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- The history of construction
- Roman achievements
- The first industrial age
- The second industrial age
- Development of building service and support systems
- Modern building practices
- Low-rise residential buildings
- Low-rise commercial, institutional, and industrial buildings
- High-rise buildings
The first industrial age
Development of iron technology
The last half of the 18th century saw the unfolding of a series of events, primarily in England, that later historians would call the first Industrial Revolution, which would have a profound influence on society as a whole as well as on building technology. Among the first of these events was the large-scale production of iron, beginning with the work of Abraham Darby, who in 1709 was the first to use coke as a fuel in the smelting process. The ready availability of iron contributed to the development of machinery, notably James Watt’s double-acting steam engine of 1769. Henry Cort developed the puddling process for making wrought iron in 1784, and in the same year he built the first rolling mill, powered by a steam engine, to produce rolled lengths of wrought-iron bars, angles, and other shapes. Cast iron, which has a higher carbon content than wrought iron but is more brittle, was also produced on a large scale. Standard iron building elements soon appeared, pointing the way to the development of metal buildings.
Early applications of iron in construction are found several centuries prior to the industrial age. There are records of iron chain suspension bridges with timber decks in China from the early Ming dynasty (1368–1644); some of them—such as the Liu-Tung Bridge, the object of a famous battle on Mao Zedong’s Long March in 1935—have survived in a much-restored condition. The iron tension chains in the domes of St. Peter’s and St. Paul’s cathedrals are other examples. But the first large cast-iron structure of the industrial age was the bridge over the River Severn at Ironbridge. Built by the iron founder Abraham Darby III between 1777 and 1779, it has a span of 30 metres (100 feet), using five circular-form arches that are reduced to a spidery web of slender iron ribs. Each arch was cast in two pieces with a maximum dimension of 21 metres (70 feet), which were difficult to move from the foundry to the site and to set in place. Smaller, more easily handled pieces characterized the rapid application of iron to buildings that followed. Solid cast-iron columns were used in St. Anne’s Church in Liverpool as early as 1772, and hollow tubular columns of increased efficiency were developed in the 1790s. The first use of wrought-iron trusses, which were made of flat bars riveted together, was in a 28-metre (92-foot) span for the roof of the Théâtre-Français in Paris in 1786 by the architect Victor Louis. There iron was used not so much for its strength as its noncombustibility, which, it was hoped, would reduce the hazard of fire. For the same reason, about 1800 the British textile industry began to use partial metal framing in mill buildings up to seven stories high. Hollow cast-iron cylindrical columns were spaced at about 3 metres (10 feet) on centre and supported cast-iron tee beams spanning up to 4.5 metres (15 feet); the floors were bridged by brick arches resting on the bottom flanges of the tee beams; at the perimeter the beams rested on masonry bearing walls, which gave the structure its lateral stability. This prototype of the iron-frame building with exterior masonry walls soon set a standard that would continue to the end of the century.
The completely independent iron frame without masonry adjuncts emerged slowly in a series of special building types. The first modest example was Hungerford Fish Market (1835) in London. Timber was forbidden because of sanitation requirements; the cast-iron beams spanned 9.7 metres (32 feet) with 3-metre (10-foot) cantilevers on either side, and the hollow cast-iron columns also served as roof drains. All lateral stability was provided by the rigid joints between columns and beams. The next type to use the full iron frame was the greenhouse, which provided a controlled luminous and thermal environment for exotic tropical plants in the cold climate of northern Europe. Among the first of these was the Palm House at Kew Gardens near London; it was built by the architect Decimus Burton in the 1840s.
A spectacular series of iron and glass buildings for conservatories and exhibition halls continued to the end of the century. The most important of these was the Crystal Palace, built in London’s Hyde Park to house the Great Exhibition of 1851. This vast building, 564 metres (1,851 feet) long, was built entirely of standardized parts. Cast-iron columns carried iron trusses of three different spans—7.3 metres (24 feet), 14.6 metres (48 feet), and 21.9 metres (72 feet)—in riveted wrought iron; spanning between the trusses were ingenious “Paxton gutters” made of wooden compression members above iron tension rods that prestressed the wood to reduce deflection. All these prefabricated elements were simply bolted or clipped together on the site to enclose a space of 90,000 square metres (1,000,000 square feet) in only six months. But the major triumph of the Crystal Palace was its all-glass enclosure, made of standard panes 25 × 124 centimetres (10 × 49 inches) in size; the huge space was flooded with light that was scarcely interrupted by the diaphanous metal framing—it resembled a great secular cathedral realizing the ultimate ambition of the medieval masons.
The French also produced a number of fine iron and glass exhibition halls, including one with a 48-metre (160-foot) span in 1855. Others with somewhat smaller spans, but larger enclosed areas than the Crystal Palace, followed in 1867 and 1878. Iron trusses with glazed roofs were also used in the train sheds of railway stations that were built throughout western Europe. The New Street Station in Birmingham, England (1854), had a train shed with an iron truss roof spanning 64 metres (211 feet). It was apparently the first building to exceed the span of the Pantheon. One of the largest was St. Pancras Station (1873) in London, which featured a glazed hall spanned by 74-metre (243-foot) trussed iron arches. After the brilliant successes of mid-century, iron and glass construction was applied in a more prosaic series of buildings that continued to be built until 1900.
Manufactured building materials
The production of brick was industrialized in the 19th century. The laborious process of hand-molding, which had been used for 3,000 years, was superseded by “pressed” bricks. These were mass-produced by a mechanical extrusion process in which clay was squeezed through a rectangular die as a continuous column and sliced to size by a wire cutter. There was also a proliferation of elaborately shaped and stamped masonry units. Periodically fired beehive kilns (stoked by coke) continued to be used, but the continuous tunnel kiln, through which bricks were moved slowly on a conveyor belt, had appeared by the end of the century. The new methods considerably reduced the cost of brick, and it became one of the constituent building materials of the age.
Timber technology underwent rapid development in the 19th century in North America, where there were large forests of softwood fir and pine trees that could be harvested and processed by industrial methods; steam- and water-powered sawmills began producing standard-dimension timbers in quantity in the 1820s. The production of cheap machine-made nails in the 1830s provided the other necessary ingredient that made possible a major innovation in construction, the balloon frame; the first example is thought to be a warehouse erected in Chicago in 1832 by George W. Snow. There was a great demand for small buildings of all types as the North American continent was settled, and the light timber frame provided a quick, flexible, and inexpensive solution to this problem. In the balloon frame system, traditional heavy timbers and complex joinery were abandoned. The building walls were framed with 5 × 10-centimetre (2 × 4-inch) vertical members, or studs, placed at 40 centimetres (16 inches) on centre (that is, measured between the centre points of each); these in turn supported the roof and floor joists, usually 5 × 25 centimetres (2 × 10 inches) also placed 40 centimetres (16 inches) apart and capable of spanning up to 6 metres (20 feet). Lateral stability was achieved by light diagonal braces let into the studs or, more commonly, by 2-centimetre- (0.75-inch-) thick diagonal boards applied to all exterior walls and to floor and roof joists, creating a rigid, light box. Openings were cut through the framing and sheathing as required. All connections were made with machine-made nails, which were easily driven through the soft, thin timbers. A wide variety of interior and exterior surfacing materials could be applied to the frame, including timber siding, stucco, and brick veneer. The balloon frame building, made with manufactured materials and requiring only a few hand tools and little skill to build, has remained a popular and inexpensive form of construction to the present day.