This website does readability filtering of other pages. All styles, scripts, forms and ads are stripped. If you want your website excluded or have other feedback, use this form.

East Asia/Southeast Asia :: Thailand — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency

skip to content

Central Intelligence Agency

The Work Of A Nation. The Center of Intelligence.

Library

 

Main Content

East Asia/Southeast Asia :: Thailand Print Page last updated on February 08, 2019 The World Factbook Country/Location Flag Modal East Asia/Southeast Asia :: Thailand Print Flag Description five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width), white, and red; the red color symbolizes the nation and the blood of life, white represents religion and the purity of Buddhism, and blue stands for the monarchy

note: similar to the flag of Costa Rica but with the blue and red colors reversed

The World Factbook Country/Location Locator Map Modal East Asia/Southeast Asia :: Thailand Print View 68 photos of
THAILAND The World Factbook Country/Location Photo Gallery Modal East Asia/Southeast Asia :: Thailand 1 / 68 Caption View of the Bangkok skyline from the Chao Phraya River. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1047 170 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 2 / 68 Caption Fishing boats on the Chao Phraya River with the skyline of Bangkok in the background. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1125 182 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 3 / 68 Caption Bhumibol Bridge over the Chao Phraya River in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1125 181 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 4 / 68 Caption Detail of one of the support arches of the Bhumibol Bridge over the Chao Phraya River in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1125 178 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 5 / 68 Caption Sleek and colorful boats along a Bangkok canal. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1000 262 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 6 / 68 Caption A Bangkok ferry. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1000 170 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 7 / 68 Caption The Wat Phra Kaew (Temple of the Emerald Buddha) in Bangkok is the most sacred Buddhist temple in Thailand. Dimensions File Size Download 1160x797 136 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 8 / 68 Caption A Yaksha demon guards the Wat Phra Kaew (Temple of the Emerald Buddha) in the Grand Palace in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 900x1260 341 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 9 / 68 Caption Wat Phra Kaew (Temple of the Emerald Buddha) in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1000x1500 157 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 10 / 68 Caption Statuary at the Wat Phra Kaew (Temple of the Emerald Buddha) in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 994x1500 270 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 11 / 68 Caption A golden Asura Paksi (half bird, half demon) at Wat Phra Kaew (Temple of the Emerald Buddha) in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 994x1500 278 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 12 / 68 Caption A mythological giant supports a golden chedi at the Wat Phra Kaew (Temple of the Emerald Buddha) in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 994x1500 298 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 13 / 68 Caption Buddhist offerings at Wat Phra Kaew (Temple of the Emerald Buddha) in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 797x1168 255 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 14 / 68 Caption View of the Grand Palace in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1149x800 119 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 15 / 68 Caption View within the Grand Palace in Bangkok showing the golden Phra Siratana Chedi. A chedi, or stupa, is a mound-like reliquary containing Buddhist relics. The chedi is on the grounds of the Temple of the Emerald Buddha. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1125 156 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 16 / 68 Caption The Grand Palace is a complex of buildings in central Bangkok on the banks of the Chao Phraya River. Construction of the Grand Palace began in 1782 and it served as the official residence of the king and the royal family until 1925. It is still used for official events. Several royal offices are housed on the palace grounds. This view shows Phra Mondop, the royal library. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1125 227 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 17 / 68 Caption Phra Mondop (library) at the Royal Palace. Dimensions File Size Download 797x1168 212 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 18 / 68 Caption Prasat Phra Debidorn on the left and Phra Mondop (library) on the right at the Grand Palace in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1160x797 231 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 19 / 68 Caption Head of a mythological giant at one of the exits at the Grand Palace in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1162x797 167 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 20 / 68 Caption The Grand Palace is a complex of buildings in central Bangkok on the banks of the Chao Phraya River. Construction of the Grand Palace began in 1782 and it served as the official residence of the king and the royal family until 1925. It is still used for official events. Several royal offices are housed on the palace grounds. Shown in this view is the amazingly detailed floral roof of Chakri Maha Prasat Hall. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1125 189 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 21 / 68 Caption A roof detail from the Royal Palace in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1125 325 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 22 / 68 Caption Decorated building in the Grand Palace Complex in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1125 499 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 23 / 68 Caption At the Grand Palace in Bangkok; the Palace complex features brightly colored buildings, golden spires, and glittering mosaics. This close-up highlights the widespread and effective use of mirrored tiles in the construction process. Dimensions File Size Download 906x1260 399 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 24 / 68 Caption View within the Grand Palace in Bangkok showing the golden Phra Siratana Chedi. A chedi, or stupa, is a mound-like reliquary containing Buddhist relics. The chedi is on the grounds of the Temple of the Emerald Buddha. Dimensions File Size Download 1125x1500 186 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 25 / 68 Caption View within the Grand Palace in Bangkok showing the golden Phra Siratana Chedi. A chedi, or stupa, is a mound-like reliquary containing Buddhist relics. The chedi is on the grounds of the Temple of the Emerald Buddha. Dimensions File Size Download 1125x1500 211 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 26 / 68 Caption Phra Thian Sanam Chan is a traditional Thai pavilion with a raised platform. Originally portable, it was given a marble base in 1963. It is on the grounds of the Grand Palace in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1097x1500 266 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 27 / 68 Caption The Loha Prasat - a multi-tiered (36 m high) structure with 37 spires signifying the 37 virtues toward enlightenment - at the Wat Ratchanaddaram temple complex in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1000x1500 179 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 28 / 68 Caption A Buddhist altar in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1122 377 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 29 / 68 Caption Traditional Thai dancer performing at the Silom Village Trade Center in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 985x1500 202 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 30 / 68 Caption Traditional Thai dancer performing at the Silom Village Trade Center in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1076x1431 212 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 31 / 68 Caption The new Traimit Witthayaram Temple (Wat Traimit) in Bangkok built in 2010 to house the Sukhotahai Traimit Golden Buddha. It replaced a temple that had housed the Golden Buddha since 1955. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1125 165 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 32 / 68 Caption The Suhhthai Traimit Golden Buddha image is the largest Golden Buddha image in the world. Made of pure gold, it is 3 m (9.8 ft) tall and weighs 5.5 tons. The Buddha was probably constructed in the 13th or 14th centuries. At some point it was covered in plaster and painted to prevent its theft. Its origins were forgotten and it was brought to Bangkok from a ruined temple in Ayutthaya in the early 19th century. In 1955, the Buddha was dropped while being moved and part of its plaster covering broke revealing the gold underneath. In 2010, a new building was erected at the Wat Traimit Temple to house the Golden Buddha, which is valued at close to $300 million dollars. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1148 295 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 33 / 68 Caption The Suhhthai Traimit Golden Buddha image is the largest Golden Buddha image in the world. Made of pure gold, it is 3 m (9.8 ft) tall and weighs 5.5 tons. The Buddha was probably constructed in the 13th or 14th centuries. At some point it was covered in plaster and painted to prevent its theft. Its origins were forgotten and it was brought to Bangkok from a ruined temple in Ayutthaya in the early 19th century. In 1955, the Buddha was dropped while being moved and part of its plaster covering broke revealing the gold underneath. In 2010, a new building was erected at the Wat Traimit Temple to house the Golden Buddha, which is valued at close to $300 million dollars. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1125 247 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 34 / 68 Caption The Prasart Museum in Bangkok houses the extensive private collection of historic Thai culture amassed by a wealthy Thai businessman. The museum features a collection of buildings from various parts of Thailand placed along pathways in a Garden of Serenity. It also has an extensive art collection, including various images of Buddha, Thai paintings, porcelain, pottery, gold, silver, and Chinese and Thai furnishings. Shown here is a pathway in the Garden of Serenity on the museum grounds; a chapel appears in the background. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1125 354 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 35 / 68 Caption Shrine on a pathway in the Garden of Serenity at the Prasart Museum in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1125x1500 380 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 36 / 68 Caption Buddha in one of the chapels on the grounds of the Prasart Museum in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1170 327 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 37 / 68 Caption A chapel in the Burmese style in the Garden of Serenity on the grounds of the Prasart Museum in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1219 340 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 38 / 68 Caption Statues of monks in the Prasart Museum in Bangkok. Monks can be found in many Buddhist temples. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1125 201 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 39 / 68 Caption A statue of Thai King Rama IV in Lumphini Park, Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1482x979 143 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 40 / 68 Caption A shrine to Thai King Rama IV in Lumphini Park, Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 792x1400 145 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 41 / 68 Caption A spirit house in front of Central World Plaza, Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 859x1445 153 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 42 / 68 Caption A sculpture depicting the Churning of the Sea of Milk in Suvarnabhumi International Airport, Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1201x828 152 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 43 / 68 Caption A view of downtown Bangkok from the roof of the Chateau de Bangkok Hotel. Dimensions File Size Download 1026x687 119 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 44 / 68 Caption A view of downtown Bangkok from the roof of the Chateau de Bangkok Hotel. Dimensions File Size Download 778x1175 128 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 45 / 68 Caption A view of downtown Bangkok from the roof of the Chateau de Bangkok Hotel. Dimensions File Size Download 1150x788 133 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 46 / 68 Caption A spirit house in front of the Chateau de Bangkok Hotel. Dimensions File Size Download 668x1117 122 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 47 / 68 Caption Standing Buddha at Wat (Temple) Ubtgarawugan in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 797x1165 136 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 48 / 68 Caption Barom Piman Hall is a neoclassical residence in Bangkok constructed between 1897 and 1903. The exterior is Western, but the interior is entirely Thai. The structure was sometimes used as a royal residence, but it is now the official guest house for visiting heads of state and their staffs. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1125 196 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 49 / 68 Caption Gateway at Wat Pho in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 797x1168 246 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 50 / 68 Caption Guardian figures at the Wat Pho in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1162x797 200 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 51 / 68 Caption Wat Pho in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 797x1165 248 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 52 / 68 Caption Courtyard at Wat Pho in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1162x794 197 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 53 / 68 Caption Head of the Reclining Buddha at Wat Pho in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1165x797 175 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 54 / 68 Caption Waterfront property on the Chao Phraya River in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1125 214 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 55 / 68 Caption Canal view in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1168x736 163 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 56 / 68 Caption Antiquities on sale at a marketplace in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x994 240 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 57 / 68 Caption A water lily in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1000 126 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 58 / 68 Caption Wat Surhatt in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1000 228 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 59 / 68 Caption A spirit house in Bangkok. Dimensions File Size Download 1000x1500 278 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 60 / 68 Caption Burma Railway bridge over the Khwae Yai River at Kanchanaburi (the original "Bridge Over the River Kwai"). Dimensions File Size Download 994x688 169 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 61 / 68 Caption Cemetery at Kanchanaburi of some of the World War II POWs who died constructing the Burma Railway bridge over the Khwae Yai River ("The Bridge Over the River Kwai"). Dimensions File Size Download 1162x797 294 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 62 / 68 Caption Ayutthaya Buddha head lodged in tree. Dimensions File Size Download 1000x1500 274 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 63 / 68 Caption Chiang Mai is the capital of Chiang Mai Province. The city is considering applying for UNESCO Creative City status and is vying with two other cities in Thailand to host the 2020 World Expo. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1125 365 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 64 / 68 Caption Buddahs saying "sawatdee" or hello in Chiang Mai, which has over 300 Buddhist temples. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1125 318 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 65 / 68 Caption Monkey retrieving coconuts on Ko Samui, an island in the Gulf of Thailand off the East Coast of the Kra Isthmus. Ko Samui is Thailand's third largest island with a population of 62,000; it attracts 1.5 million visitors annually, who are drawn to its pleasant climate and sandy beaches. Dimensions File Size Download 1125x1500 496 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 66 / 68 Caption Riding elephants on the island of Ko Samui. Dimensions File Size Download 968x1296 219 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 67 / 68 Caption Wat Phra Yai (Big Buddha Temple) in the town of Buphut on the island of Ko Samui. The statue is 12 meters (39 ft) tall. Visitors must ascend and descend the stone stairs without shoes. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1125 267 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice 68 / 68 Caption Na Muang Waterfall on Ko Samui. The water cascades some 30 meters (98 ft) down purple-hued rocks. Dimensions File Size Download 1500x1125 342 KB Download Usage Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
Agency Copyright Notice Previous Next
  • Introduction :: Thailand
  • Background: This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends.

    A unified Thai kingdom was established in the mid-14th century. Known as Siam until 1939, Thailand is the only Southeast Asian country never to have been colonized by a European power. A bloodless revolution in 1932 led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy. After the Japanese invaded Thailand in 1941, the government split into a pro-Japan faction and a pro-Ally faction backed by the King. Following the war, Thailand became a US treaty ally in 1954 after sending troops to Korea and later fighting alongside the US in Vietnam. Thailand since 2005 has experienced several rounds of political turmoil including a military coup in 2006 that ousted then Prime Minister THAKSIN Chinnawat, followed by large-scale street protests by competing political factions in 2008, 2009, and 2010. THAKSIN's youngest sister, YINGLAK Chinnawat, in 2011 led the Puea Thai Party to an electoral win and assumed control of the government.

    In early May 2014, after months of large-scale anti-government protests in Bangkok beginning in November 2013, YINGLAK was removed from office by the Constitutional Court and in late May 2014 the Royal Thai Army, led by Royal Thai Army Gen. PRAYUT Chan-ocha, staged a coup against the caretaker government. PRAYUT was appointed prime minister in August 2014. PRAYUT also serves as the head of the National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO), a military-affiliated body that oversees the interim government. This body created several interim institutions to promote reform and draft a new constitution, which was passed in a national referendum in August 2016. In late 2017, PRAYUT announced elections would be held by November 2018; he has subsequently suggested they might occur in February 2019. As of mid-December 2018, a previoulsy held ban on campaigning and political activity has been lifted and per parliamentary laws, an election must be held within 150 days. King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet passed away in October 2016 after 70 years on the throne; his only son, WACHIRALONGKON Bodinthrathepphayawarangkun, ascended the throne in December 2016. He signed the new constitution in April 2017. Thailand has also experienced violence associated with the ethno-nationalist insurgency in its southern Malay-Muslim majority provinces. Since January 2004, thousands have been killed and wounded in the insurgency.

  • Geography :: Thailand
  • Location: This entry identifies the country's regional location, neighboring countries, and adjacent bodies of water. Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand, southeast of Burma Geographic coordinates: This entry includes rounded latitude and longitude figures for the centroid or center point of a country expressed in degrees and minutes; it is based on the locations provided in the Geographic Names Server (GNS), maintained by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency on behalf of the US Board on Geographic Names. 15 00 N, 100 00 E Map references: This entry includes the name of the Factbook reference map on which a country may be found. Note that boundary representations on these maps are not necessarily authoritative. The entry on Geographic coordinates may be helpful in finding some smaller countries. Southeast Asia Area: This entry includes three subfields. Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Water area is the sum of the surfaces of all inland water bodies, such as lakes, reservoirs, or rivers, as delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines. total: 513,120 sq km land: 510,890 sq km water: 2,230 sq km country comparison to the world: 52 Area - comparative: This entry provides an area comparison based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states based on area measurements (1990 revised) provided by the US Bureau of the Census. The smaller entities are compared with Washington, DC (178 sq km, 69 sq mi) or The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 sq km, 0.23 sq mi, 146 acres). about three times the size of Florida; slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming Area comparison map: The World Factbook Field Image Modal East Asia/Southeast Asia :: Thailand Print Image Description

    about three times the size of Florida; slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming

    Land boundaries: This entry contains the total length of all land boundaries and the individual lengths for each of the contiguous border countries. When available, official lengths published by national statistical agencies are used. Because surveying methods may differ, country border lengths reported by contiguous countries may differ. total: 5,673 km border countries (4): Burma 2416 km, Cambodia 817 km, Laos 1845 km, Malaysia 595 km Coastline: This entry gives the total length of the boundary between the land area (including islands) and the sea. 3,219 km Maritime claims: This entry includes the following claims, the definitions of which are excerpted from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which alone contains the full and definitive descriptions: territorial sea - the sovereignty of a coastal state extends beyond its land territory and internal waters to an adjacent belt of sea, described as the territorial sea in the UNCLOS (Part II); this sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well as its . . . more territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation Climate: This entry includes a brief description of typical weather regimes throughout the year. tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid Terrain: This entry contains a brief description of the topography. central plain; Khorat Plateau in the east; mountains elsewhere Elevation: This entry includes both the mean elevation and the elevation extremes. mean elevation: 287 m elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 2565 highest point: Doi Inthanon Natural resources: This entry lists a country's mineral, petroleum, hydropower, and other resources of commercial importance, such as rare earth elements (REEs). In general, products appear only if they make a significant contribution to the economy, or are likely to do so in the future. tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite, arable land Land use: This entry contains the percentage shares of total land area for three different types of land use: agricultural land, forest, and other; agricultural land is further divided into arable land - land cultivated for crops like wheat, maize, and rice that are replanted after each harvest, permanent crops - land cultivated for crops like citrus, coffee, and rubber that are not replanted after each harvest, and includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, and permane . . . more agricultural land: 41.2% (2011 est.) arable land: 30.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 8.8% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 1.6% (2011 est.) forest: 37.2% (2011 est.) other: 21.6% (2011 est.) Irrigated land: This entry gives the number of square kilometers of land area that is artificially supplied with water. 64,150 sq km (2012) Population distribution: This entry provides a summary description of the population dispersion within a country. While it may suggest population density, it does not provide density figures. highest population density is found in and around Bangkok; significant population clusters found througout large parts of the country, particularly north and northeast of Bangkok and in the extreme southern region of the country Natural hazards: This entry lists potential natural disasters. For countries where volcanic activity is common, a volcanism subfield highlights historically active volcanoes. land subsidence in Bangkok area resulting from the depletion of the water table; droughts Environment - current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry: Acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions (see acid rain). Acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur dioxi . . . more air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from organic and factory wastes; water scarcity; deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by illegal hunting; hazardous waste disposal Environment - international agreements: This entry separates country participation in international environmental agreements into two levels - party to and signed, but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name. party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea Geography - note: This entry includes miscellaneous geographic information of significance not included elsewhere. controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore; ideas for the construction of a canal across the Kra Isthmus that would create a bypass to the Strait of Malacca and shorten shipping times around Asia continue to be discussed
  • People and Society :: Thailand
  • Population: This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past and on assumptions about future trends. The total population presents one overall measure of the potential impact of the country on the world and within its region. Note: Starting with the 1993 Factbook, demographic estimates for some countries (mostly African) have explicitly taken into account t . . . more 68,615,858 (July 2018 est.) country comparison to the world: 20 Nationality: This entry provides the identifying terms for citizens - noun and adjective. noun: Thai (singular and plural) adjective: Thai Ethnic groups: This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups starting with the largest and normally includes the percent of total population. Thai 97.5%, Burmese 1.3%, other 1.1%, unspecified <.1% (2015 est.) note: data represent population by nationality Languages: This entry provides a listing of languages spoken in each country and specifies any that are official national or regional languages. When data is available, the languages spoken in each country are broken down according to the percent of the total population speaking each language as a first language. For those countries without available data, languages are listed in rank order based on prevalence, starting with the most-spoken language. Thai (official) only 90.7%, Thai and other languages 6.4%, only other languages (includes Malay, Burmese) (2010 est.)

    note: data represent population by language(s) spoken at home; English is a secondary language of the elite

    Religions: This entry is an ordered listing of religions by adherents starting with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total population. The core characteristics and beliefs of the world's major religions are described below. Baha'i - Founded by Mirza Husayn-Ali (known as Baha'u'llah) in Iran in 1852, Baha'i faith emphasizes monotheism and believes in one eternal transcendent God. Its guiding focus is to encourage the unity of all peoples on the earth so that justice and peace m . . . more Buddhist 94.6%, Muslim 4.3%, Christian 1%, other (2015 est.) Age structure: This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age. Information is included by sex and age group as follows: 0-14 years (children), 15-24 years (early working age), 25-54 years (prime working age), 55-64 years (mature working age), 65 years and over (elderly). The age structure of a population affects a nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations (high percentage under age 15) need to invest more in schools, while countries with older population . . . more 0-14 years: 16.73% (male 5,880,026 /female 5,598,611) 15-24 years: 13.83% (male 4,840,303 /female 4,649,589) 25-54 years: 46.12% (male 15,670,881 /female 15,972,254) 55-64 years: 12.35% (male 3,970,979 /female 4,503,647) 65 years and over: 10.97% (male 3,289,576 /female 4,239,992) (2018 est.) population pyramid: The World Factbook Field Image Modal East Asia/Southeast Asia :: Thailand Print Image Description This is the population pyramid for Thailand. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

    For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page under the References tab. Dependency ratios: Dependency ratios are a measure of the age structure of a population. They relate the number of individuals that are likely to be economically "dependent" on the support of others. Dependency ratios contrast the ratio of youths (ages 0-14) and the elderly (ages 65+) to the number of those in the working-age group (ages 15-64). Changes in the dependency ratio provide an indication of potential social support requirements resulting from changes in population age structures. As fertility lev . . . more total dependency ratio: 40 (2015 est.) youth dependency ratio: 25.2 (2015 est.) elderly dependency ratio: 14.8 (2015 est.) potential support ratio: 6.8 (2015 est.) Median age: This entry is the age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age and half are older. It is a single index that summarizes the age distribution of a population. Currently, the median age ranges from a low of about 15 in Niger and Uganda to 40 or more in several European countries and Japan. See the entry for "Age structure" for the importance of a young versus an older age structure and, by implication, a low versus a high . . . more total: 38.1 years male: 37 years female: 39.2 years (2018 est.) country comparison to the world: 63 Population growth rate: The average annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative. The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure (e.g., schools, hospitals, housing, roads), resources (e.g., food, water, electricity), and jobs. Rapid population growth can be seen as . . . more 0.29% (2018 est.) country comparison to the world: 173 Birth rate: This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per 1,000 persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population. 11 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) country comparison to the world: 177 Death rate: This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per 1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude death rate. The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on population growth. This indicator is significantly affected by age distribution, and most countries will eventually show a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all ages, as declining . . . more 8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) country comparison to the world: 87 Net migration rate: This entry includes the figure for the difference between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration (e.g., 3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the country as net emigration (e.g., -9.26 migrants/1,000 population). The net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the overall level of population chan . . . more 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 98 Population distribution: This entry provides a summary description of the population dispersion within a country. While it may suggest population density, it does not provide density figures. highest population density is found in and around Bangkok; significant population clusters found througout large parts of the country, particularly north and northeast of Bangkok and in the extreme southern region of the country Urbanization: This entry provides two measures of the degree of urbanization of a population. The first, urban population, describes the percentage of the total population living in urban areas, as defined by the country. The second, rate of urbanization, describes the projected average rate of change of the size of the urban population over the given period of time. Additionally, the World entry includes a list of the ten largest urban agglomerations. An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising th . . . more urban population: 49.9% of total population (2018) rate of urbanization: 1.73% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.) Major urban areas - population: This entry provides the population of the capital and up to six major cities defined as urban agglomerations with populations of at least 750,000 people. An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising the city or town proper and also the suburban fringe or thickly settled territory lying outside of, but adjacent to, the boundaries of the city. For smaller countries, lacking urban centers of 750,000 or more, only the population of the capital is presented. 10.156 million BANGKOK (capital), 1.272 million Samut Prakan, 1.135 million Chiang Mai, 940,000 Songkla, 937,000 Nothaburi, 889,000 Pathum Thani (2018) Sex ratio: This entry includes the number of males for each female in five age groups - at birth, under 15 years, 15-64 years, 65 years and over, and for the total population. Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons. This will affect future marriage patterns and fertilit . . . more at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.) 0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.) 15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.) 25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female (2017 est.) 55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female (2017 est.) 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female (2017 est.) total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2017 est.) Mother's mean age at first birth: This entry provides the mean (average) age of mothers at the birth of their first child. It is a useful indicator for gauging the success of family planning programs aiming to reduce maternal mortality, increase contraceptive use – particularly among married and unmarried adolescents – delay age at first marriage, and improve the health of newborns. 23.3 years (2009 est.) Maternal mortality rate: The maternal mortality rate (MMR) is the annual number of female deaths per 100,000 live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management (excluding accidental or incidental causes). The MMR includes deaths during pregnancy, childbirth, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, for a specified year. 20 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 129 Infant mortality rate: This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1,000 live births in the same year. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country. total: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.) male: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.) female: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.) country comparison to the world: 145 Life expectancy at birth: This entry contains the average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future. Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages. It can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial measures. total population: 75.1 years (2018 est.) male: 71.9 years (2018 est.) female: 78.5 years (2018 est.) country comparison to the world: 115 Total fertility rate: This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age. The total fertility rate (TFR) is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman. This indicator shows the potential for population change in the country. A rate of two children per woman is considered the replaceme . . . more 1.52 children born/woman (2018 est.) country comparison to the world: 194 Contraceptive prevalence rate: This field gives the percent of women of reproductive age (15-49) who are married or in union and are using, or whose sexual partner is using, a method of contraception according to the date of the most recent available data. The contraceptive prevalence rate is an indicator of health services, development, and women’s empowerment. It is also useful in understanding, past, present, and future fertility trends, especially in developing countries. 78.4% (2015/16) Health expenditures: This entry provides the total expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP. Health expenditures are broadly defined as activities performed either by institutions or individuals through the application of medical, paramedical, and/or nursing knowledge and technology, the primary purpose of which is to promote, restore, or maintain health. 6.5% of GDP (2014) country comparison to the world: 94 Physicians density: This entry gives the number of medical doctors (physicians), including generalist and specialist medical practitioners, per 1,000 of the population. Medical doctors are defined as doctors that study, diagnose, treat, and prevent illness, disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans through the application of modern medicine. They also plan, supervise, and evaluate care and treatment plans by other health care providers. The World Health Organization estimates that f . . . more 0.47 physicians/1,000 population (2015) Hospital bed density: This entry provides the number of hospital beds per 1,000 people; it serves as a general measure of inpatient service availability. Hospital beds include inpatient beds available in public, private, general, and specialized hospitals and rehabilitation centers. In most cases, beds for both acute and chronic care are included. Because the level of inpatient services required for individual countries depends on several factors - such as demographic issues and the burden of disease - there is . . . more 2.1 beds/1,000 population (2010) Drinking water source: This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved drinking water sources available to segments of the population of a country. Improved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: piped water into dwelling, yard, or plot; public tap or standpipe; tubewell or borehole; protected dug well; protected spring; or rainwater collection. Unimproved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: unprotected dug well; unprotected spring; cart with small tank or . . . more improved: urban: 97.6% of population rural: 98% of population total: 97.8% of population unimproved: urban: 2.4% of population rural: 2% of population total: 2.2% of population (2015 est.) Sanitation facility access: This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved sanitation facilities available to segments of the population of a country. Improved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: flush or pour-flush to a piped sewer system, septic tank or pit latrine; ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine; pit latrine with slab; or a composting toilet. Unimproved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: flush or pour-flush not piped to a sewer system, septic tank . . . more improved: urban: 89.9% of population (2015 est.) rural: 96.1% of population (2015 est.) total: 93% of population (2015 est.) unimproved: urban: 10.1% of population (2015 est.) rural: 3.9% of population (2015 est.) total: 7% of population (2015 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: This entry gives an estimate of the percentage of adults (aged 15-49) living with HIV/AIDS. The adult prevalence rate is calculated by dividing the estimated number of adults living with HIV/AIDS at yearend by the total adult population at yearend. 1.1% (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 42 HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: This entry gives an estimate of all people (adults and children) alive at yearend with HIV infection, whether or not they have developed symptoms of AIDS. 440,000 (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 17 HIV/AIDS - deaths: This entry gives an estimate of the number of adults and children who died of AIDS during a given calendar year. 15,000 (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 17 Major infectious diseases: This entry lists major infectious diseases likely to be encountered in countries where the risk of such diseases is assessed to be very high as compared to the United States. These infectious diseases represent risks to US government personnel traveling to the specified country for a period of less than three years. The degree of risk is assessed by considering the foreign nature of these infectious diseases, their severity, and the probability of being affected by the diseases present. Th . . . more degree of risk: very high (2016) food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea (2016) vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria (2016) Obesity - adult prevalence rate: This entry gives the percent of a country's population considered to be obese. Obesity is defined as an adult having a Body Mass Index (BMI) greater to or equal to 30.0. BMI is calculated by taking a person's weight in kg and dividing it by the person's squared height in meters. 10% (2016) country comparison to the world: 140 Children under the age of 5 years underweight: This entry gives the percent of children under five considered to be underweight. Underweight means weight-for-age is approximately 2 kg below for standard at age one, 3 kg below standard for ages two and three, and 4 kg below standard for ages four and five. This statistic is an indicator of the nutritional status of a community. Children who suffer from growth retardation as a result of poor diets and/or recurrent infections tend to have a greater risk of suffering illness and death. 6.7% (2016) country comparison to the world: 73 Education expenditures: This entry provides the public expenditure on education as a percent of GDP. 4.1% of GDP (2013) country comparison to the world: 109 Literacy: This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of the Factbook. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measu . . . more definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.) total population: 92.9% (2015 est.) male: 94.7% (2015 est.) female: 91.2% (2015 est.) School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): School life expectancy (SLE) is the total number of years of schooling (primary to tertiary) that a child can expect to receive, assuming that the probability of his or her being enrolled in school at any particular future age is equal to the current enrollment ratio at that age. Caution must be maintained when utilizing this indicator in international comparisons. For example, a year or grade completed in one country is not necessarily the same in terms of educational content or qualit . . . more total: 15 years (2016) male: 15 years (2016) female: 16 years (2016) Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: This entry gives the percent of the total labor force ages 15-24 unemployed during a specified year. total: 3.7% (2016 est.) male: 3% (2016 est.) female: 4.7% (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 160
  • Government :: Thailand
  • Country name: This entry includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note. conventional long form: Kingdom of Thailand conventional short form: Thailand local long form: Ratcha Anachak Thai local short form: Prathet Thai former: Siam etymology: Land of the Tai [People]"; the meaning of "tai" is uncertain, but may originally have meant "human beings," "people," or "free people Government type: This entry gives the basic form of government. Definitions of the major governmental terms are as follows. (Note that for some countries more than one definition applies.): Absolute monarchy - a form of government where the monarch rules unhindered, i.e., without any laws, constitution, or legally organized opposition. Anarchy - a condition of lawlessness or political disorder brought about by the absence of governmental authority. Authoritarian - a form of government in whic . . . more constitutional monarchy; note - interim military-affiliated government since May 2014 Capital: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones. name: Bangkok geographic coordinates: 13 45 N, 100 31 E time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time) Administrative divisions: This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by the BGN are noted. Geographic names conform to spellings approved by the BGN with the exception of the omission of diacritical marks and special characters. 76 provinces (changwat, singular and plural) and 1 municipality* (maha nakhon); Amnat Charoen, Ang Thong, Bueng Kan, Buri Ram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep* (Bangkok), Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri, Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Mukdahan, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat, Nong Bua Lamphu, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et, Sa Kaeo, Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Saraburi, Satun, Sing Buri, Si Sa Ket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat Thani, Surin, Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit, Yala, Yasothon Independence: For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship. For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession. For a number of countries, the establishment of statehood . . . more 1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized) National holiday: This entry gives the primary national day of celebration - usually independence day. Birthday of King WACHIRALONGKON, 28 July (1952) Constitution: This entry provides information on a country’s constitution and includes two subfields. The history subfield includes the dates of previous constitutions and the main steps and dates in formulating and implementing the latest constitution. For countries with 1-3 previous constitutions, the years are listed; for those with 4-9 previous, the entry is listed as “several previous,” and for those with 10 or more, the entry is “many previous.” The amendments subfield summarizes the process of am . . . more history: many previous; latest completed 29 March 2016, approved by referendum 7 August 2016, signed into law by the king 6 April 2017 (2017) amendments: proposed as a joint resolution by the Council of Ministers and the National Council for Peace and Order (the junta that has ruled Thailand since the 2014 coup) and submitted as a draft to the National Legislative Assembly; passage requires majority vote of the existing Assembly members and presentation to the monarch for assent and countersignature by the prime minister (2017) Legal system: This entry provides the description of a country's legal system. A statement on judicial review of legislative acts is also included for a number of countries. The legal systems of nearly all countries are generally modeled upon elements of five main types: civil law (including French law, the Napoleonic Code, Roman law, Roman-Dutch law, and Spanish law); common law (including United State law); customary law; mixed or pluralistic law; and religious law (including Islamic law). An addition . . . more civil law system with common law influences International law organization participation: This entry includes information on a country's acceptance of jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) and of the International Criminal Court (ICCt); 59 countries have accepted ICJ jurisdiction with reservations and 11 have accepted ICJ jurisdiction without reservations; 122 countries have accepted ICCt jurisdiction. Appendix B: International Organizations and Groups explains the differing mandates of the ICJ and ICCt. has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt Citizenship: This entry provides information related to the acquisition and exercise of citizenship; it includes four subfields: citizenship by birth describes the acquisition of citizenship based on place of birth, known as Jus soli, regardless of the citizenship of parents. citizenship by descent only describes the acquisition of citizenship based on the principle of Jus sanguinis, or by descent, where at least one parent is a citizen of the state and being born within the territorial limits of the . . . more citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Thailand dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Suffrage: This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted. 18 years of age; universal and compulsory Executive branch: This entry includes five subentries: chief of state; head of government; cabinet; elections/appointments; election results. Chief of state includes the name, title, and beginning date in office of the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government. Head of government includes the name, title of the top executive designated to manage the executive branch of the government, a . . . more chief of state: King WACHIRALONGKON Bodinthrathepphayawarangkun, also spelled Vajiralongkorn Bodindradebayavarangkun, (since 1 December 2016); note - King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet, also spelled BHUMIBOL Adulyadej (since 9 June 1946) died 13 October 2016 head of government: Interim Prime Minister Gen. PRAYUT Chan-ocha (since 25 August 2014); Deputy Prime Ministers PRAWIT Wongsuwan, Gen. (since 31 August 2014), WISSANU Kruea-ngam (since 31 August 2014), SOMKHIT Chatusiphithak (since 20 August 2015), PRACHIN Chantong, Air Chief Mar. (since 20 August 2015), CHATCHAI Sarikanya (since 23 November 2017) cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the king; a Privy Council advises the king elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; the House of Representatives and Senate approves a person for Prime Minister who must then be appointed by the King (as stated in the transitory provision of the 2017 constitution); the office of prime minister can be held for up to a total of 8 years

    note:  Prayut Chan-ocha was appointed interim prime minister in August 2014, three months after he staged the coup that removed the previously elected government of Prime Minister YINGLAK Chinnawat

    Legislative branch: This entry has three subfields. The description subfield provides the legislative structure (unicameral – single house; bicameral – an upper and a lower house); formal name(s); number of member seats; types of constituencies or voting districts (single seat, multi-seat, nationwide); electoral voting system(s); and member term of office. The elections subfield includes the dates of the last election and next election. The election results subfield lists percent of vote by party/coalition an . . . more description: in transition; following the May 2014 military coup, the National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO) - appointed National Legislative Assembly or Sapha Nitibanyat Haeng Chat of no more than 220 members replaced the bicameral National Assembly; expanded to 250 members in September 2016; elections for a permanent legislative body were announced for February 2019; the 2017 constitution calls for a 250-member, NCPO-appointed Senate with 5-year terms and a 500-member elected House of Representatives with 4-year terms elections: Senate - last held on 30 March 2014 but invalidated by the coup (in future, members will be appointed)

    House of Representatives - last held on 2 February 2014 but later declared invalid by the Constitutional Court (next to be held on 24 March 2019) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA Judicial branch: This entry includes three subfields. The highest court(s) subfield includes the name(s) of a country's highest level court(s), the number and titles of the judges, and the types of cases heard by the court, which commonly are based on civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional law. A number of countries have separate constitutional courts. The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing j . . . more highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the court president, 6 vice presidents, 60-70 judges, and organized into 10 divisions); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president and 8 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (number of judges determined by Judicial Commission of the Administrative Courts) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges selected by the Judicial Commission of the Courts of Justice and approved by the monarch; judge term determined by the monarch; Constitutional Court justices - 3 judges drawn from the Supreme Court, 2 judges drawn from the Administrative Court, and 4 judge candidates selected by the Selective Committee for Judges of the Constitutional Court, and confirmed by the Senate; judges appointed by the monarch serve single 9-year terms; Supreme Administrative Court judges selected by the Judicial Commission of the Administrative Courts and appointed by the monarch; judges serve for life subordinate courts: courts of first instance and appeals courts within both the judicial and administrative systems; military courts Political parties and leaders: This entry includes a listing of significant political parties, coalitions, and electoral lists as of each country's last legislative election, unless otherwise noted. Action Coalition of Thailand Party or ACT [CHATUMONGKHON Sonakun]
    Anakhot Mai Party (Future Forward Party) or FFP [THANATHON Chuengrungrueangkit]
    Chat Thai Phatthana Party (Thai Nation Development Party) or CTP [KANCHANA Sinlapa-acha]
    Phalang Pracharat Party or PPP [UTTAMA Sawanayon]
    Phumchai Thai Party (Thai Pride Party) or PJT [ANUTHIN Chanwirakun]
    Puea Chat Party (For Nation Party) or PCP [SONGKHRAM Kitletpairot]
    Puea Thai Party (For Thais Party) or PTP [WIROT Paoin]
    Puea Tham Party (For Dharma Party) [NALINI Thawisin]
    Prachathipat Party (Democrat Party) or DP [ABHISIT Wechachiwa, also spelled ABHISIT Vejjajiva]
    Thai Raksa Chat Party (Thai National Preservation Party) [PRICHAPHON Phongpanit]

    note: as of 5 April 2018, 98 new parties applied to be registered with the Election Commission in accordance with the provisions of the new organic law on political parties

    International organization participation: This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way. ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, BIS, CD, CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO Diplomatic representation in the US: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery address, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations. The use of the annotated title Appointed Ambassador refers to a new ambassador who has presented his/her credentials to the secretary of state but not the US president. Such ambassadors fulfill all diplomatic functions except meeting with or appearing at functions attended by the president until such time as they formally present their credentials at a White Hou . . . more chief of mission: Ambassador Wirachai PLASAI (since 22 June 2018) chancery: 1024 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Suite 401, Washington, DC 20007 telephone: [1] (202) 944-3600 FAX: [1] (202) 944-3611 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York Diplomatic representation from the US: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations. chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Peter HAMMOND (since October 2018) embassy: 95 Wireless Road, Bangkok 10330 mailing address: APO AP 96546 telephone: [66] 2 205-4000 FAX: [66] 2-205-4306 consulate(s) general: Chiang Mai Flag description: This entry provides a written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags. five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width), white, and red; the red color symbolizes the nation and the blood of life, white represents religion and the purity of Buddhism, and blue stands for the monarchy

    note: similar to the flag of Costa Rica but with the blue and red colors reversed

    National symbol(s): A national symbol is a faunal, floral, or other abstract representation - or some distinctive object - that over time has come to be closely identified with a country or entity. Not all countries have national symbols; a few countries have more than one. garuda (mythical half-man, half-bird figure), elephant; national colors: red, white, blue National anthem: A generally patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not. name: "Phleng Chat Thai" (National Anthem of Thailand) lyrics/music: Luang SARANUPRAPAN/Phra JENDURIYANG

    note: music adopted 1932, lyrics adopted 1939; by law, people are required to stand for the national anthem at 0800 and 1800 every day; the anthem is played in schools, offices, theaters, and on television and radio during this time; "Phleng Sanlasoen Phra Barami" (A Salute to the Monarch) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies

  • Economy :: Thailand
  • Economy - overview: This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization. It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends.

    With a relatively well-developed infrastructure, a free-enterprise economy, and generally pro-investment policies, Thailand is highly dependent on international trade, with exports accounting for about two-thirds of GDP. Thailand’s exports include electronics, agricultural commodities, automobiles and parts, and processed foods. The industry and service sectors produce about 90% of GDP. The agricultural sector, comprised mostly of small-scale farms, contributes only 10% of GDP but employs about one-third of the labor force. Thailand has attracted an estimated 3.0-4.5 million migrant workers, mostly from neighboring countries.

    Over the last few decades, Thailand has reduced poverty substantially. In 2013, the Thai Government implemented a nationwide 300 baht (roughly $10) per day minimum wage policy and deployed new tax reforms designed to lower rates on middle-income earners.

    Thailand’s economy is recovering from slow growth during the years since the 2014 coup. Thailand’s economic fundamentals are sound, with low inflation, low unemployment, and reasonable public and external debt levels. Tourism and government spending - mostly on infrastructure and short-term stimulus measures – have helped to boost the economy, and The Bank of Thailand has been supportive, with several interest rate reductions.

    Over the longer-term, household debt levels, political uncertainty, and an aging population pose risks to growth.

    GDP (purchasing power parity): This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States in the year noted. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measur . . . more $1.236 trillion (2017 est.) $1.19 trillion (2016 est.) $1.152 trillion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 20 GDP (official exchange rate): This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at official exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis- . . . more $455.4 billion (2017 est.) GDP - real growth rate: This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent. The growth rates are year-over-year, and not compounded. 3.9% (2017 est.) 3.3% (2016 est.) 3% (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 84 GDP - per capita (PPP): This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year. $17,900 (2017 est.) $17,200 (2016 est.) $16,700 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 98 Gross national saving: Gross national saving is derived by deducting final consumption expenditure (household plus government) from Gross national disposable income, and consists of personal saving, plus business saving (the sum of the capital consumption allowance and retained business profits), plus government saving (the excess of tax revenues over expenditures), but excludes foreign saving (the excess of imports of goods and services over exports). The figures are presented as a percent of GDP. A negative . . . more 34.1% of GDP (2017 est.) 32.8% of GDP (2016 est.) 30.3% of GDP (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 19 GDP - composition, by end use: This entry shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit insti . . . more household consumption: 48.8% (2017 est.) government consumption: 16.4% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 23.2% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: -0.4% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 68.2% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -54.6% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: This entry shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not prod . . . more agriculture: 8.2% (2017 est.) industry: 36.2% (2017 est.) services: 55.6% (2017 est.) Agriculture - products: This entry is an ordered listing of major crops and products starting with the most important. rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), rubber, corn, sugarcane, coconuts, palm oil, pineapple, livestock, fish products Industries: This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output. tourism, textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, light manufacturing such as jewelry and electric appliances, computers and parts, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics, automobiles and automotive parts, agricultural machinery, air conditioning and refrigeration, ceramics, aluminum, chemical, environmental management, glass, granite and marble, leather, machinery and metal work, petrochemical, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, printing, pulp and paper, rubber, sugar, rice, fishing, cassava, world's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer Industrial production growth rate: This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction). 1.6% (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 141 Labor force: This entry contains the total labor force figure. 38.37 million (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 16 Labor force - by occupation: This entry lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete and may range from 99-101 percent due to rounding. more agriculture: 31.8% industry: 16.7% services: 51.5% (2015 est.) Unemployment rate: This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted. 0.7% (2017 est.) 0.8% (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 5 Population below poverty line: National estimates of the percentage of the population falling below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations. 7.2% (2015 est.) Household income or consumption by percentage share: Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size. Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption. The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons. lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 31.5% (2009 est.) Distribution of family income - Gini index: This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the richest. The index is the ratio of (a) the area between a country's Lorenz curve and the 45 degree helping line to (b) the entire triangular area under the 45 degree line. The more nearly equal a country's income distribution, the closer its . . . more 44.5 (2015) 48.4 (2011) country comparison to the world: 44 Budget: This entry includes revenues, expenditures, and capital expenditures. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. revenues: 69.23 billion (2017 est.) expenditures: 85.12 billion (2017 est.) Taxes and other revenues: This entry records total taxes and other revenues received by the national government during the time period indicated, expressed as a percent of GDP. Taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, and tariffs. Other revenues include social contributions - such as payments for social security and hospital insurance - grants, and net revenues from public enterprises. Normalizing the data, by dividing total revenues by GDP, enables easy comparisons acr . . . more 15.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 193 Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, expressed as a percent of GDP. A positive (+) number indicates that revenues exceeded expenditures (a budget surplus), while a negative (-) number indicates the reverse (a budget deficit). Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money. Countries with high budget deficits (relat . . . more -3.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 148 Public debt: This entry records the cumulative total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency. Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings. 41.9% of GDP (2017 est.) 41.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions

    country comparison to the world: 118 Fiscal year: This entry identifies the beginning and ending months for a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year (FY). 1 October - 30 September Inflation rate (consumer prices): This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices. 0.7% (2017 est.) 0.2% (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 38 Central bank discount rate: This entry provides the annualized interest rate a country's central bank charges commercial, depository banks for loans to meet temporary shortages of funds. 1.5% (31 December 2016) 1.5% (31 December 2015) country comparison to the world: 128 Commercial bank prime lending rate: This entry provides a simple average of annualized interest rates commercial banks charge on new loans, denominated in the national currency, to their most credit-worthy customers. 4.42% (31 December 2017 est.) 4.47% (31 December 2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 157 Stock of narrow money: This entry, also known as "M1," comprises the total quantity of currency in circulation (notes and coins) plus demand deposits denominated in the national currency held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy, measured at a specific point in time. National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate for the date of the information. Because of exchange rate moveme . . . more $62.39 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $52.03 billion (31 December 2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 49 Stock of broad money: This entry covers all of "Narrow money," plus the total quantity of time and savings deposits, credit union deposits, institutional money market funds, short-term repurchase agreements between the central bank and commercial deposit banks, and other large liquid assets held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy. National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange r . . . more $62.39 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $52.03 billion (31 December 2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 49 Stock of domestic credit: This entry is the total quantity of credit, denominated in the domestic currency, provided by financial institutions to the central bank, state and local governments, public non-financial corporations, and the private sector. The national currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate on the date of the information. $584.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $508.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 24 Market value of publicly traded shares: This entry gives the value of shares issued by publicly traded companies at a price determined in the national stock markets on the final day of the period indicated. It is simply the latest price per share multiplied by the total number of outstanding shares, cumulated over all companies listed on the particular exchange. $348.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $430.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $354.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.) country comparison to the world: 30 Current account balance: This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments (such as pension funds and worker remittances) to and from the rest of the world during the period specified. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. $51.08 billion (2017 est.) $48.24 billion (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 10 Exports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. $235.1 billion (2017 est.) $214.3 billion (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 21 Exports - partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. China 12.4%, US 11.2%, Japan 9.5%, Hong Kong 5.2%, Vietnam 4.9%, Australia 4.5%, Malaysia 4.4% (2017) Exports - commodities: This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. automobiles and parts, computer and parts, jewelry and precious stones, polymers of ethylene in primary forms, refine fuels, electronic integrated circuits, chemical products, rice, fish products, rubber products, sugar, cassava, poultry, machinery and parts, iron and steel and their products Imports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. $203.2 billion (2017 est.) $177.7 billion (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 25 Imports - commodities: This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. machinery and parts, crude oil, electrical machinery and parts, chemicals, iron & steel and product, electronic integrated circuit, automobile’s parts, jewelry including silver bars and gold, computers and parts, electrical household appliances, soybean, soybean meal, wheat, cotton, dairy products Imports - partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. China 20%, Japan 14.5%, US 6.8%, Malaysia 5.4% (2017) Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund. $202.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $171.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 12 Debt - external: This entry gives the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods, or services. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. $132 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $130.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 44 Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares. $227.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $193.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 30 Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in foreign countries made directly by residents - primarily companies - of the home country, as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares. $117.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $96.27 billion (31 December 2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 33 Exchange rates: This entry provides the average annual price of a country's monetary unit for the time period specified, expressed in units of local currency per US dollar, as determined by international market forces or by official fiat. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4217 alphabetic currency code for the national medium of exchange is presented in parenthesis. Closing daily exchange rates are not presented in The World Factbook, but are used to convert stock values - e.g., the . . . more baht per US dollar - 34.34 (2017 est.) 35.296 (2016 est.) 35.296 (2015 est.) 34.248 (2014 est.) 32.48 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Thailand
  • Electricity access: This entry provides information on access to electricity. Electrification data – collected from industry reports, national surveys, and international sources – consists of four subfields. Population without electricity provides an estimate of the number of citizens that do not have access to electricity. Electrification – total population is the percent of a country’s total population with access to electricity, electrification – urban areas is the percent of a country’s urban population w . . . more population without electricity: 700,000 (2013) electrification - total population: 99% (2013) electrification - urban areas: 99.7% (2013) electrification - rural areas: 98.3% (2013) Electricity - production: This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution. 181.5 billion kWh (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 23 Electricity - consumption: This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution. 187.7 billion kWh (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 22 Electricity - exports: This entry is the total exported electricity in kilowatt-hours. 2.267 billion kWh (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 44 Electricity - imports: This entry is the total imported electricity in kilowatt-hours. 19.83 billion kWh (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 11 Electricity - installed generating capacity: This entry is the total capacity of currently installed generators, expressed in kilowatts (kW), to produce electricity. A 10-kilowatt (kW) generator will produce 10 kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity, if it runs continuously for one hour. 44.89 million kW (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 24 Electricity - from fossil fuels: This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity by burning fossil fuels (such as coal, petroleum products, and natural gas), expressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity. 76% of total installed capacity (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 94 Electricity - from nuclear fuels: This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity through radioactive decay of nuclear fuel, expressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity. 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 193 Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity by water-driven turbines, expressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity. 8% of total installed capacity (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 124 Electricity - from other renewable sources: This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity by using renewable energy sources other than hydroelectric (including, for example, wind, waves, solar, and geothermal), expressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity. 16% of total installed capacity (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 55 Crude oil - production: This entry is the total amount of crude oil produced, in barrels per day (bbl/day). 239,700 bbl/day (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 34 Crude oil - exports: This entry is the total amount of crude oil exported, in barrels per day (bbl/day). 790 bbl/day (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 76 Crude oil - imports: This entry is the total amount of crude oil imported, in barrels per day (bbl/day). 875,400 bbl/day (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 12 Crude oil - proved reserves: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil, in barrels (bbl). Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions. 349.4 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.) country comparison to the world: 50 Refined petroleum products - production: This entry is the country's total output of refined petroleum products, in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of refined petroleum products produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors. 1.328 million bbl/day (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 14 Refined petroleum products - consumption: This entry is the country's total consumption of refined petroleum products, in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of refined petroleum products produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors. 1.326 million bbl/day (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 16 Refined petroleum products - exports: This entry is the country's total exports of refined petroleum products, in barrels per day (bbl/day). 278,300 bbl/day (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 29 Refined petroleum products - imports: This entry is the country's total imports of refined petroleum products, in barrels per day (bbl/day). 134,200 bbl/day (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 44 Natural gas - production: This entry is the total natural gas produced in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors. 38.59 billion cu m (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 22 Natural gas - consumption: This entry is the total natural gas consumed in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors. 52.64 billion cu m (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 16 Natural gas - exports: This entry is the total natural gas exported in cubic meters (cu m). 0 cu m (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 199 Natural gas - imports: This entry is the total natural gas imported in cubic meters (cu m). 14.41 billion cu m (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 21 Natural gas - proved reserves: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of natural gas in cubic meters (cu m). Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions. 193.4 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.) country comparison to the world: 43 Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: This entry is the total amount of carbon dioxide, measured in metric tons, released by burning fossil fuels in the process of producing and consuming energy. 355 million Mt (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 19
  • Communications :: Thailand
  • Telephones - fixed lines: This entry gives the total number of fixed telephone lines in use, as well as the number of subscriptions per 100 inhabitants. total subscriptions: 2.91 million (2017 est.) subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 49 Telephones - mobile cellular: This entry gives the total number of mobile cellular telephone subscribers, as well as the number of subscriptions per 100 inhabitants. Note that because of the ubiquity of mobile phone use in developed countries, the number of subscriptions per 100 inhabitants can exceed 100. total subscriptions: 121.53 million (2017 est.) subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 178 (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 11 Telephone system: This entry includes a brief general assessment of the system with details on the domestic and international components. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry: Arabsat - Arab Satellite Communications Organization (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia). Autodin - Automatic Digital Network (US Department of Defense). CB - citizen's band mobile radio communications. Cellular telephone system - the telephones in this system are radio transceivers, with each instrument having its o . . . more general assessment: high quality system, especially in urban areas like Bangkok (2016) domestic: fixed-line system provided by both a government-owned and commercial provider; wireless service expanding rapidly (2016) international: country code - 66; connected to major submarine cable systems providing links throughout Asia, Australia, Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Pacific Ocean) (2016) Broadcast media: This entry provides information on the approximate number of public and private TV and radio stations in a country, as well as basic information on the availability of satellite and cable TV services. 26 digital TV stations in Bangkok broadcast nationally, 6 terrestrial TV stations in Bangkok broadcast nationally via relay stations - 2 of the stations are owned by the military, the other 4 are government-owned or controlled, leased to private enterprise, and all are required to broadcast government-produced news programs twice a day; multi-channel satellite and cable TV subscription services are available; radio frequencies have been allotted for more than 500 government and commercial radio stations; many small community radio stations operate with low-power transmitters (2017) Internet country code: This entry includes the two-letter codes maintained by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in the ISO 3166 Alpha-2 list and used by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) to establish country-coded top-level domains (ccTLDs). .th Internet users: This entry gives the total number of individuals within a country who can access the Internet at home, via any device type (computer or mobile) and connection. The percent of population with Internet access (i.e., the penetration rate) helps gauge how widespread Internet use is within a country. Statistics vary from country to country and may include users who access the Internet at least several times a week to those who access it only once within a period of several months. total: 32,398,778 (July 2016 est.) percent of population: 47.5% (July 2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 21 Broadband - fixed subscriptions: This entry gives the total number of fixed-broadband subscriptions, as well as the number of subscriptions per 100 inhabitants. Fixed broadband is a physical wired connection to the Internet (e.g., coaxial cable, optical fiber) at speeds equal to or greater than 256 kilobits/second (256 kbit/s). total: 8.208 million (2017 est.) subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 18
  • Transportation :: Thailand
  • National air transport system: This entry includes four subfields describing the air transport system of a given country in terms of both structure and performance. The first subfield, number of registered air carriers, indicates the total number of air carriers registered with the country’s national aviation authority and issued an air operator certificate as required by the Convention on International Civil Aviation. The second subfield, inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers, lists the total number . . . more number of registered air carriers: 19 (2015) inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 276 (2015) annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 54,259,629 (2015) annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2,134,149,001 mt-km (2015) Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: This entry provides the one- or two-character alphanumeric code indicating the nationality of civil aircraft. Article 20 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention), signed in 1944, requires that all aircraft engaged in international air navigation bear appropriate nationality marks. The aircraft registration number consists of two parts: a prefix consisting of a one- or two-character alphanumeric code indicating nationality and a registration suffix of one to fi . . . more HS (2016) Airports: This entry gives the total number of airports or airfields recognizable from the air. The runway(s) may be paved (concrete or asphalt surfaces) or unpaved (grass, earth, sand, or gravel surfaces) and may include closed or abandoned installations. Airports or airfields that are no longer recognizable (overgrown, no facilities, etc.) are not included. Note that not all airports have accommodations for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control. 101 (2013) country comparison to the world: 56 Airports - with paved runways: This entry gives the total number of airports with paved runways (concrete or asphalt surfaces) by length. For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to the following five groups - (1) over 3,047 m (over 10,000 ft), (2) 2,438 to 3,047 m (8,000 to 10,000 ft), (3) 1,524 to 2,437 m (5,000 to 8,000 ft), (4) 914 to 1,523 m (3,000 to 5,000 ft), and (5) under 914 m (under 3,000 ft). Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing. Not all . . . more total: 63 (2013) over 3,047 m: 8 (2013) 2,438 to 3,047 m: 12 (2013) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 23 (2013) 914 to 1,523 m: 14 (2013) under 914 m: 6 (2013) Airports - with unpaved runways: This entry gives the total number of airports with unpaved runways (grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces) by length. For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to the following five groups - (1) over 3,047 m (over 10,000 ft), (2) 2,438 to 3,047 m (8,000 to 10,000 ft), (3) 1,524 to 2,437 m (5,000 to 8,000 ft), (4) 914 to 1,523 m (3,000 to 5,000 ft), and (5) under 914 m (under 3,000 ft). Only airports with usable runways are included in this listin . . . more total: 38 (2013) 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013) 914 to 1,523 m: 10 (2013) under 914 m: 26 (2013) Heliports: This entry gives the total number of heliports with hard-surface runways, helipads, or landing areas that support routine sustained helicopter operations exclusively and have support facilities including one or more of the following facilities: lighting, fuel, passenger handling, or maintenance. It includes former airports used exclusively for helicopter operations but excludes heliports limited to day operations and natural clearings that could support helicopter landings and takeoffs. 7 (2013) Pipelines: This entry gives the lengths and types of pipelines for transporting products like natural gas, crude oil, or petroleum products. 2 km condensate, 5900 km gas, 85 km liquid petroleum gas, 1 km oil, 1097 km refined products (2013) Railways: This entry states the total route length of the railway network and of its component parts by gauge, which is the measure of the distance between the inner sides of the load-bearing rails. The four typical types of gauges are: broad, standard, narrow, and dual. Other gauges are listed under note. Some 60% of the world's railways use the standard gauge of 1.4 m (4.7 ft). Gauges vary by country and sometimes within countries. The choice of gauge during initial construction was mainly in resp . . . more total: 4,127 km (2017) standard gauge: 84 km 1.435-m gauge (84 km electrified) (2017) narrow gauge: 4,043 km 1.000-m gauge (2017) country comparison to the world: 46 Roadways: This entry gives the total length of the road network and includes the length of the paved and unpaved portions. total: 180,053 km (includes 450 km of expressways) (2006) country comparison to the world: 24 Waterways: This entry gives the total length of navigable rivers, canals, and other inland bodies of water. 4,000 km (3,701 km navigable by boats with drafts up to 0.9 m) (2011) country comparison to the world: 26 Merchant marine: Merchant marine may be defined as all ships engaged in the carriage of goods; or all commercial vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc. This entry contains information in four fields - total, ships by type, foreign-owned, and registered in other countries. Total includes the number of ships (1,000 GRT or over), total DWT for those ships, and total GRT for those ships. DWT or dead weight tonnage is the total weight of ca . . . more total: 781 (2017) by type: bulk carrier 25, container ship 23, general cargo 94, oil tanker 240, other 399 (2017) country comparison to the world: 27 Ports and terminals: This entry lists major ports and terminals primarily on the basis of the amount of cargo tonnage shipped through the facilities on an annual basis. In some instances, the number of containers handled or ship visits were also considered. Most ports service multiple classes of vessels including bulk carriers (dry and liquid), break bulk cargoes (goods loaded individually in bags, boxes, crates, or drums; sometimes palletized), containers, roll-on/roll-off, and passenger ships. The listing le . . . more major seaport(s): Bangkok, Laem Chabang, Map Ta Phut, Prachuap Port, Si Racha container port(s) (TEUs): Bangkok (1,498,009), Laem Chabang (7,227,431) (2016) LNG terminal(s) (import): Map Ta Phut
  • Military and Security :: Thailand
  • Military expenditures: This entry gives spending on defense programs for the most recent year available as a percent of gross domestic product (GDP); the GDP is calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP). For countries with no military forces, this figure can include expenditures on public security and police. 1.5% of GDP (2017) 1.45% of GDP (2016) 1.44% of GDP (2015) 1.41% of GDP (2014) 1.4% of GDP (2013)

    country comparison to the world: 77 Military branches: This entry lists the service branches subordinate to defense ministries or the equivalent (typically ground, naval, air, and marine forces). Royal Thai Armed Forces (Kongthap Thai, RTARF): Royal Thai Army (Kongthap Bok Thai, RTA), Royal Thai Navy (Kongthap Ruea Thai, RTN, includes Royal Thai Marine Corps), Royal Thai Air Force (Kongthap Akaat Thai, RTAF) (2018) Military service age and obligation: This entry gives the required ages for voluntary or conscript military service and the length of service obligation. 21 years of age for compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary military service; males register at 18 years of age; 2-year conscript service obligation based on lottery (2018)
  • Transnational Issues :: Thailand
  • Disputes - international: This entry includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international terrestrial and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the US Department of State. References to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues; however, inclusion does not necessarily constitute . . . more

    separatist violence in Thailand's predominantly Malay-Muslim southern provinces prompt border closures and controls with Malaysia to stem insurgent activities; Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; talks continue on completion of demarcation with Laos but disputes remain over several islands in the Mekong River; despite continuing border committee talks, Thailand must deal with Karen and other ethnic rebels, refugees, and illegal cross-border activities; Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundary; in 2011, Thailand and Cambodia resorted to arms in the dispute over the location of the boundary on the precipice surmounted by Preah Vihear temple ruins, awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962 and part of a planned UN World Heritage site; Thailand is studying the feasibility of jointly constructing the Hatgyi Dam on the Salween river near the border with Burma; in 2004, international environmentalist pressure prompted China to halt construction of 13 dams on the Salween River that flows through China, Burma, and Thailand; approximately 105,000 mostly Karen refugees fleeing civil strife, political upheaval and economic stagnation in Burma live in remote camps in Thailand near the border

    Refugees and internally displaced persons: This entry includes those persons residing in a country as refugees, internally displaced persons (IDPs), or stateless persons. Each country's refugee entry includes only countries of origin that are the source of refugee populations of 5,000 or more. The definition of a refugee according to a UN Convention is "a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her race, religion, nationality, membership in a . . . more refugees (country of origin): 99,982 (Burma) (2017) IDPs: 41,000 (resurgence in ethno-nationalist violence in south of country since 2004) (2017) stateless persons: 486,440 (2017) (estimate represents stateless persons registered with the Thai Government; actual number may be as high as 3.5 million); note - about half of Thailand's northern hill tribe people do not have citizenship and make up the bulk of Thailand's stateless population; most lack documentation showing they or one of their parents were born in Thailand; children born to Burmese refugees are not eligible for Burmese or Thai citizenship and are stateless; most Chao Lay, maritime nomadic peoples, who travel from island to island in the Andaman Sea west of Thailand are also stateless; stateless Rohingya refugees from Burma are considered illegal migrants by Thai authorities and are detained in inhumane conditions or expelled; stateless persons are denied access to voting, property, education, employment, healthcare, and driving

    note: Thai nationality was granted to more than 23,000 stateless persons between 2012 and 2016; in 2016, the Government of Thailand approved changes to its citizenship laws that could make 80,000 stateless persons eligible for citizenship, as part of its effort to achieve zero statelessness by 2024 (2018)

    Trafficking in persons: Trafficking in persons is modern-day slavery, involving victims who are forced, defrauded, or coerced into labor or sexual exploitation. The International Labor Organization (ILO), the UN agency charged with addressing labor standards, employment, and social protection issues, estimated in 2011 that 20.9 million people worldwide were victims of forced labor, bonded labor, forced child labor, sexual servitude, and involuntary servitude. Human trafficking is a multi-dimensional threat, depri . . . more current situation: Thailand is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; victims from Burma, Cambodia, Laos, China, Vietnam, Uzbekistan, and India, migrate to Thailand in search of jobs but are forced, coerced, or defrauded into labor in commercial fishing, fishing-related industries, factories, domestic work, street begging, or the sex trade; some Thai, Burmese, Cambodian, and Indonesian men forced to work on fishing boats are kept at sea for years; sex trafficking of adults and children from Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and Burma remains a significant problem; Thailand is a transit country for victims from China, Vietnam, Bangladesh, and Burma subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor in Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Russia, South Korea, the US, and countries in Western Europe; Thai victims are also trafficked in North America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Thailand does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking, and is not making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, authorities investigated, prosecuted, and convicted fewer traffickers and identified fewer victims; some cases of official complicity were investigated and prosecuted, but trafficking-related corruption continues to hinder progress in combatting trafficking; authorities’ efforts to screen for victims among vulnerable populations remained inadequate due to a poor understanding of trafficking indicators, a failure to recognize non-physical forms of coercion, and a shortage of language interpreters; the government passed new labor laws increasing the minimum age in the fishing industry to 18 years old, guaranteeing the minimum wage, and requiring work contracts, but weak law enforcement and poor coordination among regulatory agencies enabled exploitive labor practices to continue; the government increased efforts to raise public awareness to the dangers of human trafficking and to deny entry to foreign sex tourists (2015) Illicit drugs: This entry gives information on the five categories of illicit drugs - narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside of medical channels. Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydroca . . . more a minor producer of opium, heroin, and marijuana; transit point for illicit heroin en route to the international drug market from Burma and Laos; eradication efforts have reduced the area of cannabis cultivation and shifted some production to neighboring countries; opium poppy cultivation has been reduced by eradication efforts; also a drug money-laundering center; minor role in methamphetamine production for regional consumption; major consumer of methamphetamine since the 1990s despite a series of government crackdowns
GO TOP

Contact CIA

 

The Office of Public Affairs (OPA) is the single point of contact for all inquiries about the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

We read every letter or e-mail we receive, and we will convey your comments to CIA officials outside OPA as appropriate. However, with limited staff and resources, we simply cannot respond to all who write to us.


Contact Information

Submit questions or comments online

By postal mail:
Central Intelligence Agency
Office of Public Affairs
Washington, D.C. 20505


Contact the Office of Privacy and Civil Liberties

Contact the Office of Inspector General

Contact the Employment Verification Office


Before contacting us:

Please check our site map, search feature, or our site navigation on the left to locate the information you seek. We do not routinely respond to questions for which answers are found within this Web site.

Employment: We do not routinely answer questions about employment beyond the information on this Web site, and we do not routinely answer questions about employment beyond the information on this Web site, and we do not routinely answer inquiries about the status of job applications. Recruiting will contact applicants within 45 days if their qualifications meet our needs.

  • Because of safety concerns for the prospective applicant, as well as security and communication issues, the CIA Recruitment Center does not accept resumes, nor can we return phone calls, e-mails or other forms of communication, from US citizens living outside of the US. When you return permanently to the US (not on vacation or leave), please visit the CIA Careers page and apply online for the position of interest.

  • To verify an employee's employment, please contact the Employment Verification Office.

Report Information

 

People from nearly every country share information with CIA, and new individuals contact us daily. If you have information you think might interest CIA due to our foreign intelligence collection mission, there are many ways to reach us.

If you know of an imminent threat to a location inside the U.S., immediately contact your local law enforcement or FBI Field Office. For threats outside the U.S., contact CIA or go to a U.S. Embassy or Consulate and ask for the information to be passed to a U.S. official. Please know, CIA does not engage in law enforcement.

In addition to the options below, individuals contact CIA in a variety of creative ways. The best method depends on your personal situation. We will work to protect all information you provide, including your identity, and our interactions with you will be respectful and professional. Depending on what you provide, we may offer you compensation.

WHAT TO PROVIDE

If you feel it is safe, consider providing these details with your submission:

  • Your full name
  • Biographic details, such as a photograph of yourself, and a copy of the biographic page of your passport
  • How you got the information you want to share with CIA
  • How to contact you, including your home address and phone number

We cannot guarantee a response to every message. We reply first to messages of greater interest to us and to those with more detail. Our response will occur via a secure method.

WAYS TO SUBMIT

Internet: Send a message here. We go to great lengths to keep this channel secure, but any communication via the internet poses some risk. Using a virtual private network and/or a device not registered to you can reduce some risk.

Mail: Inside the U.S., send mail to the following address:

Central Intelligence Agency
Office of Public Affairs
Washington, D.C. 20505

You can also mail a letter to a U.S. Embassy or Consulate and request it be forwarded to CIA. Please note we have no control over the security and reliability of postal mail.

In-Person: Outside the U.S., go to a U.S. Embassy or Consulate and inform a U.S. official you have information for CIA.

Third Party: Have someone you trust travel to a less restrictive environment and deliver the information via one of the above methods.

  • Your full name
  • Biographic details, such as a photograph of yourself, and a copy of the biographic page of your passport
  • How you got the information you want to share with CIA
  • How to contact you, including your home address and phone number

We cannot guarantee a response to every message. We reply first to messages of greater interest to us and to those with more detail. Our response will occur via a secure method.

WAYS TO SUBMIT

Internet: Send a message here. We go to great lengths to keep this channel secure, but any communication via the internet poses some risk. Using a virtual private network and/or a device not registered to you can reduce some risk.

Mail: Inside the U.S., send mail to the following address:

Central Intelligence Agency
Office of Public Affairs
Washington, D.C. 20505

You can also mail a letter to a U.S. Embassy or Consulate and request it be forwarded to CIA. Please note we have no control over the security and reliability of postal mail.

In-Person: Outside the U.S., go to a U.S. Embassy or Consulate and inform a U.S. official you have information for CIA.

Third Party: Have someone you trust travel to a less restrictive environment and deliver the information via one of the above methods.