This website does readability filtering of other pages. All styles, scripts, forms and ads are stripped. If you want your website excluded or have other feedback, use this form.

TECHNOLOGY; U.S. Selects a New Encryption Technique - The New York Times

success fail Oct MAR Aug 28 2016 2017 2018 30 captures 07 May 2010 - 01 Jul 2018 About this capture COLLECTED BY Organization: Archive Team Formed in 2009, the Archive Team (not to be confused with the archive.org Archive-It Team) is a rogue archivist collective dedicated to saving copies of rapidly dying or deleted websites for the sake of history and digital heritage. The group is 100% composed of volunteers and interested parties, and has expanded into a large amount of related projects for saving online and digital history.

History is littered with hundreds of conflicts over the future of a community, group, location or business that were "resolved" when one of the parties stepped ahead and destroyed what was there. With the original point of contention destroyed, the debates would fall to the wayside. Archive Team believes that by duplicated condemned data, the conversation and debate can continue, as well as the richness and insight gained by keeping the materials. Our projects have ranged in size from a single volunteer downloading the data to a small-but-critical site, to over 100 volunteers stepping forward to acquire terabytes of user-created data to save for future generations.

The main site for Archive Team is at archiveteam.org and contains up to the date information on various projects, manifestos, plans and walkthroughs.

This collection contains the output of many Archive Team projects, both ongoing and completed. Thanks to the generous providing of disk space by the Internet Archive, multi-terabyte datasets can be made available, as well as in use by the Wayback Machine, providing a path back to lost websites and work.

Our collection has grown to the point of having sub-collections for the type of data we acquire. If you are seeking to browse the contents of these collections, the Wayback Machine is the best first stop. Otherwise, you are free to dig into the stacks to see what you may find.

The Archive Team Panic Downloads are full pulldowns of currently extant websites, meant to serve as emergency backups for needed sites that are in danger of closing, or which will be missed dearly if suddenly lost due to hard drive crashes or server failures.

Collection: ArchiveBot: The Archive Team Crowdsourced Crawler ArchiveBot is an IRC bot designed to automate the archival of smaller websites (e.g. up to a few hundred thousand URLs). You give it a URL to start at, and it grabs all content under that URL, records it in a WARC, and then uploads that WARC to ArchiveTeam servers for eventual injection into the Internet Archive (or other archive sites).

To use ArchiveBot, drop by #archivebot on EFNet. To interact with ArchiveBot, you issue commands by typing it into the channel. Note you will need channel operator permissions in order to issue archiving jobs. The dashboard shows the sites being downloaded currently.

There is a dashboard running for the archivebot process at [www.archivebot.com].

ArchiveBot's source code can be found at [github.com].

TIMESTAMPS NYTimes.com no longer supports Internet Explorer 9 or earlier. Please upgrade your browser. LEARN MORE »
Skip to content Skip to navigation View mobile version

The New York Times

Business Day|TECHNOLOGY; U.S. Selects a New Encryption Technique

Advertisement

Supported by

Business Day | TECHNOLOGY

TECHNOLOGY; U.S. Selects a New Encryption Technique

By JOHN SCHWARTZOCT. 3, 2000

Continue reading the main story Share This Page Continue reading the main story

After a three-year worldwide search for a new encryption technique powerful enough to earn the official endorsement of the United States government, the Commerce Department yesterday named a winner: Rijndael.

The name itself is not encrypted. It is a play on the names of its creators, two Belgian computer scientists, Vincent Rijmen and Joan Daemen. The fact that the standard emerged from a country known more for its chocolate than for its software shows the international nature of the cryptographic field.

Once an arcane science employed chiefly by wartime code makers, cryptography has emerged as a key tool for ensuring security and privacy in the information age. The equations, known as algorithms, scramble and unscramble messages and data for computer users.

The federal government has for years relied on an encryption standard known as DES, but the decades-old code has been showing signs of age. Cryptographers have constructed computer systems that could quickly crack DES messages.

Continue reading the main story

Advertisement

Continue reading the main story

The search for a new Advanced Encryption Standard officially began in January 1997. The intervening years have been spent in a flurry of proposals, counterproposals and analysis by the National Institute of Standards and Technology and outside kibitzers in a process widely lauded for its openness. The full record of the process and all submissions and discussion can be found at http://www.nist.gov/aes.

Advertisement

Continue reading the main story

The institute ''did a phenomenal job,'' said Bruce Schneier, chief executive of California-based Counterpane Internet Security and head of a team that proposed one of the five encryption finalists, an algorithm dubbed Twofish.

Mr. Rijmen and Mr. Daemen said in a telephone interview that they were proud to see their work chosen. There is no cash award, and the creators, who met as university students, have agreed to make the algorithm freely available.

''We both make enough to have a decent life,'' Mr. Rijmen said. ''We can buy the things we want to buy.'' Mr. Daemen, however, added that their work was not without rewards: ''This makes us known. The fact that people know you as an expert, you can gain money if you play it in the right way -- I hope, I hope.''

Advertisement

Continue reading the main story

The director of the standards institute, Ray Kammer, said Rijndael provided ''the best balance of robustness and versatility'' of all the finalists, since it can be used on puny personal computers and even microchip-enabled smart cards.

''It was easy to use,'' he said, and it ''will be easy to implement.''

Rijndael (whose creators suggest pronunciations approximating ''Rhine doll'') does not become a new standard overnight. Officials said that in the coming weeks the institute would publish a notice in the Federal Register recommending the software as the new Federal Information Processing Standard. After 90 days for comment and revision, the secretary of commerce will most likely accept the proposal.

Thank you for subscribing.

An error has occurred. Please try again later.

You are already subscribed to this email.

View all New York Times newsletters.

Once approved as a standard, the algorithm can be used for sensitive, but not classified, information, and will be adopted by many government agencies and by organizations doing business with the government.

Advertisement

Continue reading the main story

The algorithm, which has been publicly available for more than a year, can be plugged into many kinds of software for sending e-mail or managing computer files. Institute officials said yesterday that they expected to see the first commercial products incorporating Rijndael to appear within days.

The strength of encryption is generally expressed in the length of the numeric ''key'' used to scramble and unscramble messages. The DES system used a key 56 bits long -- enough to require any code-cracking computer to try so many combinations that the number expressing it is 7,200 followed by 14 zeroes.

Advertisement

Continue reading the main story

Modern computers have rendered such protection weak, so the strongest flavor of Rijndael will require any brute-force decryption attempt to use as many combinations as 1,100 followed by 75 zeroes.

Advertisement

Continue reading the main story

The standards institute estimates that today's computers would take approximately 149 trillion years to decrypt such a message. (The Big Bang, by comparison, is estimated to have occurred less than 20 billion years ago.) Mr. Kammer said that barring advances in so-called quantum computing that would render all notions of current computer power obsolete, the new standard should be effective for 30 years.

Advertisement

Continue reading the main story

In choosing a product from overseas, the government raised eyebrows. ''It is, I guess, encouraging that the U.S. government is willing to use foreign technology -- and at the same time disappointing that a number of American solutions were not chosen,'' said Bruce Heiman, executive director of Americans for Consumer Privacy, an advocacy organization whose members include many high-technology companies.

Mr. Heiman said the choice showed that efforts by the Clinton administration to control the export of cryptographic tools -- policies largely abandoned in the last year -- were wrongheaded. ''It certainly is further proof, if one ever needed,'' he said, ''that encryption technology is international, and unilateral export controls are counterproductive.''

The institute director, Mr. Kammer, defended the administration's former policies of restriction. ''I think there was a time when it was reasonable to hope that by controlling U.S. technology we could control use of encryption worldwide,'' he said. ''But that day is past, and I think the U.S. accepts that.''

Continue reading the main story

We’re interested in your feedback on this page. Tell us what you think.

Ideas. Ignited. 50% Off For 1 Year for one year. Basic 50% Off For 1 Year only $3.75 $1.88/week Basic Digital Access includes:

Access to NYTimes.com and all NYTimes apps

Unlimited article access, anytime, anywhere

Learn more ►

All Access 50% Off For 1 Year only $6.25 $3.13/week Includes everything in Basic, plus:

Times Insider Access, including behind-the-scenes stories, exclusive events, podcasts, and e-books

1 complimentary digital subscription to give anyone you'd like

Learn more ►

Home Delivery
+ All Access
50% Off For 1 Year only $9.90 $4.95/week* Includes everything in All Access, plus:

Customized delivery options such as Sunday only, Fri.-Sun., weekday delivery, or daily delivery

The weekly Sunday magazine and monthly T Magazine

2 complimentary digital subscriptions to give anyone you'd like

Learn more ►

*Home delivery price based on Sunday delivery.
Prices vary based on delivery location and frequency.

What's Next

Loading...

Go to Home Page »

Site Index The New York Times