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- The history of construction
- Roman achievements
- The first industrial age
- The second industrial age
- Development of building service and support systems
- Modern building practices
- Low-rise residential buildings
- Low-rise commercial, institutional, and industrial buildings
- High-rise buildings
Interior finishes and space-division systems define the living spaces within residential buildings with a range of both natural and synthetic materials. The most widely used wall finish is gypsum board, a prefabricated form of traditional wet plaster. Wet gypsum plaster is cast between paper facings to form large panels that are nailed to light timber or metal frameworks. The joints between the panels are filled with a hard-setting resin compound, giving a smooth seamless surface that has considerable fire resistance. Gypsum board forms the substrate to which a number of other materials, including thin wood-veneered plywood and vinyl fabrics, can be applied with adhesives. In wet areas such as kitchens and bathrooms, water-resistant gypsum board is used, sometimes with the addition of adhesive-applied ceramic tile.
Doors in residential buildings are usually of the hollow-core type, with thin veneers of wood glued over a honeycomb paper core and solid wood edge strips; door frames are typically made of machined timber shapes. Plastic laminates bonded to particleboard are extensively used for built-in cabinets and countertops. The most common floor finish is carpeting, most of which is now made of synthetic fibres, displacing the traditional wool and cotton. It can be easily maintained, and its soft visual and tactile texture, as well as its sound-absorbing qualities, make it attractive for residential use. Hardwoods—primarily oak, birch, and maple—are also used for floors, both in the traditional narrow planks nailed to plywood decks and as prefabricated parquet elements, which are applied with adhesives. In wet or hard-use areas vinyl-composition tiles or ceramic tiles are used.
Domestic water-supply systems for low-rise residential buildings have two sources, either municipal water-distribution systems or, where these are not available, wells that are drilled to underground aquifers which are free of contamination. Water is drawn from the wells with small submersible electric pumps, which are lowered through the well casing to the intake. Underground exterior water-supply pipes are usually cast-iron with threaded connections to contain the pressures applied to the fluid, which is typically sufficient to raise it four stories. Within the building, copper tubing with soldered connections is used for distribution because of its corrosion resistance and ease of fabrication; in some areas plastic pipe is also used. The domestic water supply is divided into cold and hot systems, the cold water being piped directly to the fixtures. The hot-water system first draws the supply through a hot-water heating tank, which raises its temperature to about 60 °C (140 °F) using electric resistance or gas heat. Domestic water heaters that use solar radiation to heat water in coils exposed to the sun on a glass-covered black metal plate (flat-plate solar collectors) are found in areas where there is ample sunshine and relatively high energy costs. The hot water is then distributed from the heater to the fixtures in a recirculating loop pipe system, in which gravity and temperature differentials maintain a constant temperature in period of low demand.
The primary residential use of water is in the bathroom, which typically includes a bathtub of cast iron or pressed steel with a ceramic porcelain coating (although fibre-glass-reinforced resin is also used), a ceramic lavatory, and a ceramic tank-type water closet. The bath and lavatory are supplied with hot and cold water through faucets with lever or screw-type valve controls. The valve of the water closet supply is also lever-operated and relies on the gravity power of the water in the tank for its flushing action. Shower baths are also common, often incorporated into bathtub recesses or in a separate compartment finished with ceramic tile. In some countries a bidet is included.
Other widely used plumbing fixtures include kitchen sinks, usually of cast iron or pressed steel with a ceramic porcelain coating, or of stainless steel; automatic dishwashing machines; and automatic washing machines for laundry. Kitchen sinks can be fitted with garbage disposals, which grind solid waste into a fluid slurry that is flushed out with wastewater. Where the possibility of back siphonage of wastewater into the water supply exists, a vacuum breaker must be provided at the supply to prevent this happening, but most domestic plumbing fixtures are designed to avoid this possibility.
Drainage systems to remove wastewater are made of cast-iron pipe with threaded joints or bell-and-spigot joints sealed with molten lead or with plastic pipe with solvent-welded joints. The waste pipe of every plumbing fixture is provided with a semicircular reverse curve, or trap, which remains constantly filled with water and prevents odours from the drainage system from escaping into occupied spaces. Immediately downstream from each trap is an opening to a vent pipe system, which lets air into the drainage system and protects the water seals in the traps from removal by siphonage or back pressure. When wastewater leaves the building, it is drained through a backflow-prevention valve and into underground ceramic pipes. It then flows by gravity to either a private sewage treatment plant, such as septic tank and tile field, or to the public sewer system. If the discharge level of the wastewater is below the level of the sewer, a sewage ejector pump is required to raise the wastewater to a higher level, where gravity carries it away.
Atmosphere-control systems in low-rise residential buildings use natural gas, fuel oil, or electric resistance coils as central heat sources; usually the heat generated is distributed to the occupied spaces by a fluid medium, either air or water. Electric resistance coils are also used to heat living spaces directly with radiant energy. Forced-air distribution moves the heat-bearing air through a treelike system of galvanized sheet-metal ducts of round or rectangular cross section; electric-powered fans provide a pressure differential to push the air from the heat source (or furnace) to the living spaces, where it is expelled from grills located in the walls or floors. The negative pressure side of the fan is connected to another treelike system of return air ducts that extract air from living spaces through grills and bring it back to the furnace for reheating. Fresh outside air can be introduced into the system airstream from an exterior intake, and odour-laden interior air can be expelled through a vent, providing ventilation, usually at the rate of about one complete air change per hour. To conserve energy, air-to-air heat exchangers can be used in the exhaust–intake process. The heated air is usually supplied in constant volume, and the ambient temperature is varied in response to a thermostat located in one room. Central humidity control is rarely provided in this building type.
Another common heating system is the radiant hot-water type. The heat source is applied to a small boiler, in which water is heated and from which it is circulated by an electric pump in insulated copper pipes similar to a domestic hot-water system. The pipes can be connected to cast-iron or finned tube steel radiators within the living spaces. The radiators are placed near the areas of greatest heat loss (such as windows or outside walls) where their radiant energy heats the surrounding air and creates a convection cycle within the room, producing a roughly uniform temperature within it. The hot water can also be conducted through narrow pipes placed in a continuous looping pattern to create a large radiant surface; this pattern of pipes may be cast in a concrete floor slab or placed above a ceiling to heat the adjoining living space. Temperature control in hot-water systems uses a thermostat in the living space to adjust the pumped flow rate of the water to vary the heat supplied.
Radiant electric resistance heating systems use coils in baseboard units in the rooms, which create convection cycles similar to hot-water radiators, or resistance cables in continuous looped patterns embedded in plaster ceilings. Local temperature control can be much more precise with electric heating, because it is possible to install a thermostatically controlled rheostat to vary the energy output of relatively small sections of baseboard units or cable.
A type of space heating that is increasing in use in residential buildings is passive solar radiation. On sunny winter days, south-facing windows let in substantial amounts of energy, often enough to heat the entire building. Wood-burning fireplaces with chimneys are still widely provided in residential buildings, but their use is mostly for aesthetic effect.
The cooling of atmospheres in low-rise residential buildings is often done locally with unit air conditioners, which penetrate the exterior wall of the space to be cooled; this permits the intake of fresh air when desired and the ejection of heat pumped from the space to the exterior air. Less often, forced-air heating systems have cooling coils introduced into the airstream to provide a centrally cooled interior. A compressive cooling process is used, similar to that in a domestic refrigerator. A refrigerant, which is a liquid at room temperature, is pumped through a closed system of coiled copper tubes. An electric pump maintains a low pressure in the cooling coils, and the liquid refrigerant passes through an expansion valve from a region of high pressure to the low-pressure coils. This change in pressure results in a phase change of the refrigerant; it turns from a liquid into a gas and absorbs heat in the process, just as water absorbs heat when it is boiled and converted into steam. The heat absorption of the liquid-to-gas transition cools air passing over the cooling coils. The cooled air is circulated through the building by the forced-air system. When the low-pressure gaseous refrigerant leaves the cooling coils, it goes through the pump and is pressurized. The refrigerant travels through condensing coils, which are located outside the building; there the phase change is reversed as the gas turns to a high-pressure liquid and liberates heat to the exterior air passing over the condensing coils. The liquid refrigerant returns to the expansion valve to repeat the cooling cycle. The refrigeration machine is thus a “heat pump” that moves heat out of the building to the exterior atmosphere. Heat pumps can also be run in reverse in the winter months to pump heat from the outside air into the building interior; they work best in mild climates with fairly warm winter temperatures. The use of heat pumps in cold climates poses many difficult technological problems.
Interior atmospheres are also ventilated by operating windows, as well as by unintended leakage at all types of exterior openings. Bathrooms, kitchens, and laundries generate odours and heat and often have separate exhaust systems powered by electric fans that are operated intermittently as required. Residential atmosphere quality is also protected by the smoke detector, which sounds an alarm to warn of possible danger when smoke reaches even a very low level in living spaces.
Electrical systems in residential buildings are supplied from public utility power grids, starting from a step-down transformer near the building that reduces the high line voltage to a safer level. An underground or overhead cable from the transformer leads to the building, where it is connected to a meter that records the energy used by the subscriber. Immediately beyond the meter is a fused main switch to protect the building against an accidental power surge from the grid. The main service is then broken down into a number of circuits by a panelboard, each circuit having a fused switch. From the panelboard the wires of each circuit distribute the electricity to different areas of the building. The wires are usually copper, although aluminum is also used, and are covered with thermoplastic insulation. The wires must be contained in conduit, which is either metal or plastic tubing, to protect against damage and reduce the possibility of fire in the case of accidental overloading of the wires. Conduits are usually concealed in finished spaces within the framing of partition walls or above ceilings and terminate in junction boxes flush with a wall surface. The junction boxes contain terminal devices such as the convenience outlet, control switches, or the connection point for built-in light fixtures.
Residential lighting is provided primarily by movable incandescent fixtures plugged into convenience outlets, but there is often built-in lighting in kitchens, bathrooms, corridors, and closets, mostly of the incandescent type. There is also some use of fluorescent lighting, particularly in built-in fixtures. Overall interior light levels in residential uses are low, about 20–40 footcandles. Exterior lighting is used for entrances, walkways, and exterior living spaces.
The power densities of dwelling units are fairly low and are declining because of the increased use of fluorescent lighting fixtures and improvement of efficiency in electrical appliances. The decline in power consumption enhances the prospect of the widespread appearance of dwellings—particularly detached houses—with their own independent electric power generation and storage systems, unconnected to public utility grids. Photovoltaic cells, which convert sunlight directly into electricity, in combination with storage batteries can offer these residences a new kind of energy autonomy.