Politics, Law & Government
The world today is divided territorially into more than 190 countries, each of which possesses a national government that claims to exercise sovereignty and seeks to compel obedience to its will by its citizens. Governments can be classified in any number of ways. For example, they might be classified by the number of rulers, thus distinguishing government by one (as in a monarchy or a tyranny) from government by the few (in an aristocracy or oligarchy) and from government by the many (as in a democracy). Governments can also be classified by mode of succession; for example, ascension to governmental leadership may follow the rules of hereditary succession, or it may be determined through elections or by force. Governments also vary in terms of the laws and rules of conduct that each political entity follows.John Locke: A Letter Concerning Toleration rupee; India: economy Learn how Civil War vet Ulysses Grant won the presidency but struggled with a country amid Reconstruction Study the powers granted to the head of the U.S. executive branch and how to avoid falling into a dictatorship inaugural address: George Bush delivering his inaugural address, Jan. 20, 1989 Gorbachev, Mikhail Learn from Neal Spelce the response to the mass shooting at the University of Texas at Austin in 1966 Take a tour of the Executive Mansion guided by First Lady Nancy Reagan and discover how the White House serves as a symbol of the continuity of democracy in the United States Analyze with Hubert Humphrey the U.S. Congress's founding and role in America's system of checks and balances International Criminal Court Review how the U.S. Supreme Court works and see how it serves as the protector of the people's rights Study the U.S. Judicial branch and learn about the checks and balances to which it is subjected electoral exit polling Learn about the Whig Party's final U.S. president, Millard Fillmore, and the Compromise of 1850 Learn how the names Morgan, Rockefeller, Chase, and Mellon became synonymous with New York City's Wall Street Listen to former vice president Hubert Humphrey examine the personalities of memorable U.S. presidents questions and answers about nationalism Follow a bill from a congressional committee to being signed into law by the president of the United States questions and answers about liberalism Learn how Switzerland's neutrality in past European wars and gold trade made it a secure banking centre Learn how James Monroe helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase and established the Monroe Doctrine Parliament of Canada: Senate Top Questions: Mao Zedong questions and answers about democracy Consider President Truman's reasoning for using atomic bombs against Japan and issuing the Truman Doctrine euro United Kingdom: law Russia: tsarist rule Democracy (1946) electoral polling European Commission: director of protocol deutsche mark Interview Neal Spelce who reported live from the University of Texas at Austin during the 1966 mass shooting Brandt, Willy Top Questions: Queen Anne Listen to Hubert Humphrey examine the power wielded by U.S. presidents Washington, Lincoln, and Kennedy Discover whether French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte was really as short as once believed Discover how President Buchanan reacted to the Dred Scott decision and John Brown's assault on Harpers Ferry See how Andrew Jackson's signing of the Indian Removal Act led to the Trail of Tears market economy; mixed economy; command economy Discover the urbanization of South American cities such as Lima, Santiago, Bogota, and Valparaíso Lübke, Heinrich Catherine II International Criminal Court Reno, Janet: Before the Government Reform and Oversight Committee Hillary Clinton Ginsburg, Ruth Bader Hear former vice president Hubert Humphrey discuss checks and balances on the president of the United States Queen Victoria's reign Walk through a southern African open-air market and learn about exports important to the region Malcolm Fraser Top Questions: East India Company Analyze Jimmy Carter's shortcomings as U.S. president and his Nobel Prize-winning humanitarian work United Kingdom: Parliament nuclear test the Munich massacre Adenauer, Konrad Explore Abraham Lincoln's marriage to Mary Todd and time as state lawmaker in Springfield, Illinois online rights; citizenship Examine how Allied powers dismembered the Central Powers in World War I treaty but failed to prevent World War II Mandela, Nelson EU: history Parliament of Canada: Commons, House of Examine Chester Arthur's life and tenure in office, the Pendleton Act, and the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 See how Kennedy emerged from a crowded field to become the Democratic Party's 1960 presidential nominee Keynesian economics: paradox of thrift Top Questions: Robert the Bruce Ricardo, David: comparative advantage Top Questions: Benito Mussolini Tucson shooting: Obama speaking at memorial for victims of Tucson shooting, 2011 money Biden, Joe: Biden introducing Obama before signing Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Examine the life of the United States' first vice president and second president, John Adams Bitcoin United Kingdom: House of Lords See how Andrew Johnson fought with Congress over Reconstruction and became the first president to be impeached See how Bill Clinton passed the North American Free Trade Agreement and faced impeachment Hitler, Adolf: rise to power Study how Gerald Ford stewarded a post-Watergate United States amid economic inflation and high unemployment Learn how President Obama passed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and ended the Iraq War financial crisis of 2007–08 Study how Teddy Roosevelt leveraged federal power over mine owners to earn a victory for labourers market “bubble” Meet the New Deal president who piloted the United States through the Great Depression and World War II German terrorism Phillips curve Examine President Nixon's threefold plan to unilaterally de-escalate the Vietnam War Learn about the United States' sixth president, John Quincy Adams, on the National Republican Party United Kingdom: election Investiture Controversy Uncover Secret Service codenames for U.S. presidents from John F. Kennedy to Barack Obama Watch West German Chancellor Adenauer greet French President de Gaulle to forge diplomatic ties after WWII Examine the roles of communism, fascism, and the Great Depression in the Spanish Civil War Learn how the September 11th terrorist attacks and the Iraq War defined George W. Bush's presidency Observe how former president Garfield thwarted the spoils system before being assassinated by a Stalwart U.S. Pres. Barack Obama The Supreme Court: Early Precedents Explore how the Constitution of the United States of America was drafted in the wake of Shays's Rebellion United Kingdom: Parliament Learn how the U.S. Supreme Court upholds freedom of speech and religion and the right to due process Ulbricht, Walter Study the end of the Cold War and start of the Persian Gulf War under George H.W. Bush's administration See how the Vietnam War, Cold War diplomacy, and the Watergate scandal defined Richard Nixon's presidency Discover how Grover Cleveland handled the Haymarket Riot, Panic of 1893, and Pullman Strike Benetton Group; branding Explore Thomas Jefferson's feuds with Federalists such as Alexander Hamilton and John Adams Learn how Zachary Taylor pushed Congress to admit California as a free state before dying in office Winston Churchill: first speech as prime minister European Court of Human Rights: life sentence Discover how Franklin Pierce's Kansas-Nebraska Act fueled the slavery debate and led to Bleeding Kansas International Criminal Court Study the life and career of World War II general and former U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower Richard I Vajiralongkorn; Rama X petition; British Parliament Learn about the Netherlands' flower cross-breeding and cultivation program from the fields to auction Peru: economy France: presidential election process United States: elections Check out Britannica's new site for parents!