu-Natal and Western Cape provinces; Tugela river to Port Edward area, and inland to Eastern Cape province; urban concentrations, Johannesburg, suburbs. Status1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 6(1)), has been designated, along with Afrikaans, as an official language in all 9 provinces. Language UseMany second-generation people from India, Portugal, Germany, and Greece speak English as L1. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of South Africa South SudanLanguage nameEnglish Population FullAlmost no L1 speakers. LocationWidespread. Status3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Language DevelopmentTaught in primary and secondary schools. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of South Sudan Sri LankaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full2,090,000 in Sri Lanka, all users. L1 users: 10,000 (Crystal 2003a). L2 users: 2,080,000 (2015). LocationScattered. Status3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language, used in government. Language UseGovernment. Used as L2 by Indo-Portuguese [idb], Sri Lankan Creole Malay [sci]. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Sri Lanka SudanLanguage nameEnglish Status1 (National). Statutory national working language (2005, Interim Constitution, Article 8(3)). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Sudan SwazilandLanguage nameEnglish Population Full68,300 in Swaziland, all users. L1 users: 18,300 (2017 J. Leclerc). L2 users: 50,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). Statutory national language (2005, Constitution, Article 3(2)). Other CommentsNon-indigenous. Taught in all government and private schools. View other languages of Swaziland SwedenLanguage nameEnglish Population Full8,514,300 in Sweden, all users. L1 users: 54,300 (2012 M. Parkvall). L2 users: 8,460,000 (European Commission 2012). LocationWidespread. Alternate NamesEngelska Status4 (Educational). Language UseUsed as L2 by Swedish [swe]. Language DevelopmentTaught in primary and secondary schools. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Sweden TanzaniaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full4,000,000 in Tanzania (Crystal 2003a), L2 users. LocationWidespread. Alternate NamesKiingereza Status3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Language UseUsed by some Asian residents as L1. Widely used in education, technology, and the courts, but the government planned to discontinue using English in schools in favor of Kiswahili [swh] in 2015. Used as L2 by Asu [asa], Cutchi-Swahili [ccl], Luguru [ruf], Magoma [gmx]. Language DevelopmentTaught in primary schools. Taught in secondary schools; instruction medium in secondary schools and universities. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Tanzania TokelauLanguage nameEnglish Population Full670 (2013 UNSD). Status1 (National). De facto national language. Language DevelopmentTaught in primary and secondary schools. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Tokelau TongaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full31,270 in Tonga, all users. L1 users: 1,270 (2015 World Factbook). L2 users: 30,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). De facto national working language, considered co-official with Tongan [ton]. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Tonga Trinidad and TobagoLanguage nameEnglish Population Full1,300,000 (2011 J. Ferreira). Status1 (National). De facto national language, standard English in writing, education; non-standard English in informal domains, among distinct ethnic groups. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Trinidad and Tobago Turks and Caicos IslandsLanguage nameEnglish Population Full1,530 (2015). Status1 (National). De facto national language. Language UseShifting to a standard variety of Caribbean English. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Turks and Caicos Islands TuvaluLanguage nameEnglish Population Full800 in Tuvalu (Crystal 2003a), L2 users. Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Tuvalu U.S. Virgin IslandsLanguage nameEnglish Population Full85,440 in U.S. Virgin Islands, all users. L1 users: 9,540 (2013). L2 users: 75,900 (2017 World Factbook). Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of U.S. Virgin Islands UgandaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full2,500,000 in Uganda (Crystal 2003a), L2 users. LocationWidespread. Status1 (National). Statutory national language (2005, Constitution, Amendment Act, Article 6(1)). Language UseAll domains. All ages (as L2). Language DevelopmentTaught in primary and secondary schools. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Uganda United Arab EmiratesLanguage nameEnglish Population Full19,500 (2003 J. Leclerc). LocationWidespread. Status3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of United Arab Emirates United StatesLanguage nameEnglish Population Full308,900,000 in United States, all users. L1 users: 261,000,000 (2016). L2 users: 47,900,000 (2013). LocationWidespread. DialectsAfrican American Vernacular English (AAVE). Many regional and social dialects. Status1 (National). De facto national language. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of United States VanuatuLanguage nameEnglish Population Full125,400 in Vanuatu, all users. L1 users: 5,400 (2016 World Factbook). L2 users: 120,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). Statutory national language (1980, Constitution, Article 3(1)). Language UseL1 speakers are from the United Kingdom. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Vanuatu ZambiaLanguage nameEnglish Population Full1,841,400 in Zambia, all users. L1 users: 41,400 (2004 J. Leclerc). L2 users: 1,800,000 (Crystal 2003a). LocationWidespread. Status1 (National). Statutory national language (1991, Constitution, Article 1(3)). Language UseSpoken as L1 mostly by Europeans. A small minority of Zambian Africans speak it as a L1. Language of Parliament. Home, education, business. All ages. Positive attitudes. Language DevelopmentTaught in primary and secondary schools. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Zambia ZimbabweLanguage nameEnglish Population Full5,550,000 in Zimbabwe, all users. L1 users: 250,000 (Crystal 2003a). L2 users: 5,300,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status1 (National). De facto national language. Language UseMost Europeans and an increasing number of Africans. Used in all or most education. Other CommentsNon-indigenous. View other languages of Zimbabwe
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