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At last we know why the Columbine killers did it.

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At last we know why the Columbine killers did it.

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Slate Assessment Taking stock of people and ideas in the news. April 20 2004 11:59 AM

The Depressive and the Psychopath

At last we know why the Columbine killers did it.

By Dave Cullen  
Columbine killers

Five years ago today, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold murdered their classmates and teachers at Columbine High School. Most Americans have reached one of two wrong conclusions about why they did it. The first conclusion is that the pair of supposed "Trench Coat Mafia outcasts" were taking revenge against the bullies who had made school miserable for them. The second conclusion is that the massacre was inexplicable: We can never understand what drove them to such horrific violence.

But the FBI and its team of psychiatrists and psychologists have reached an entirely different conclusion. They believe they know why Harris and Klebold killed, and their explanation is both more reassuring and more troubling than our misguided conclusions. Three months after the massacre, the FBI convened a summit in Leesburg, Va., that included world-renowned mental health experts, including Michigan State University psychiatrist Dr. Frank Ochberg, as well as Supervisory Special Agent Dwayne Fuselier, the FBI's lead Columbine investigator and a clinical psychologist. Fuselier and Ochberg share their conclusions publicly here for the first time.

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The first steps to understanding Columbine, they say, are to forget the popular narrative about the jocks, Goths, and Trenchcoat Mafia—click here to read more about Columbine's myths—and to abandon the core idea that Columbine was simply a school shooting. We can't understand why they did it until we understand what they were doing.

School shooters tend to act impulsively and attack the targets of their rage: students and faculty. But Harris and Klebold planned for a year and dreamed much bigger. The school served as means to a grander end, to terrorize the entire nation by attacking a symbol of American life. Their slaughter was aimed at students and teachers, but it was not motivated by resentment of them in particular. Students and teachers were just convenient quarry, what Timothy McVeigh described as "collateral damage."

The killers, in fact, laughed at petty school shooters. They bragged about dwarfing the carnage of the Oklahoma City bombing and originally scheduled their bloody performance for its anniversary. Klebold boasted on video about inflicting "the most deaths in U.S. history." Columbine was intended not primarily as a shooting at all, but as a bombing on a massive scale. If they hadn't been so bad at wiring the timers, the propane bombs they set in the cafeteria would have wiped out 600 people. After those bombs went off, they planned to gun down fleeing survivors. An explosive third act would follow, when their cars, packed with still more bombs, would rip through still more crowds, presumably of survivors, rescue workers, and reporters. The climax would be captured on live television. It wasn't just "fame" they were after—Agent Fuselier bristles at that trivializing term—they were gunning for devastating infamy on the historical scale of an Attila the Hun. Their vision was to create a nightmare so devastating and apocalyptic that the entire world would shudder at their power.

Harris and Klebold would have been dismayed that Columbine was dubbed the "worst school shooting in American history." They set their sights on eclipsing the world's greatest mass murderers, but the media never saw past the choice of venue. The school setting drove analysis in precisely the wrong direction.

Fuselier and Ochberg say that if you want to understand "the killers," quit asking what drove them. Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold were radically different individuals, with vastly different motives and opposite mental conditions. Klebold is easier to comprehend, a more familiar type. He was hotheaded, but depressive and suicidal. He blamed himself for his problems.

Harris is the challenge. He was sweet-faced and well-spoken. Adults, and even some other kids, described him as "nice." But Harris was cold, calculating, and homicidal. "Klebold was hurting inside while Harris wanted to hurt people," Fuselier says. Harris was not merely a troubled kid, the psychiatrists say, he was a psychopath.

In popular usage, almost any crazy killer is a "psychopath." But in psychiatry, it's a very specific mental condition that rarely involves killing, or even psychosis. "Psychopaths are not disoriented or out of touch with reality, nor do they experience the delusions, hallucinations, or intense subjective distress that characterize most other mental disorders," writes Dr. Robert Hare, in Without Conscience, the seminal book on the condition. (Hare is also one of the psychologists consulted by the FBI about Columbine and by Slate for this story *.) "Unlike psychotic individuals, psychopaths are rational and aware of what they are doing and why. Their behavior is the result of choice, freely exercised." Diagnosing Harris as a psychopath represents neither a legal defense, nor a moral excuse. But it illuminates a great deal about the thought process that drove him to mass murder.

Diagnosing him as a psychopath was not a simple matter. Harris opened his private journal with the sentence, "I hate the f---ing world." And when the media studied Harris, they focused on his hatred—hatred that supposedly led him to revenge. It's easy to get lost in the hate, which screamed out relentlessly from Harris' Web site:

(Continued from Page 1)

"YOU KNOW WHAT I HATE!!!? Cuuuuuuuuhntryyyyyyyyyy music!!! . . .

"YOU KNOW WHAT I HATE!!!? People who say that wrestling is real!! . . .

"YOU KNOW WHAT I HATE!!!? People who use the same word over and over again! . . . Read a f---in book or two, increase your vo-cab-u-lary f*ck*ng idiots."

"YOU KNOW WHAT I HATE!!!? STUPID PEOPLE!!! Why must so many people be so stupid!!? . . . YOU KNOW WHAT I HATE!!!? When people mispronounce words! and they dont even know it to, like acrosT, or eXspreso, pacific (specific), or 2 pAck. learn to speak correctly you morons.

YOU KNOW WHAT I HATE!!!? STAR WARS FANS!!! GET A FaaaaaaRIGIN LIFE YOU BORING GEEEEEKS!

It rages on for page after page and is repeated in his journal and in the videos he and Klebold made. But Fuselier recognized a far more revealing emotion bursting through, both fueling and overshadowing the hate. What the boy was really expressing was contempt.

He is disgusted with the morons around him. These are not the rantings of an angry young man, picked on by jocks until he's not going to take it anymore. These are the rantings of someone with a messianic-grade superiority complex, out to punish the entire human race for its appalling inferiority. It may look like hate, but "It's more about demeaning other people," says Hare.

A second confirmation of the diagnosis was Harris' perpetual deceitfulness. "I lie a lot," Eric wrote to his journal. "Almost constantly, and to everybody, just to keep my own ass out of the water. Let's see, what are some of the big lies I told? Yeah I stopped smoking. For doing it, not for getting caught. No I haven't been making more bombs. No I wouldn't do that. And countless other ones."

Harris claimed to lie to protect himself, but that appears to be something of a lie as well. He lied for pleasure, Fuselier says. "Duping delight"—psychologist Paul Ekman's term—represents a key characteristic of the psychopathic profile.

Harris married his deceitfulness with a total lack of remorse or empathy—another distinctive quality of the psychopath. Fuselier was finally convinced of his diagnosis when he read Harris' response to being punished after being caught breaking into a van. Klebold and Harris had avoided prosecution for the robbery by participating in a "diversion program" that involved counseling and community service. Both killers feigned regret to obtain an early release, but Harris had relished the opportunity to perform. He wrote an ingratiating letter to his victim offering empathy, rather than just apologies. Fuselier remembers that it was packed with statements like Jeez, I understand now how you feel and I understand what this did to you.

"But he wrote that strictly for effect," Fuselier said. "That was complete manipulation. At almost the exact same time, he wrote down his real feelings in his journal: 'Isn't America supposed to be the land of the free? How come, if I'm free, I can't deprive a stupid f---ing dumbshit from his possessions if he leaves them sitting in the front seat of his f---ing van out in plain sight and in the middle of f---ing nowhere on a Frif---ingday night. NATURAL SELECTION. F---er should be shot.' "

Harris' pattern of grandiosity, glibness, contempt, lack of empathy, and superiority read like the bullet points on Hare's Psychopathy Checklist and convinced Fuselier and the other leading psychiatrists close to the case that Harris was a psychopath.

It begins to explain Harris' unbelievably callous behavior: his ability to shoot his classmates, then stop to taunt them while they writhed in pain, then finish them off. Because psychopaths are guided by such a different thought process than non-psychopathic humans, we tend to find their behavior inexplicable. But they're actually much easier to predict than the rest of us once you understand them. Psychopaths follow much stricter behavior patterns than the rest of us because they are unfettered by conscience, living solely for their own aggrandizement. (The difference is so striking that Fuselier trains hostage negotiators to identify psychopaths during a standoff, and immediately reverse tactics if they think they're facing one. It's like flipping a switch between two alternate brain-mechanisms.)

None of his victims means anything to the psychopath. He recognizes other people only as means to obtain what he desires. Not only does he feel no guilt for destroying their lives, he doesn't grasp what they feel. The truly hard-core psychopath doesn't quite comprehend emotions like love or hate or fear, because he has never experienced them directly.

"Because of their inability to appreciate the feelings of others, some psychopaths are capable of behavior that normal people find not only horrific but baffling," Hare writes. "For example, they can torture and mutilate their victims with about the same sense of concern that we feel when we carve a turkey for Thanksgiving dinner."

(Continued from Page 2)

The diagnosis transformed their understanding of the partnership. Despite earlier reports about Harris and Klebold being equal partners, the psychiatrists now believe firmly that Harris was the mastermind and driving force. The partnership did enable Harris to stray from typical psychopathic behavior in one way. He restrained himself. Usually psychopathic killers crave the stimulation of violence. That is why they are often serial killers—murdering regularly to feed their addiction. But Harris managed to stay (mostly) out of trouble for the year that he and Klebold planned the attack. Ochberg theorizes that the two killers complemented each other. Cool, calculating Harris calmed down Klebold when he got hot-tempered. At the same time, Klebold's fits of rage served as the stimulation Harris needed.

The psychiatrists can't help speculating what might have happened if Columbine had never happened. Klebold, they agree, would never have pulled off Columbine without Harris. He might have gotten caught for some petty crime, gotten help in the process, and conceivably could have gone on to live a normal life.

Their view of Harris is more reassuring, in a certain way. Harris was not a wayward boy who could have been rescued. Harris, they believe, was irretrievable. He was a brilliant killer without a conscience, searching for the most diabolical scheme imaginable. If he had lived to adulthood and developed his murderous skills for many more years, there is no telling what he could have done. His death at Columbine may have stopped him from doing something even worse.

Correction, April 20, 2004:The article originally identified Dr. Robert Hare as a psychiatrist. He is a psychologist. Return to the corrected sentence.

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Brow Beat Oct. 17 2014 4:27 PM Who Is the Intended Audience for Dear White People? Aisha Harris and Tanner Colby Brow Beat Oct. 17 2014 4:27 PM Spoiler Special: Dear White People Aisha Harris and Tanner Colby Brow Beat Oct. 17 2014 3:49 PM Bono Shares the Real Reason He Always Wears Sunglasses: Glaucoma Dee Lockett Bono Shares the Real Reason He Always Wears Sunglasses: Glaucoma Brow Beat Oct. 17 2014 2:43 PM It Appears That Nicolas Cage Does Not Want You to See His New Movie Aisha Harris It Appears That Nicolas Cage Does Not Want You to See His New Movie Brow Beat Oct. 17 2014 1:07 PM Watch The Wire Cast Reunite for an Hour-Long Conversation Dee Lockett Watch The Wire Cast Reunite for an Hour-Long Conversation Behold Oct. 17 2014 11:16 AM The Decadence and Environmental Destruction of American Expansionism in Nevada Jordan G. Teicher The Decadence and Environmental Destruction of American Expansionism in Nevada Movies Oct. 17 2014 10:23 AM The Greatest Jason Schwartzman Role of Jason Schwartzman’s Career Dana Stevens The Greatest Jason Schwartzman Role of Jason Schwartzman’s Career Brow Beat Oct. 17 2014 10:01 AM Who Is the Greatest Birdman of All Time? We Ranked the Top 12. Forrest Wickman and Ellie Skrzat Who Is the Greatest Birdman of All Time? We Ranked the Top 12. Brow Beat Oct. 16 2014 10:14 PM Chris Rock Is Done Playing the Funny Guy in the Very Funny-Looking Top Five Dee Lockett Television Oct. 16 2014 6:55 PM TV Almost Never Gets Rom-Coms Right. But Now There Are a Couple of Exceptions. Willa Paskin Brow Beat Oct. 16 2014 6:48 PM Chance the Rapper’s Beautiful New Song Reflects on Life’s Contradictions Dee Lockett Movies Oct. 16 2014 5:47 PM Dear White People Talks (and Talks) at You About Race Aisha Harris Brow Beat Oct. 16 2014 3:41 PM Rick Rubin Returns to His Dorm Room for a Great Short Film About Def Jam Dee Lockett Brow Beat Oct. 16 2014 1:11 PM Watch One Basketball Bounce Through 24 Different Movies Forrest Wickman Brow Beat Oct. 16 2014 12:42 PM Gone Girl Is the Ultimate Truther Movie Adam Sternbergh Brow Beat Oct. 16 2014 11:59 AM The Strange Conditions They’re Constantly Explaining on Law & Order: SVU Jesse Paddock Brow Beat Oct. 16 2014 11:37 AM Watch Brad Pitt and Jimmy Fallon Have a “Breakdance Conversation” Dee Lockett Behold Oct. 16 2014 11:30 AM Dressing Up in Drag With the Help of Fine-Art Portraits David Rosenberg
  Technology
Future Tense Oct. 17 2014 6:05 PM There Is No Better Use For Drones Than Star Wars Reenactments Lily Hay Newman Future Tense Oct. 17 2014 6:05 PM There Is No Better Use For Drones Than Star Wars Reenactments Lily Hay Newman Future Tense Oct. 17 2014 4:44 PM The Tablet That Was A Tablet Before Tablets Were Cool Klint Finley The Tablet That Was A Tablet Before Tablets Were Cool Technology Oct. 17 2014 3:14 PM How Microsoft Appointed Itself Sheriff of the Internet Robert McMillan How Microsoft Appointed Itself Sheriff of the Internet Future Tense Oct. 17 2014 1:59 PM MasterCard Is Making a Credit Card With an Embedded Fingerprint Reader Lily Hay Newman MasterCard Is Making a Credit Card With an Embedded Fingerprint Reader Future Tense Oct. 17 2014 1:06 PM Another Polar Vortex-Filled Winter? Forecasters Say “Maybe?” Eric Holthaus Another Polar Vortex-Filled Winter? Forecasters Say “Maybe?” Future Tense Oct. 17 2014 12:06 PM How Facebook Could Come in Handy in a Disaster Will Oremus How Facebook Could Come in Handy in a Disaster Future Tense Oct. 17 2014 11:11 AM The Pentagon’s Climate Change Plan Is Great. But Will It Be Easy to Ignore? Sharon E. Burke The Pentagon’s Climate Change Plan Is Great. But Will It Be Easy to Ignore? Future Tense Oct. 17 2014 8:31 AM Obama’s Net Neutrality Statement Was Bigger Than You Think Marvin Ammori Future Tense Oct. 16 2014 7:17 PM This Week’s Cyclone-Turned-Blizzard May Be a Sign of Nepal’s Climate Future Eric Holthaus Future Tense Oct. 16 2014 6:53 PM About 80 Percent of South Koreans Have Had Their Citizen IDs Stolen Lily Hay Newman Future Tense Oct. 16 2014 4:02 PM The California Drought Isn’t Going Anywhere Eric Holthaus Future Tense Oct. 16 2014 3:32 PM Samsung and Sprint Won’t Let Me Install a Privacy-Enhancing Operating System on My Phone Dan Gillmor Future Tense Oct. 16 2014 3:29 PM Apple Unveils Two New iPads, And You Probably Still Don’t Need Them Will Oremus Future Tense Oct. 16 2014 3:21 PM Report: Anonymity App Whisper Tracks Users Without Their Consent Lily Hay Newman Future Tense Oct. 16 2014 10:53 AM Don’t Let the Name POODLE Fool You. This Security Vulnerability Is Bad News. Lily Hay Newman Future Tense Oct. 15 2014 6:23 PM Dog in Ebola Quarantine Isn’t Adorable Dog in Bath Photo, Remains Cute Nonetheless Lily Hay Newman Future Tense Oct. 15 2014 1:40 PM Netizen Report: Calls for Social Media Censorship in Name of National Security
  Health & Science
Bad Astronomy Oct. 18 2014 7:30 AM Mars and the Comet: The Countdown  Phil Plait Bad Astronomy Oct. 18 2014 7:30 AM Mars and the Comet: The Countdown  Phil Plait Medical Examiner Oct. 17 2014 12:24 PM American Soldiers Are Fighting Ebola in Africa. Could They Bring the Disease Home? Boer Deng American Soldiers Are Fighting Ebola in Africa. Could They Bring the Disease Home? Science Oct. 17 2014 12:03 PM How to Survive a Swarm of 2,000 Africanized Bees Rachel Stewart How to Survive a Swarm of 2,000 Africanized Bees Bad Astronomy Oct. 17 2014 11:00 AM Figuratively Shiny: A Firefly Video Phil Plait Figuratively Shiny: A Firefly Video Bad Astronomy Oct. 17 2014 7:30 AM Literally Shiny: A Firefly Video Phil Plait Literally Shiny: A Firefly Video Medical Examiner Oct. 16 2014 9:03 PM A Detailed Timeline of the Many, Many Medical Missteps in the First U.S. Ebola Case Josh Voorhees A Detailed Timeline of the Many, Many Medical Missteps in the First U.S. Ebola Case Bad Astronomy Oct. 16 2014 11:35 AM Has Mercury’s Ice Finally Been Seen? (Hint: Yes.) Phil Plait Has Mercury’s Ice Finally Been Seen? (Hint: Yes.) Science Oct. 16 2014 10:04 AM Don’t Believe the Latest Hype. Fusion Energy Will Always Be 20 Years Away. Charles Seife Bad Astronomy Oct. 16 2014 7:30 AM To Pluto … AND BEYOND! Phil Plait Science Oct. 15 2014 11:48 AM If You Want to Age Slower, Drive Fast Cars and Avoid Denver Paca Thomas Bad Astronomy Oct. 15 2014 11:35 AM How to State Clearly the Evidence for Evolution Phil Plait Wild Things Oct. 15 2014 10:55 AM Marriage Equality’s New Mascot: A Hermaphroditic Snail Laura Bradley Bad Astronomy Oct. 15 2014 7:30 AM I Got Shot in the Asteroid Phil Plait Bad Astronomy Oct. 14 2014 12:16 PM The Ultimate Space Selfie: 10 Miles From a Comet Phil Plait Medical Examiner Oct. 14 2014 11:24 AM Would You Lie to Airport Screeners About Ebola? Benjamin Hale Explainer Oct. 14 2014 11:13 AM Why Protocols for Hospital Protective Gear Weren’t Enough to Stop Ebola in Dallas Boer Deng Bad Astronomy Oct. 14 2014 7:30 AM Why Yes, It Is Exactly Rocket Science! Phil Plait
  Sports
Sports Nut Oct. 16 2014 2:03 PM How Relief Pitching Has Changed Baseball Ben Blatt Sports Nut Oct. 16 2014 2:03 PM Oh What a Relief It Is How the rise of the bullpen has changed baseball. Ben Blatt Sports Nut Oct. 16 2014 1:20 PM Simone Biles Is the Best Gymnast in the World, and It’s Not Even Close Dvora Meyers Simone Biles Is the Best Gymnast in the World, and It’s Not Even Close Sports Nut Oct. 15 2014 5:07 PM Baseball’s Strike Zone Is Getting Bigger Every Year. Will Someone Shrink It Back Down to Size? Jon Roegele Baseball’s Strike Zone Is Getting Bigger Every Year. Will Someone Shrink It Back Down to Size? Sports Nut Oct. 15 2014 2:06 PM Happy Baseball Fans Stormed the Field As Far Back As the 1920s. Why’d They Stop? (Video.) Stefan Fatsis and Christian Lesperance Happy Baseball Fans Stormed the Field As Far Back As the 1920s. Why’d They Stop? (Video.) Culturebox Oct. 7 2014 10:03 AM A New U.S. Map Based on Where Baseball Players Were Born Ben Blatt A New U.S. Map Based on Where Baseball Players Were Born Sports Nut Oct. 6 2014 4:27 PM Finally, a Manager Who’s Making the Right Bullpen Calls in the Postseason Dave Cameron Finally, a Manager Who’s Making the Right Bullpen Calls in the Postseason Sports Nut Oct. 3 2014 4:57 PM The Royals Have Figured Out the Secret to Pitching to Mike Trout. Will It Work? Jeff Sullivan The Royals Have Figured Out the Secret to Pitching to Mike Trout. Will It Work? Sports Nut Oct. 1 2014 5:19 PM Exactly How Bad Was the Royals’ Bunt-All-the-Time Strategy in the AL Wild-Card Game? Ben Blatt Sports Nut Sept. 30 2014 5:54 PM Michigan’s Obsession With Football “Toughness” Needs to Go—Starting With Coach Hoke Chris Laskowski Sports Nut Sept. 28 2014 8:30 PM Could the NFL Actually Be a Boon to Public Health? Daniel Engber Sports Nut Sept. 25 2014 9:48 PM The Real Reason Bill Simmons Got Suspended Josh Levin Sports Nut Sept. 25 2014 1:23 PM LSU Football Coach Les Miles Explains Advanced Baseball Stats, for Some Reason Josh Levin Sports Nut Sept. 23 2014 7:27 PM The NFL Has No Business Punishing Players for Off-Field Conduct. Leave That to the Teams. Josh Levin Sports Nut Sept. 18 2014 11:42 AM One of the Most Amazing Feats in Chess History Just Happened, and No One Noticed Seth Stevenson Sports Nut Sept. 17 2014 3:51 PM How Big of a Jerk Is NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell? Jeremy Stahl Sports Nut Sept. 15 2014 9:05 PM Roger Goodell and the NFL Thought They Had the Press Under Control. Not Any More. Stefan Fatsis Sports Nut Sept. 15 2014 8:41 PM Adrian Peterson Doesn’t Even Deserve to Be on Your Fantasy Team. You Should Release Him. A.J. McCarthy
PoliticsOct. 17 2014 1:05 PMThe Ebola VoterThirteen ways Democrats and Republicans are exploiting the virus for political gain.William Saletan BeholdOct. 14 2014 11:00 AMIranian Fathers and the Diverse Daughters They’ve RaisedJordan G. Teicher EducationOct. 15 2014 8:11 AMThe Simple Genius of the BlackboardWhy the board-centered classroom is still the best place to teach and learn.Lewis Buzbee
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